Evolution of Computers

How many inventions in your lifetime can you think of that have changed everything in our society today? Computers have taken over today’s society. From everyday tasks to moving satellites in space, PCs have revolutionized almost everything in our society. Computers weren’t always this complicated though, and were around a long time before anyone even knew what the word “computer” meant.


The Abacus was the first known machine developed to help perform mathematical equations. From what researchers have discovered it was invented around 500 to 600 BC in an area around China or Egypt. This early tool was used to perform addition and subtraction and can still be found used in some of today’s Middle Eastern cultures. In 650 AD the Hindus invented a written symbol for zero. Before this no true written calculations could be made, making this one of the most essential inventions to help computers. In 830 AD the first mathematics textbook was invented by a man named Mohammed Ibn Musa Abu Djefar. The subject of this textbook he wrote was “Al Gebr We’l Mukabala” which in today’s society is known as “Algebra” (History of Computers).


So what does all of this have to do with computers? Well without numbers computers wouldn’t exist or have any reason to exist. The whole point of a computer is to perform mathematical computations. Computers weren’t the first to do these mathematical calculations though. In 1623 AD Wilhelm Schickard invented “The Calculating Clock” which would perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. In the year 1801 Jacquard Loom devised a punch card system with a power loom and an automatic card reader. Later that century in 1890 Herman Hollerith invented a census calculator that put each person’s information on a punch card and sent it through an electrical/mechanical tabulating machine. This sped up the process from about 7 years to 2 years making this a very efficient method of performing a census, which in turn helped spread it around the world (History of Computers).


Jump to the year 1937 when John V. Atanasoff invented the first electronic computer. This computer and others below, unless otherwise stated, were made using vacuum tubes, “an electronic device in which conduction by electrons takes place through a vacuum within a sealed glass or metal container and which has various uses based on the controlled flow of electrons” (Dictionary.com). From 1941 to 1954 the governments of various countries started developing different computers for different purposes (Sandiego 1).
The year of 1941 was a very important year for computers. It marks the year the first fully functional program controlled computer was invented. This pc was developed in secret by Konrad Zuse and was called the Z3. It was the first to introduce the general architecture for today’s microprocessor. In the picture below the items seem simple, but at the time this was very advanced. This was the start of the true evolution of computers.
After this, from 1943 to 1954, governments and research teams continued to pump out different computers. The last of the vacuum tube computers was created in 1954, and was called the SAGE aircraft warning system. This was the largest vacuum tube computer system every built (Sandiego 1). These were all first generation computers.


Second generation computers utilized transistors instead of vacuum tubes and were invented from around 1954-1959. In 1950 NBS (The National Bureau of Standards) created SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer). This system used over 10,000 germanium diodes, germanium is a semiconductor that is more expensive than silicon but better suited and more efficient than silicon, and was used to solve over 50 unrelated scientific problems per day. In 1959 GE, General Electric Corporation, made an ERMA (Electronic Recording Machine Accounting) computer system for the Bank of America in California. This system introduced automation in banking, which later helped with the creation of ATMs (Sandiego 2).
The era of third generation computers was from 1959-1971 and they utilized ICs (Integrated Circuits) for these computers. In 1959 Jack Kilby, of Texas instruments, patented the first IC. The first commercial IC product was a hearing aid made and produced in 1963. IBM produced SABRE in 1964 for American Airlines. It’s a tracking system for ticket reservations, which helped speed up the reservation process considerably. DEC was the creator of the first “mini-computer” called the PDP-8. It was one of the first mini-computers made in mass production that pretty much anyone could afford at the time. In 1969 the DOD, Department of Defense, developed the precursor to the internet which was called ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). This was an experimental WAN (Wide Area Network) that would survive a nuclear war. (Sandiego 3)
Fourth generation PCs were the first to use microprocessors and were in the era of 1971 to 1987. Gilbert Hyatt patented the microprocessor in 1971. Later that year Ted Hoff, of Intel, introduced new microprocessors to use in calculators. IBM arrived with the first 8 in. floppy disk. They also started using these microprocessors in unison with LCD screens in calculators and watches. November of that year Intel introduced the first microcomputer to the public called the MCS-4. In 1972 Nolan Bushnell introduced the “arcade game” to the public with “Computer Space.” Later that year he also created and introduced Atari and the game “Pong” to the public which became the beginnings of today’s “Video Gamer.” The next year in 73′ IBM developed the first hard disk drive utilizing two 30MB platters. Two years later they started selling Altair personal computers. This is when Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak became influenced and developed the Apple personal computer. Also within the same year the 5.25 in. floppy disk was introduced (Sandiego 4).


It seems that computers began to progress exponentially. In 1977 Nintendo started creating video games on plastic cartridges with chips inside. Throughout the 80’s typewriters were slowly being replaced with PCs and word processing software was created to help this process along. In 1980 Microsoft signed a contract with IBM to supply their PCs with an OS (Operating System). In 1984 Steve Jobs and his company Apple created the Macintosh personal computer, which is still to this day a popular alternative to PCs (Sandiego 4).


Fifth generations PCs are present day and beyond computers. The WWW (World Wide Web) was created in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee. In 1993 the first web browser called Mosaic was created. Later on two more browsers took over the internet browsing industry. These were called Netscape Navigator (which was free) and Microsoft’s Internet explorer (Sandiego 5). These allow people to communicate their views around the world and express themselves without fear of being outcast. After this, computers still progress with newer standards and updates to standards being released every year. This will continue until performance increases level off and consumers start to leave the computer market.


Throughout history computers have affected everything. From international commerce to international security computers make everything simpler. They make it easy to communicate with others and even help when researching projects for school. Overall the good points for computers and the internet outweigh most downsides. The computer has changed most things in the world today whether bad or good. Computers are not done evolving yet and may never be
Works Cited
“The History of Computers.” Florida State University. October 10, 2004
http://www.scri.fsu.edu/odyssey/cyberkids/computers/history/
“Evolution of the Computer.” University of Sandiego. October 10, 2004
http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html
“The Z3.” Konrad Zuse. October 10, 2004
http://irb.cs.tu-berlin.de/zuse/Konrad_Zuse/en/Rechner_Z

The Pearl – How Greed Destroys People

Ever since Midas’ lust for gold, it appears that man has acquired a greed and appetite for wealth. Juana, the Priest, and the doctor in John Steinbeck’s novel “The Pearl” have all undergone a change due to money. They are all affected by their hunger for wealth and in turn are the base for their own destruction, and the destruction of society. Steinbeck’s “The Pearl” is a study of man’s self-destruction through greed.

Juana, the faithful wife of Kino, a paltry peasant man, had lived a spiritual life for what had seemed like as long as she could remember. When her son Coyotito fell ill from the bite of a scorpion, she eagerly turned towards the spiritual aspects of life, beginning to pray for her son’s endangered life. The doctor, who had resided in the upper-class section of the town, refused to assist the child, turning them away when they arrived at the door. Lastly, they turned to the sea to seek their fortune. When Juana set sight on the “Pearl of The World,” she felt as though all her prayers had been answered. If she could have foreseen the future, what she would have seen would have been a mirror of her reality. Juana’s husband was caught in a twisted realm of mirrors, and they were all shattering one by one. In the night he heard a “sound so soft that it might have been simply a thought…” (Pg. 48) and quickly attacked the trespasser. This is where the problems for Juana and her family began. The fear that had mounted in Kino’s body had taken control over his actions. Soon even Juana, who had always had faith in her husband, doubted his motives greatly. “It will destroy us all,” (Pg.50) she cried as her attempt to rid the family of the pearl had failed. Kino had not listened, however, and soon Juana began to lose her spiritual side and for a long time she had forgotten her prayers that had once meant so much to her. She had tried to help Kino before too much trouble had aroused, only to discover that she was not competent enough to help.

A Hippocratic oath is said before each medical student is granted a doctorate. In the oath, they swear to aid the ill, and cure the injured. “Above all else, do no harm” is its primary promise. In the village of La Paz, there lived a doctor who had earned his wealth by helping those that were ill and could afford his services. Not once in his long career would he have dared refuse to aid a wealthy lawyer or noblemen. However, when Kino and the group of money hungry peasants arrived at his door with a poisoned child, he had refused them entry, saying “Have I nothing better to do than cure insect bites for ‘little Indians’? I am a doctor, not a veterinary.” (Pg. 14) The doctor had known that the peasants didn’t have any money. He had been to Paris and had enjoyed the splendors of the world, and therefore he wouldn’t be seen dealing with the less fortunate, as he knew that the less fortunate would surely always be just that – less fortunate. However, it seemed that he had been stereotypical of the less fortunate, as he soon discovered when hearing of a great pearl discovered by the peasants who had knocked upon his door earlier that day. A hunger for wealth was what pushed him to visit the peasants’ house and aid their destitute son. “The news came to the doctor where he sat with a woman whose illness was age, though neither she nor the doctor would admit it. And when it was made plain who Kino was, the doctor grew stern and judicious at the same time. He is a client of mine,’ the doctor said.” (Pg. 28) However, he had already ended Coyotito’s life without knowing he’d done so, for if he had administered aid to Coyotito when they were first at the doctors door, Kino would not have had reason to seek his fortune in the ocean, and would not be led down the road to hardships. One might think that a doctor, one who has the image of being passive and caring, should not stoop to such a level.

When someone is down on their luck, chances are they will turn to superstition in hope to acquire that that they wish for most. In La Paz, the peasants were uneducated and probably had never heard of a superstition. The peasants’ only reliability, their only scapegoat was God. God had always been their to aid them in their times of need. The first reaction of Juana when seeing the scorpion is a good example of spirituality; rather than attempt to kill the scorpion, she began to pray to God for safety. “Under her breath Juana repeated an ancient magic to guard against such evil, and on top of that she muttered a Hail Mary between clenched teeth.” (Pg. 6)
In La Paz, the only form of God that the peasants knew was that of the Priest of the church. To the peasants, the Priest was so God-like that they were unable to see any faults in his actions. However, the reader is able to determine that the Priest is abusing his position in society. In order to receive the sacraments the person requesting the sacrament must “donate” a small amount of money to the church. Whether this is correct or not is a matter of opinion. The church may need funding and the peasants may be unable to provide this money, but does that make them unworthy to receive the sacraments should they want to acquire them? The Priest is so set on achieving money and social status that he puts aside the real reason one becomes a Priest- to help, and to teach the word of God. “I hope thou wilt remember to give thanks, my son, to Him who has given thee this treasure, and to pray for guidance in the future.” (Pg. 36)
In “The Pearl”, Steinbeck expresses the fact that man’s manifestation for wealth and property leads to the self-destruction of man, both mentally, and physically. The Priest of La Paz, the doctor, and Kino’s family were all affected by greed. Whether they are striving for wealth or are in the path of those that are, they are all equally affected. The story of Midas lives on as a caution to those who crave the warmth and comfort of money, beckoning to those who struggle to achieve wealth, and hoping that they will respond, and possibly not put wealth on the top shelf of life.

danimals

If you have never heard of Animal Psychology as a field in psychology, it may because there are other terms, Animal Behavior and Comparative Psychology, for example, being used to mean similar things. If you still have doubts, I recommend that you take a look at two journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Journal of Comparative Psychology “publishes original empirical and theoretical research from a comparative perspective on the behavior, cognition, perception, and social relationships of diverse species.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes “publishes experimental and theoretical studies concerning all aspects of animal behavior processes. Studies of associative, nonassociative, cognitive, perceptual, and motivational processes are welcome.”
Another research journal indicating the place of basic psychological concepts in the field of animal behavior is Animal Learning and Behavior It “publishes experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews that cover the broad categories of animal learning, cognition, motivation, emotion, and comparative animal behavior. Specific topics include classical and operant conditioning, discrete-trial instrumental learning, habituation, exploratory behavior, early experience, social and sexual behavior, imprinting, and territoriality.”
Considering the fact that, biologically speaking, humans are animals, it is only natural that psychology, the science that devotes itself to the study of the human mind and human behavior, also be involved in the study of non-human animals. However, the perspective of psychology is unique compared with that of the other disciplines involved in animal behavior studies. Psychologists study animal behavior to enhance our knowledge of human physiology and psychology. In fact, animal research has already enhanced our understanding of human learning and intelligence, stress, and behavior such as aggression and reproduction. Furthermore, psychologists are currently applying animal behavioral knowledge to enhancing the well-beings of humans in areas of “Animal Assisted Therapy” and “Animal Assisted Activities”. Behavioral psychologists, along with clinical psychologists and professionals from other areas of animal science have joint their efforts in areas of applied companion animal ethology, psychology and behavioral therapy.
Like psychologists in other areas *aa010500a.htm*, animal psychologists who have obtained a Ph.D. usually engage in three types of work: teaching, research, and applied work. Although it is most likely for animal psychologists to find teaching positions in departments of psychology, biology, and zoology, there are also opportunities in departments of anthropology, sociology, entomology, animal and poultry science, wildlife biology, and ecology, or in medical or veterinary colleges. Research opportunities usually lie in universities, research institutions (both government and private), zoos, conservation groups, and museums. Research areas range from purely scientific to more applied.
For animal psychologists interested in applied work, there are a variety of career fields for them: companion animal behavior consultancy, livestock production, managing wildlife populations, treating the behavioral problems of pets or other domestic animals. The Animal Behavior Society (ABA */gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.cisab.indiana.edu/ABS/index.html*) has certification programs for those working in the clinical animal behavior field (i.e., working with animals with behavioral problems). To become a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist requires either a doctoral degree from an accredited college or university in a biological or behavioral science with an emphasis on animal behavior and five years of professional experience, or a doctorate in veterinary medicine from an accredited college or university plus two years in a university-approved residency in animal behavior. Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist can be viewd as the counter-title to Licensed Clinical Psychologist.
Clinical animal behavioral specialists who has a Master’s Degree but not a Ph.D. can also be certified by the ABA, as an Associate Applied Animal Behaviorist. They often find jobs as research assistants or educators in universities, zoos, museums, and government, and private facilities.

The Guilty Party

The Scarlet Letter is a wonderful and not so traditional example of the good versus evil theme. What makes this a unique instance of good versus evil is that either side could be considered either one. Hester could very easily have been deduced as evil, or the “bad guy,” as she was by the townspeople. That is, she was convicted of adultery, a horrible sin of the time. As for punishment, a sentence to wear a scarlet “A” upon her chest, it would hardly be considered a burden or extreme sentence in present day. Another sin that Hester committed was the fact that she never told who the father of her child, Pear, forcing her to be without a father. Hester’s silence also caused Dimmesdale to live in torture every day. Chillingsworth was also hurt by Hester’s act of adultery and because of her, his life was destroyed and the only thing he could do was seek revenge against the man who had been with her.
Hester’s child Pearl had to be raised by only one parent and that caused the child to be less disciplined and more outrageous making the townspeople more suspicious of who the child’s father was. It also caused the religious leaders to wonder about the religious stability of the child, and if there might be witchcraft involved, “The little baggage have witchcraft in her”(p112).


Hester also caused numerous a sleepless night for Dimmesdale. If Hester had just announced that Dimmesdale was the father he would have never have lived through all the guilt that she forced him into. Dimmesdale was a weak and frail man because of Hester’s silence.
Chillengsworth was pushed into a life of revenge and anguish since Hester had betrayed their marriage and Chillengsworth’s trust in her. She had turned Chillengsworth into a fiend, “I have already told thee what I am, a fiend!” (P169). Hester admitts to causing Chillengsworth into becoming the fiend as well.
The guilt rests solely on Hester Prynne for destroying not just her own life from this sin but also of many other people such as the minister Dimmesdale, the physician Chillengsworth, and her own daughter Pearl. Hester manipulated and destroyed Dimmesdale’s very life and caused Chillengsworth to degrade himself into living a life of revenge, she also caused Pearl to be shunned by society and to be looked down upon as if she was a demon. It is quite obvious who the true sinner is in this book and it is Hester Prynne.

TVs Affects On Children

Outline
Thesis Statement: Television plays a major role in the lives of Americans, but affects children the most.


Introduction
I. Violence
A. Murder
B. Sex
C. Vulgarity
D. Suiside
II. Viewed by
A. Children
B. Teens
III. Used as babysitter
A. Hours
B. Reason
Conclusion
Today’s society is heavily influenced by television. The violence disrupts a child’s learning process and can alter the moral beliefs that an older person has. Children view more violence on Saturday mornings than any other time. The cartoons aimed at little children influence youngsters to mimic violent acts because their parents do not fully explain the effects of the stunts. It is pathetic that in such a technology based society, such a simple thing as television can have a negative effect on people.


Before Television, Americans followed simple laws, believed heavily in God, were honest, and never locked their doors because they felt safe and were happy to help someone in need. TV gradually turned us into the society we have today. We break laws as if there are no consequences, many people don’t believe in God, or even attend a religious service. We lock our houses, cars, and anything worth money, because we are scared of theft. We leave people in trouble to fend for themselves, we do not have the common courtesy to help anyone. (Wheeler 84) Liquor, drugs, sex, and suicide prematurely dazzle millions of people as they see it on TV. (Wheeler 23)
Violence has been entering Prime Time TV. John Grisham’s “The Client” as shown on CBS shows two corpses and two murders in on the first 15 minutes. (Silver 2) This goes to show that the average American child will have watched 8000 depictions of murder by the time they finish 6th grade. (Abelard 1) Abelard goes on to say, If you think wall to wall violence on TV has no effect, then why would manufacturers purchase 30 second blocks to advertise their products? (2) Mark Silver says “Raunchy family fare is nothing new.”(2) He also reports that sex is gingerly mentioned in the media. There is soap-opera sex, talk-show sex subjects, and many more sex crimes on the news. Children ages 10 to 16 were polled and say that the television is the true sex educator in our day. As many as six out of ten agree that sex on television urges peers their age to have sex at a younger age. (2)
Vulgarity also rules prime time. Many shows depict sexual situations and innuendoes throughout the whole show. Sexually frank programs such as “Beverly Hills 90210”, “Roseanne” and “Ellen” are targeted to adults, but are viewed by children. A Solution to this problem would be to shift their plots to being more realistic, and have morals, instead of the vulgar language heard. (Silver 1)
TV shows create serious problems but seem to resolve them in a half an hour time. It is impossible to do this in real life, but most children can not seem to grasp this concept. TV leads children to want quick solutions to tolerate frustration. Many turn to suicide, thinking that it is the quick solution for them. (Wheeler 34)
Before the 1950’s, parents monitored what their child’s surrounding was. After TV was introduced, it unlocked a door to an alien that dominated every home. The problem was that the parents did not remain in control. If they did a normal childhood could have taken place. (Wheeler21) Today, 99% of homes have a TV. More families own a TV than a phone. (Facts about Media Violence 1)
Due to violence on television, children become less sensitive to that pain and suffering of others or to become more aggressive to others. It also makes children more fearful to the world around them. (Abelard 1) Viewing habits of children observed for many decades deduced that violence on TV is associated with aggressive behavior, more than poverty, race, or parental behavior. It also reported that a TV show contains about 20 acts of violence an hour.

Abelard says that children ages 6 to 8 are in critical years, where they learn social behavior that will stay with them forever. (2) A follow up study of aggressive 8 year olds proved that these children grew up to be ever more aggressive 19 and 30 year olds. They had greater troubles in domestic abuse, and traffic tickets. (Abelard 3)
Violent commercials that advertise action figures or video games are targeted at young boys. (Swenson 3) In the point and shoot video games, also targeted at children, young boys get the same training as police officers and army recruiters. They are taught to laugh and cheer in response to violence and are also taught that killing is the right thing to do. (Media Watch Online 1)
It is a different story for teens. They do poorly in standardized tests. Because of their time consuming TV habits they find it hard to make comparisons, reach conclusions, for judgements or create
new ideas. When bored, teens tend to turn to hard drugs to take away boredom, because they viewed it on TV. Drugs offer a quick fix, which is what they saw other fictional characters on TV do. (Wheeler 33)
Good news in the fight to cut down TV watching time, college freshmen on average drop their TV watching time a week from 30 hours to around 20. But because of this their hours of listening to radios, CDs, and MTV increased.(Wheeler 34) This isn’t as good as a thing as researchers wanted though because music is “full of dangerous and violent messages”.(Wheeler 35) Wheeler finishes by saying that, music tends to negatively reinforce the principles that we were taught to live by.(34)
There are many reasons that children get so many hours of viewing. Working parents send children to a babysitter, who instead of wanting to watch the kid places him in front of a TV. Childcare centers are to often under staffed and preschoolers there are set in front of the TV till their parents return to pick them up. (Wheeler 22) All to often the TV or VCR represents an easy way to sidetrack an unwelcome responsibility.(Wheeler 23)
Parents also lack in their observation skills. They do not set limits on the time their children watch TV. (Children and TV Violence 1) Would you leave out graphic pictures on your tables so that your toddler can look over the pages? Then why wouldn’t you monitor the things they watch on TV? (Wheeler 23)
The violence, sexual content, and vulgarity that they see and hear on TV affect many people. We may not realize it until our two year old shouts out vulgarity and phrases that he heard on the Monday Night wrestling that his father or older brother watches, but the threat is always there. No other thing in history has had such a great influence on children, teens and adults. The generation now, compared to the one 50 years ago, has changed just from the technology presented to us. It is hard to imagine what the future will hold with such technological advances on equal to that of the TV.


Abelard. Children and Television Violence. 23 Oct 2000 < http://www.abelard.org/tv/tv.htm >
Children and TV Violence. 23 Oct 2000 <http://www.parenthoodweb.com/articles/phw247.htm>
Facts about Media Violence and Effects on the American Family. 18 Oct 2000 <http://www.babybag.com/
Articles.amaviol.html>
Media Watch Online- Killer Entertainment. 18 Oct 2000 < http://www.mediawatch.com/dukenuken.html >
Silver, Marc. Sex and Violence on TV. 22 Oct 2000 <http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/sex&viol.htm>
Swenson, Gena. Violence on television: A class project surprised sociology student. 18 Oct 2000 < http://
www.cyfc.umn.edu/ Media/tvviol.html>
Wheeler, Joe L. Remote Controlled. Hagerstown: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1993.


Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York: Viking Penguin Inc, 1985.

Queen Elizabeth I

Queen Elizabeth I
Were Queen Elizabeth I and Catherine the Great effective rulers? Were their reign’s
characterized as good or not so well? Disregarding the opinion of those who reigned
concurrently or historians today, these two ruled their country in a time of turmoil and
uncertainty! The world and the people within it were undergoing a major transition. New
lands were being discovered as well as major role-playing continents and countries were
changing status. Some losing power while others gained it. Queen Elizabeth I and
Catherine the Great ruled their country to the extent in which they were able and their
subjects allowed them to. Queen Elizabeth I of England was a remarkable ruler. Elizabeth
was born in 1533 to Henry VIII of England and took the throne in 1588 at the age of
twenty-five and reigned until 1603 when she passed away (Sowards, 28). Elizabeth was
the last of the Tudor Dynasty (Upshur, 465). Due to her father’s uncontrollable
hap-hazardous rule, Elizabeth, at only the age of twenty-five, was already faced with
dilemma within England. Henry VIII wanted a male to take over his throne so when he felt
his time was running out, Henry VIII needed to divorce his Queen at that time but the
Catholic Church doesn’t allow this. He separated from the church and brought England
with him. He turned England into a protestant nation. Needless to say people were
confused and had to make huge adjustments. At the beginning of Elizabeth’s reign there
was confusion. She was a firm Catholic however she made a compromise between the two
religions. Queen Elizabeth’s decision was due largely from the consent of her people
(Upshur, 465). However, Elizabeth knew that two religions would cause problems. “As
reestablished, the Anglican Church was protestant in it’s Theology, but much of it’s ritual
and ecclesiastical organization remained Catholic in form”(Upshur, 465). Elizabeth
believed that loyalty of her people would bring them together as well as the country. The
people were not forced by the state but by their own consciences. The people of England
saw Queen Elizabeth as compassionate as well as decisive. By allowing the people to
decide, Queen Elizabeth gained their trust and loyalty unlike her father before her. Queen
Elizabeth did not force the people but allowed them to decide on their own and for their
voices to be the deciding factor. In fact, “The greatest achievement in English history, the
“breaking the bonds of Rome”, and the establishment of spiritual independence, was
completed without bloodshed under Elizabeth’s auspices, and Elizabeth may have the
glory of the work”(Sowards, 37). The people of England were in no need of a government
that was more concerned about it more than it was for the people. Elizabeth was Queen
but she established good ties with parliament. England did not need the rule of a monarchy
that controlled strictly, took the people’s wealth, and taxed. By taxing the people
parliament could control the people (Upshur, 464). However, this was the exact opposite
of what Queen Elizabeth did. She was wealthy, however, she allowed the people of
England to have the opportunity to gain wealth. Without alienating public opinion, Queen
Elizabeth gained what she wanted. Queen Elizabeth’s policies coincided with the interests
of the people (Upshur, 465). Queen Elizabeth was active in foreign policy. The people of
England, her subjects, began to see new materials due to her intervention in foreign policy.

Furthermore, they began to obtain wealth. Elizabeth began trade with India and granted a
charter to the English East India Company (Upshur, 465). This opened the path for trade
as well as the ideas for others to strive to achieve goals, and to set higher standards. This
gave some morale to the people of England. “She also established relations with the rulers
of Russia and authorized the formation of the Muscovy company, the first in western
Europe to trade with Russia” (Upshur, 465). Queen Elizabeth was under the normal stress
of any ruler of that time. Or was she? “For thirty years she was perpetually a mark for
assassination, and her spirits were never affected, and she was never frightened into
cruelty (Sowards, 36). Elizabeth, opposite of past rulers, was trying to live down
England’s reputation as being a nation of war. Elizabeth negotiated as opposed to initiating
war (Sowards, 32). The Elizabethan Age was peaceful. The people of England may have
been used to traditional fighting, however, Elizabeth kept peace. Queen Elizabeth had a
desire for peace. She managed the nation of England well to sustain a peaceful “life” while
other countries fought wars, lost, and fell into succession. Queen Elizabeth was a peaceful
ruler, however, she did engage in on act of warfare. She is most famous for her dramatic
victory over the Spanish Armada during the summer of 1588 (Sowards, 25). “English
hostility to Spain was growing for a number of reasons: sympathy for the beleaguered
French Huguenots and the peasants of Holland locked in their own desperate struggle with
Phillip; the undeclared sea war with Spain that English privateers and pirates had already
been carrying on for a generation(Sowards, 26). There was no ground war and the
people of England never became unrested. Queen Elizabeth was patient and did not jump
into war with Spain. She fought on her own terms (Sowards, 38). This was a sign of a
smart ruler. This led to National importance for England. England became supreme on the
seas. English commerce increased to the Old World and colonies were formed in the New
World(Sowards, 33). Queen Elizabeth I was liked by her subjects because she was an
effective ruler. She brought effective government to the people through parliament. She
opened the opportunity for trade as well as the opportunity to gain wealth. Queen
Elizabeth I also set the precedent that all nations are not as powerful as they may appear
by defeating the Spanish Armada. This enabled other smaller countries to set sail in the
seas to gain wealth and explore new territory.

Tyger

The Tyger
In the poem the tyger William Blake shows a lot of symbolism, imagery, and irony. He likes to explain to his audience how he writes with all the knowledge he knows. Reading this poem makes me think of how a person feels when he is taken advantage of at work. Like when ones work is difficult to cope with, suffering, and pain is all that is left. It seems to that in the end all the pain endured happens to what is left for this person and suffering is what hurts the most.

William Blake shows symbolism in this part of the poem, ” In the forest of the night,”. (line 2). This part shows that you can be trapped from your work or even your life. ” what immortal hand or eye could frame thy fearful symmetry?'” ( line 3-4). This part shows how much struggle he has in his life and all the pain he feels in his life. ” in what distant deeps or skies burnt the fire of thine eyes.” (line 5-6). He shows his emotions and how much anger that was built up in his heart. He feels like crying because he is frustrated. “What the hammer? What the chain”. ( line 13). This shows that his been treated like a slave and has endured what slaves endued like working on the rail roads.


“When the stars threw down their spears, and watered with their tears, (lines 17-8). Shows that he has mellowed down and is ready to accept all that has happen to him.

“Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the lamb make thee? “( lines 19-20).

He is talking to god and its bringing out his emotions. Asking for forgiveness and wants to be treated normal in his life.” Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright in the forest of the night,” ( lines 21-22). This phrase started in the beginning and ended at the end. Its because it’s the true meaning behind the whole poem no matter what you do or how hard you work there is always something that gonna take you down. throughout the poem I have seen a lot of Irony and symbolism. The parts that I chose from the poem brings out a lot of pain, suffering, hard work. Reading this poem makes me think a lot about life. Because it reminds me of how I feel sometimes when I am angry and bothered I feel sometimes.
Question myself sometimes and ask god for all the sins I may commit. That feeling all this anger in my heart really shows how the poem explains. I am truly thankful for what god has given to us and people all over are suffering and I understand the true meaning in life.

Role of Falstaff in Henry IV, Part One

Falstaff’s Role in Henry IV, Part One
Henry IV, Part One, has always been one of the most popular of Shakespeare’s plays, maybe because of Falstaff. Much of the early criticism I found concentrated on Falstaff and so
will I. This may begin in the eighteenth century with Samuel Johnson. For Johnson, the Prince is a “young man of great abilities and violent passions,” and Hotspur is a “rugged soldier,” but “Falstaff, unimitated, unimitable Falstaff, how shall I describe thee? Thou compound of sense and vice . . . a character loaded with faults, and with faults which produce contempt . . . a thief, a glutton, a coward, and a boaster, always ready to cheat the weak and prey upon the poor; to terrify the timorous and insult the defenceless . . . his wit is not of the splendid or ambitious kind, but consists in easy escapes and sallies of levity yet he is stained with no enormous or sanguinary crimes, so that his licentiousness is not so offensive but that it may be borne for his mirth.”
Johnson makes three assumptions in his reading of the play:
1. That Falstaff is the kind of character who invites a moral judgment mainly that he can answer to the charge of being a coward.

2. That you (the reader) can detach Falstaff’s frivolity from the play and it can exist for its own sake apart from the major theme of the drama.

3. That the play is really about the fate of the kingdom, and that you (the reader) do not connect Falstaff’s scenes with the main action. This means that the play has no real unity.

Starting with Johnson’s first assumption, I do agree with this. Any discussion of Falstaff is bound to include a judgement about his moral character. Is he a coward, a thief, a glutton? No one can deny that he is in fact a glutton and a thief. A coward is debatable. I choose to think he is. He is self centered and cares only for his own profit and enjoyment. He will protect himself at all costs including playing ” possum” if necessary to avoid injury. When he misuses the money intended to buy troops and weapons, he turns it into profit for himself. Once again, with no concern for anyone else, he potentially jeopardizes the troops, the battle and the kingdom with substandard men and materials while making money for himself. It makes the reader question, what kind of friend is he to Hal that he would misuse the trust that has been given him. All the easier for Hal to ultimately recognize that this is not the kind of person or people he wants to associate himself with, let alone approve of.

Johnson’s second assumption that you can detach Falstaff’s frivolity from the real drama is in fact true, but what would you have left? A less interesting, less amusing drama with only one main plot. Falstaff is of paramount importance to the sub-plot dealing with Hal’s decision between continuing his carefree life style or maturing into the role he is destined to play as a respected prince and later king. This story would be pretty dull if Hal didn’t have to choose between an entertaining life like Falstaff’s or an honorable one as a gallant warrior and respected leader.

Johnson’s last assumption that the “Falstaff” scenes have nothing to do with the main action is incorrect if you agree that this sub-plot is necessary for an engaging drama. In Act 2, Scene 4, after Hal says, while role playing as the King with Falstaff, “That villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstaff, that old white-bearded Satan”. Falstaff, as Hal, tries to reason, “No, my good lord, banish Peto, banish Bardolph, banish Poins, but for sweet Jack Falstaff, kind Jack Falstaff, true Jack Falstaff, valiant Jack Falstaff, and therefore more valiant, being as he is old Jack Falstaff, banish not him thy Harry’s company, banish him not thy Harry’s company; banish plump Jack, and banish all the world”. Hal, again as the King, says, “I do, I will”. He indicates that after becoming king he would choose to rid the kingdom of people the likes of Falstaff. He is indicating that he has chosen the path for his life and made his own moral judgement on Falstaff. This scene and therefore Falstaff’s very being are significant to show Hal’s evolution into a “true” prince.

Falstaff’s character is necessary to Hal’s character development just as Hotspur’s temperament is necessary to his. Falstaff’s wit, humor and amusing antics are needed to develop Hal. He helps us relate to Hal and his decision. We know people of all types of character and personality in our lives. They influence our thinking and decisions. So it is also necessary for Hal.
Wether Falstaff is only a coward and glutton, or a person who has an “amusing” way of expressing his deeply felt personal and political beliefs is a matter of individual interpretation. I am not sure that it really matters as long as it contributes to Hal’s maturing process, and it does.

In conclusion, every age of man has and will continue to judge Falstaff’s role based on the morals and the thinking of the day. His frivolity is necessary to make the play amusing and interesting enough to hold the reader’s/viewer’s attention. However, that Falstaff’s scenes are needed should go without question leaving the critics and us only to debate his motivation and his tactics.


Category: English

Greek Architecture

Classical Greek Architecture is one of the most well known forms of architecture. It is broken down into three orders, the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The orders are determined by the way the capitol of the column is sculpted.
The Doric order, the oldest and simplest of the three orders, originated around 400 BC. It was developed by the Dorian Greeks and later modified by the Romans. Placed directly on the stylobate, the Doric column was about seven times as tall as its diameter, a ratio probably derived from the height of a man in relation to foot size. Fluted to provide visual depth and swelling to subtle convex curves, it rose to a capital, under an abacus, the square block that joined the architrave. Surmounting the columns was a Doric frieze of alternating triglyphs and metopes. They were intended to be sturdy and lacked elegant design.
The Ionic order originated along the coast of the Asia Minor. The Ionic is lighter than the Doric and more graceful, with a slender shaft about eleven times its diameter (approximately a womans height in proportion to the size of her foot. Its components are a tiered base, a delicate shaft with softer, spaced fluting, and a capital formed of paired scrolls (volutes) capped by a highly decorated abacus. Usually subdivided into three projecting bands, the Ionic architrave normally consists of a continuous sculptural frieze. The Ionic order was more popular in the eastern parts of Greece where there was an emphasis on elegance and ornamentation.

The Corinthian order is the most decorative and complicated of the three orders. It is also the last, not arriving until the middle of the fourth centenary, BC. Adored by the Romans, it is considerably more decorative, even opulent. Taller and more slender than the Ionic, its column culminates in an inverted bell shape encrusted with stylized acanthus leaves, an ingenious transition from a circular shaft to a rectangular architrave.

Like multiple layers of a cake, the columns consisted of stone drums that were roughed out in the quarry. After delivery to the site, the drums were fitted with metal pegs coated with lead to resist corrosion and stacked into columns. The assembled columns were then finished under the supervision of the architect, who personally controlled the entire project.

The Parthenon, built in honor of the Goddess Athena, is considered to be the greatest Doric temple ever built. It was constructed between 447 and 432 BC by the Greek sculptor Phidias and the Greek architects Ictenus and Callicrates. It is the largest temple in Greece. The Parthenon is called octo style because it has eight columns in the front and the back of it and is surrounded by a colonnade. Inside, it is constructed as most temples were. The central chamber, or cella, faced east, with a wood figure of Athena covered in gold and ivory in it. There was a porch, at the east end and a porch at the west end. At the back of the temple is a chamber called the Parthenon, or chamber of the Virgin, which was used as a treasury and held the sacrifices. This was a common layout among Greek temples. The Parthenon is made of beautiful white marble and contains 46 closely packed Doric columns. The excellent craftsmanship and design of the Parthenon makes it a masterpiece.
The Erechtheion, an Ionic temple, began construction in 421 BC and finished in 406 BC. The temple was made out of white Pentelic marble. It replaced the old Temple of Athena Polias. When it was built the architects and builders had to be careful not to make the Erechtheion more beautiful or bigger than the neighboring Parthenon. Instead, the Erechtheion complements the Parthenon nicely. The east porch was built in the Ionic style, as was the north.

The temple of Nike Athena was a small isolated Ionic temple near the Propylaia. It was created near 420 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. The Athenians worshiped Nike Athena in hopes of a victory over the Spartans and their enemies. The theme of victory is shown by the frieze running on the temple, of a victory over their enemies. The temple has a series of four short and sturdy Ionic columns in the front and back of the cella. The cella is the main room of the temple where the statue is kept. The temple looks the same from the front and the back. In having the same view from both sides, the temple served two purposes. It overlooked the city below, while it welcomed people from the back on the Acropolis. Each column rested on a three-stepped base, instead of the usual two-stepped one. It is thought that the short sturdy columns were built because of the lack of space, due to the massive neighboring monuments.

The Temple of Apollo at Bassae, in Arcadia, was begun in the fifth century BC. but probably not completed till the fourth. A notable feature of this temple is the use of all three Greek Orders. The Doric was used outside, and the Ionic and Corinthian were used within the temple. Most of the building is made of a hard, fine-grained gray limestone, but marble was used for the sculptures and the more decorative parts. The temple was built in honor of the Goddess of Sun.
Classic Greek architecture is reflected on modern day buildings such as the Lincoln Memorial, and the U.S treasury. The Lincoln Memorial uses the Doric order. Elements of Greek architecture can be found in many homes, capitol buildings and college campuses. With only one form and three modes of expression, the perfection of proportion and clarity of outline, subtlety of refinement, and visual appearance of solids and spaces in equilibrium, the Greek temple has never been surpassed. The elegance and beauty of Greek architecture will remain timeless and continue to be used through out history.

Is It Ethical To Sell Cigarettes

Questions
1. Ethically as we Americans have defined is not on the minds of these executives of the cigarette firms. Our society has made it ethically and legally wrong to sell cigarettes to a minor. These companies located in the United States adhere to the laws and ethical issues within our borders, so what is the difference when they practice these unethical business transactions in smaller countries. These smaller, less developed countries do not have the technology and understanding to disallow the sale of cigarettes to minors. These gigantic tobacco companies should follow the same practices in smaller countries as they do in their home country the U.S.

2. Yes, I believe giving free sample packs of cigarettes to minors in foreign countries to be some form of bribery. You need to ask yourself why are the free samples being distributed? Merely to get younger generations hooked, so these companies have a long time consumer. Bribery doesn’t always have to consist of money; this is a form of brainwashing in my opinion. By getting the younger, less intelligent population hooked early on cigarette’s, these companies have opened up a new market to extend their own profits. I’m sure the tobacco companies realize that a couple thousand free sample now is fine compared to the long term spending they will encounter from the individuals that get hooked.

3. No, they are not acting with social responsibility. Why or how could this be any bit of an ethical decision by the executives of the tobacco companies? These companies should believe and follow it’s moral set in the country it belongs and carry them into every business transaction that they make, whether it be in New York City or Mongolia. It is too bad that as a capitalistic society we lower ourselves below ethical lines just to earn a buck or two!
4. Yes, I believe this problem can be addressed and solved through education. The United States has introduced the Foreign Corrupt Act Policy to disallow any bribery in foreign Markets whether or not the country allows it, it is merely enough that you belong to The U.S. that you follow their ethically values wherever your business may go. We need to educate these countries and their youth about the bad problems derived from smoking before they get hooked. We weren’t aware of the initial effects smoking had on us, and this allowed it to be socially acceptable. If we had been made aware of all the issues from the get go, maybe smoking would not be tolerated at all in our country. I feel this is the only way to help other countries fight the war against money hungry tobacco companies. This would be a hard task, but slowly and surely it can only help!
Summary
The main issue of this case is whether or not is an ethical business practice to sell cigarettes to minors in other foreign countries. The main blockade is all the money that the gigantic tobacco firms have compared to the very little money and knowledge the foreign countries have to fight against this issue. If you are to specifically look at Argentina and realize that they get Twenty-two percent of their taxes from cigarette revenue, now what country wants to give up that kind of money coming in?
Solving this problem is going to be very costly and time consuming. Everyone, meaning lesser-developed countries, has to play catch to America. What we know and understand about cigarettes and the ways of the tobacco countries allow us to make decisions in an ethical manner, while these money hungry little countries will turn there heads to ensure money for their own economic growth.
Bibliography
Questions
1. Ethically as we Americans have defined is not on the minds of these executives of the cigarette firms. Our society has made it ethically and legally wrong to sell cigarettes to a minor. These companies located in the United States adhere to the laws and ethical issues within our borders, so what is the difference when they practice these unethical business transactions in smaller countries. These smaller, less developed countries do not have the technology and understanding to disallow the sale of cigarettes to minors. These gigantic tobacco companies should follow the same practices in smaller countries as they do in their home country the U.S.

2. Yes, I believe giving free sample packs of cigarettes to minors in foreign countries to be some form of bribery. You need to ask yourself why are the free samples being distributed? Merely to get younger generations hooked, so these companies have a long time consumer. Bribery doesn’t always have to consist of money; this is a form of brainwashing in my opinion. By getting the younger, less intelligent population hooked early on cigarette’s, these companies have opened up a new market to extend their own profits. I’m sure the tobacco companies realize that a couple thousand free sample now is fine compared to the long term spending they will encounter from the individuals that get hooked.

3. No, they are not acting with social responsibility. Why or how could this be any bit of an ethical decision by the executives of the tobacco companies? These companies should believe and follow it’s moral set in the country it belongs and carry them into every business transaction that they make, whether it be in New York City or Mongolia. It is too bad that as a capitalistic society we lower ourselves below ethical lines just to earn a buck or two!
4. Yes, I believe this problem can be addressed and solved through education. The United States has introduced the Foreign Corrupt Act Policy to disallow any bribery in foreign Markets whether or not the country allows it, it is merely enough that you belong to The U.S. that you follow their ethically values wherever your business may go. We need to educate these countries and their youth about the bad problems derived from smoking before they get hooked. We weren’t aware of the initial effects smoking had on us, and this allowed it to be socially acceptable. If we had been made aware of all the issues from the get go, maybe smoking would not be tolerated at all in our country. I feel this is the only way to help other countries fight the war against money hungry tobacco companies. This would be a hard task, but slowly and surely it can only help!
Summary
The main issue of this case is whether or not is an ethical business practice to sell cigarettes to minors in other foreign countries. The main blockade is all the money that the gigantic tobacco firms have compared to the very little money and knowledge the foreign countries have to fight against this issue. If you are to specifically look at Argentina and realize that they get Twenty-two percent of their taxes from cigarette revenue, now what country wants to give up that kind of money coming in?
Solving this problem is going to be very costly and time consuming. Everyone, meaning lesser-developed countries, has to play catch to America. What we know and understand about cigarettes and the ways of the tobacco countries allow us to make decisions in an ethical manner, while these money hungry little countries will turn there heads to ensure money for their own economic growth.
Questions
1. Ethically as we Americans have defined is not on the minds of these executives of the cigarette firms. Our society has made it ethically and legally wrong to sell cigarettes to a minor. These companies located in the United States adhere to the laws and ethical issues within our borders, so what is the difference when they practice these unethical business transactions in smaller countries. These smaller, less developed countries do not have the technology and understanding to disallow the sale of cigarettes to minors. These gigantic tobacco companies should follow the same practices in smaller countries as they do in their home country the U.S.

2. Yes, I believe giving free sample packs of cigarettes to minors in foreign countries to be some form of bribery. You need to ask yourself why are the free samples being distributed? Merely to get younger generations hooked, so these companies have a long time consumer. Bribery doesn’t always have to consist of money; this is a form of brainwashing in my opinion. By getting the younger, less intelligent population hooked early on cigarette’s, these companies have opened up a new market to extend their own profits. I’m sure the tobacco companies realize that a couple thousand free sample now is fine compared to the long term spending they will encounter from the individuals that get hooked.

3. No, they are not acting with social responsibility. Why or how could this be any bit of an ethical decision by the executives of the tobacco companies? These companies should believe and follow it’s moral set in the country it belongs and carry them into every business transaction that they make, whether it be in New York City or Mongolia. It is too bad that as a capitalistic society we lower ourselves below ethical lines just to earn a buck or two!
4. Yes, I believe this problem can be addressed and solved through education. The United States has introduced the Foreign Corrupt Act Policy to disallow any bribery in foreign Markets whether or not the country allows it, it is merely enough that you belong to The U.S. that you follow their ethically values wherever your business may go. We need to educate these countries and their youth about the bad problems derived from smoking before they get hooked. We weren’t aware of the initial effects smoking had on us, and this allowed it to be socially acceptable. If we had been made aware of all the issues from the get go, maybe smoking would not be tolerated at all in our country. I feel this is the only way to help other countries fight the war against money hungry tobacco companies. This would be a hard task, but slowly and surely it can only help!
Summary
The main issue of this case is whether or not is an ethical business practice to sell cigarettes to minors in other foreign countries. The main blockade is all the money that the gigantic tobacco firms have compared to the very little money and knowledge the foreign countries have to fight against this issue. If you are to specifically look at Argentina and realize that they get Twenty-two percent of their taxes from cigarette revenue, now what country wants to give up that kind of money coming in?
Solving this problem is going to be very costly and time consuming. Everyone, meaning lesser-developed countries, has to play catch to America. What we know and understand about cigarettes and the ways of the tobacco countries allow us to make decisions in an ethical manner, while these money hungry little countries will turn there heads to ensure money for their own economic growth.
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