The Criminalization of Knowingly Transmitting AIDS

Table of Contents
Brief history of AIDS and the criminalization of knowingly
transmitting it…………………………………3
Interviews concerning the issue……………………….4
Reasons for the criminalization of knowingly transmitting
Reasons against the criminalization of knowingly
transmitting AIDS……………………………….7
My position and conclusion……………………………8
Brief History of AIDS and the Criminalization
of Knowingly Transmitting It
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The virus was discoverd independently in
France in 1983 and in the United States in 1984. In the United States, it
was initially identified in 1981. In 1986, a second virus, now called
HIV-2, was also discovered in Africa. HIV-2 also causes AIDS.

AIDS is transmitted in three ways: From sexual contact without
protection, from the mixing of ones blood with infected blood, and from an
infected pregnant woman to her fetus. Infection can occur from blood
transfusions of infected blood, or sharing ‘dirty’ needles. (Needles
already used, in this case, by a HIV positive person.)
The criminalization of intentionally spreading AIDS has been a big
issue recently, and still remains so. As of September, 1991, legislation
criminalizing AIDS transmission has been passed in 24 states. Among these
states are California, Idaho, Ohio, Missouri, Michigan, and South Carolina.

Under these current laws, it is a crime to knowingly transmit the virus
through sex, sharing needles, donating infected blood, organs, or skin

The first person to go to court under these laws in Michigan was
Jeffrey Hanlon. Hanlon was a gay man who infected another man from
Michigan while he was in New York. The American Civil Liberties Union, who
agreed to take the case, agrued that the AIDS disclosure law is
unconstitutional. Privacy of those with AIDS is what they were worried
about. Opponents argued that “they’re those with AIDS killing people.

It’s like rape.” The maximum sentence Hanlon could have recieved was four
years in prison and a $2000 fine.

In addition, under the current New York State law, which dates back
well before June, 1987, the knowing transmission of a venerial disease is a
felony. However, at that time, and currently, AIDS was not classified as a
venerial disease.

Interviews Concerning the Issue
Most people believe that the willful transmission of AIDS to others it
virtually murder. I have interviewed **name** and **name**. Both of them
feel that intentionally passing AIDS on to another person is murder. The
recipient of the virus will, in almost every case, die rather quickly of an
AIDS related disease.

**name** feels that “if someone knowingly transmits AIDS to another
person, it’s like committing murder. He or she should be punished to the
full extent of the law.”
In addition to personal interviews, I have found the opinions of
Governor Cuomo and former President Ronald Reagan.

On June 1, 1987, Cuomo revealed that state lawmakers would consider
making the transmission of AIDS a crime. He was quoted at the time as
“If you know you have AIDS and you pass it on to someone who is not
aware, that should be regarded as a very serious offense. I’m not talking
about sins and morality; I’m talking about a sin against the community, a
crime. We should look into that.” However, nothing was proposed at the

Former President Ronald Reagan called for “routine” AIDS testing of
prisoners, marriage license applicants, immigrants, and possibly some
hospital patients. His purpose was only to identify carriers of the
disease; no comment concerning the criminalization of the transmission of
AIDS was made.

Reasons for the Criminalization of
Knowingly Transmitting AIDS
There are not many reasons for the criminalization of knowingly
transmitting AIDS. However, they are very convincing arguments.

The first and one of the most convincing arguments is because it will
help stop the propogation of the virus. Ideally, if people know that it is
a crime to transmit the virus, then they will not. The only way that AIDS
will remain an epidemic is if it is continually spread. This is because
those with AIDS will in most cases die rather quickly of an AIDS related
disease. If they do not spread it, then the number of people with the
virus will decline steadily without fail.

Another reason is that someone who is intentionally transmitting the
disease is doing it for their own satisfaction and/or to hurt others. Such
is the case with a drug pusher. Many magazine articles have made reference
to the analogy “a drug pusher is the same as an AIDS pusher.” Their
argument is that if drug pushers are treated as if they commit criminal
acts, then so should the supposed ‘AIDS’ pushers.

The Constitutional argument involoved is also a moral one. By
transmitting the virus willingly one is usurping on others’ rights to life
and happiness. It is also seen as wrong by the public. In effect, it is
murder in the second or third degree. If it is done intentionally, it is
murder in the first degree. Obviously this should be illegal and those who
break the proposed laws should be prosecuted as if they committed a crime.

Another reason to criminalize the transmission of AIDS is because the
money from fines incurred may be put towards research and development of
cures, as well as education and prevention programs. This will help stop
the problem and also speed up the process of finding a cure or immunization
for AIDS.

Reasons Against the Criminalization of
Knowingly Transmitting AIDS
There are many more reasons against the criminalization of willingly
transmitting AIDS to others. However, these are based not on morals but on
facts and practicality.

Criminalizing AIDS would divert millions of dollars to legal fees that
could be better spent on AIDS programs such as prevention, education, and
research and development in terms of finding a cure. “Criminalization is a
short cut taken when not enough energy is given to prevention.” Instead of
helping erradicate the epidemic, criminalization would instill more fear
among the people living with HIV. “It would create a witch hunt
atmosphere,” stated William Ramirz, an attorney for a HIV positive client.

Criminalizing AIDS transmission would open doors for people to knowingly
accuse others they know that have it just to get rid of them.

The law would also be practically impossible to enforce. In some
cases, intent would have to be proven. However, it is usually impossible
to prove intent since it is not possible to go “inside” the minds of others
to know what they were thinking in their moment of passion, whether it be
intercourse or drug use.

Even the United States Health Department opposes criminalization. They
fear that it would scare people from reporting that they have AIDS. This
is because those that do report it may be accused of committing a crime
sometime in the future.

My Position and Conclusion
I have mixed feelings on whether or not the transmission of AIDS should
be a criminal act. I feel that it is morally wrong, and in effect, those
who do it are committing murder. There is definitely a valid argument
there. However, due to the validity of the arguments against the
criminalization of passing AIDS on to others, I am partial to both sides.

I agree that it would divert millions of dollars that could be put to
better use in research and other programs. I also agree that it would be
legally and scientifically impossible to prove intent.

I feel that because of these conflicting ideas that I believe, the best
way to resolve the issue would be to make transmitting the virus a criminal
act, but not subject to jail time. Instead of wasting the taxpayers money
on giving free medical care and room and board to inmates, it should be put
towards finding a cure for AIDS. Instead of a jail term, those who
transmit the disease should be fined very heavily so as to discourage them
from repeating the offense. The money accrued from the fine should then be
used for research and other related programs, including helping those that
are infected.

All in all, AIDS is an epidemic that is a part of the nineties. It is
scary, but it must be dealt with. If the proper precautions are taken,
then eventually it will be taken care of in the right way. However, there
will unfortunately always be those that have malice towards society and
insist upon spreading their pain and suffering.


Jazz is a type of music developed by black Americans about 1900
and possessing an identifiable history and describable
stylistic evolution. It is rooted in the mingled musical traditions of
American blacks. More black musicians saw jazz for the first time a
profession. Since its beginnings jazz has branched out into so many
styles that no single description fits all of them with total accuracy.

Performers of jazz improvise within the conventions of their chosen
style. Improvisation gave jazz a personalized, individualized, and
distinct feel. Most jazz is based on the principle that an infinite
number of melodies can fit the cord progressively of any cord.

The twenties were a crucial period in the history of music.

Revolutions, whether in arts or matter of state, create a new
world only by sacrificing the old. By the late twenties, improvisation
had expanded to the extent of improvisation we ordinarily expect from
jazz today. It was the roaring twenties that a group of new tonalities
entered the mainstream, fixing the sound and the forms of our popular
music for the next thirty years. Louie Armstrong closed the book on the
dynastic tradition in New Orleans jazz.

The first true virtuoso soloist of jazz, Louie Armstrong was a dazzling
improviser, technically, emotionally, and intellectually. Armstrong,
often called the “father of jazz,” always spoke with deference,
bordering on awe, of his musical roots, and with especial devotion of
his mentor Joe Oliver. He changed the format of jazz by bringing the
soloist to the forefront, and in his recording groups, the Hot Five and
the Hot seven, demonstrated that jazz improvisation could go far beyond
simply ornamenting the melody. Armstrong was one of the first jazz
musicians to refine a rhythmic conception that abandoned the stiffness
of ragtime, employed swing light-note patterns, and he used a technique
called “rhythmic displacement.” Rhythmic displacement was sometimes
staggering the placement of an entire phrase, as though he were playing
behind the beat. He created new melodies based on the chords of the
initial tune. He also set standards for all later jazz singers, not
only by the way he altered the words and melodies of songs but also by
improvising without words like an instrument (scat singing)
(Arnold12). Armstrong was a great musical architect. He brought a
superb sense of drama to jazz solo conception. During a period when
most improvisers were satisfied simply to embellish or paraphrase a
tune, Armstrong himself was a master at both. Armstrong^s command of
the trumpet was arguable greater than that of any preceding jazz
trumpeter who recorded.

In actuality, the revolution initiated by Armstrong took place
in fits and starts, and with little fanfare at the time. After
Armstrong^s departure from the King Oliver Creole Band, over a year
would transpire before he would record as a leader. And even when
those famous recordings were planned -the classic “Hot Fives”- the
record company considered enlisting a better known leader to front the
band. Most accounts stress that Armstrong^s talents may have been
neglected by the general public, but were amply recognized by the
musical community – ” his playing was revered by countless jazz
musicians,” runs a typical commentary – but even this claim is
suspect. Fletcher Henderson, Armstrong^s first major employer after
Oliver, made the trumpeter accept a cut in pay to join his band. Many
accounts suggest that Henderson, in fact , preferred the playing of
cornetist Joe Smith, And that Armstrong was hired only because Smith
was unavailable. Smith lacked Armstrong^s rhythmic drive, yet his warm
sound and ease of execution could hardly be faulted and may have been
better receive by the average dancehall patron. Henderson was not even
enthusiastic about Armstrong^s singing, an attitude that deeply
frustrated the new band member. Years later Armstrong would later
exclaim: ” Fletcher didn^t dig me like Joe Oliver. He had a million
dollar talent in his band and he never thought to let me sing.”
During the 1930s a new style of jazz emerged. It became the
most popular kind of jazz in the twentieth century. This style
began during the late 1920s and continued to the 1940s. Most jazz from
the 1930s and early 1940s is called “swing music,” and this time in
history is now known as “the swing era.” Big bands in the swing era
were made up of ten or more musicians whose instruments were grouped
into three categories called “sections:” rhythm, brass, and drums. The
brass section included trumpets and trombones. The saxophone section
was separated from the brass section because they originated from
instruments made of wood. In a big band the sax section contained from
three to five musicians. The size of the trumpet section varied from
two to five musicians, two or three being the standard.

Unlike the early jazz era, in the swing era hits that were
jazz-oriented contained only a few solo improvisations, often
only one. Swing music contained less collective improvisation and more
solo improvisation, and the amount of improvisation in most swing era
hits was small. The construction of improvised solos in most hits were
melodically conservative.

The onset of the Great Depression had a chilling effect on the jazz
world, as it did the whole entertainment industry. The ambiance of
jazz culture were demystified in the process. During this period, the
growing popularity of talking movies led many theaters to halt the
elaborate live shows that had previously been a staple of popular
entertainment in most cities, further reducing paying jobs for
musicians. Although the development of the 1930s affected most
musicians adversely, a handful of performers benefited considerably
from the more stratified structure of the entertainment world. The
creation of a truly nationwide mass medium in the form of radio
catapulted a few jazz players to a level of celebrity that would have
been unheard of only a few years before.

Benny Goodman sent this apparatus into motion with a
vengeance. In the process, he ignited not only his own amazing
career, but sent off a craze for “swing music” that would last over a
decade. As a soloist Goodman defined the essence of the jazz clarinet
as no other performer, before or since; as a bandleader, he established
standards of technical perfection that were the envy of his peers,
while his influence in gaining widespread popularity for swing music
was unsurpassed. A decade later he reformed his ensemble to tackle the
nascent sounds of bop music (Gioia 135).

The new styles , which emerged after 1940 were classified as
modern jazz. Bebop is classified as modern jazz. Modern jazz
did not burst upon the jazz scene suddenly. It developed gradually
through the work of swing era musicians. Rather than being a reaction
against swing styles, modern jazz developed smoothly from swing
styles. Bop differed from swing in a number of performance aspects and
stylistic aspects. Melodies and harmonies were more complex in bop.

Bop tunes and cord progressions projected a more unresolved quality.

Drummers played their time keeping rhythms primarily on suspected
cymbal, rather than snare drum, high-hat, or bass drum.

Chick Corea grew and matured as an artist. He joined the ranks
of Herbie Hancock, Bill Evans, and McCoy Tyner as the Most
prominent and most imitated pianist in jazz. His style originated
with aspects from the approaches of bud Powell, Horace Silver, Bill
Evans and McCoy Tyner and the classical pieces of twentieth-century
composers Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok. Latin-American music also
inspired Corea^s style. Early in his career, Corea had played in
several bands that featured Latin-American music. Corea^s crisp,
percussive touch enhances the Latin feeling. It is also consistent
with his bright, very spirited style of comping. Like Tyner, Corea
voiced chords in fourths. Voicing in fourths means that chords are
made up of notes four steps away from each other. Chick Corea joined
Miles Davis^ band in 1968, and played electric piano on the landmark In
a silent way, album and the influential “Bitches Brew” session. His
own trio recording with Miroslav Vitous and Roy Haynes, “Now He sings,
Now He sobs,” became a staple in the record collection of modern jazz
lovers during the late sixties. Corea was a prominent composer during
the 1960s and 1970s. Corea wrote pieces that made good use of preset
bass lines in accompaniment, particularly those with a Latin-American
flavor. In 1985, Chick Corea formed the Elektric Band, which became
known for its use of synthesizers. The band^s debut was with Chick
Corea Eleckric Band, on GRP Records.

Resistance To Technology

Resistance to Technology
Technology. What would we do without it? Probably have a lot less fun and have a lot shorter life span. Think about it, you couldnt watch Dawsons Creek or Friends every week. That would mean that the lives of millions of teenage girls in America would cease to exist. And yet there are still some people who are afraid of new technology. Theyre afraid of a technology that could improve the lives of Americans just because they saw a couple of science fiction movies where an extremely unlikely situation occurred and all hell broke loose. When in reality precautions are made to ensure that things like that wont happen. Super-intelligent sharks wont become smarter than humans and nearly escape to rule the world like they did in the movie Deep Blue Sea.

One technology that people seem to most fear is cloning. Specifically one of my friends raised a good point about the subject, she said that in her high school they had a debate about cloning and the side against cloning stated that if there was an exact genetic clone of yourself and this clone went out and committed a whole bunch of crimes, then how would they know who did it unless you had an alibi. Another thing that people seem to be afraid of when it comes to cloning is the religious aspect. Many see cloning as being too close to playing god. They dont think that specifically sorting out genes and selecting which traits their children will have is morally correct. But theres a flipside to this in that if we can select which traits our children will have, we may be able to eliminate hereditary diseases like cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. It all depends on how the question is phrased. If I were to ask somebody, Should we be able to change the genetic traits of our children, they would most likely respond negatively. However, if the question was phrased as Should we be able to genetically cure abnormalities in our children, most people would change their minds. This just goes to show that most people dont really have any idea what they believe when it comes to cloning and gene therapy. And what they think they believe tends to come from other people. Maybe if people were more educated and better understood subjects like this, they would better be able to make their own decisions.

Another aspect that people seem to resist technology is how many people fear losing their jobs because of a new technology. For example, this summer when I was working at Polaris Industries in Roseau MN, I saw many machines that have taken the place of human workers. In the welding department they use robots to do a lot of the spot welds. While this is more efficient and creates a higher output for the company, the robots took away about 50 jobs when they were put into service. But if you look at the specific area where I worked (metal paint) machines actually created jobs. Before Polaris built the metal paint area they used to have all their parts painted in another city and then shipped them up here. But after they added metal paint to the plant there were able to create 50 new jobs including mine. So there are good and bad sides to this issue also.

Probably one of the most misunderstood technologies is the Internet. Some people believe that the Internet is the source of all that is wrong in the world and its just a bunch of porn pages. When in reality the Internet is a source of much of the information in the world. Well, DUH. Of course we have access to pornography on the Internet. Just like we have access to it in bookstores and movie theaters and cable television. This isn’t exactly news anymore. It’s called free expression, and in theory, at least when it concerns press freedoms, journalists are in favor of it. Or maybe free expression is only for journalists?(Block) Yes there are web pages out there that have pornography on them but its a persons choice on whether or not they want to visit those pages. Just like its the persons choice on whether or not they want to watch soft-core porn on Cinemax. And then theres always the world-fearing mother like Kyles mom on South Park. The woman who believes that its the world thats corrupting her little boy but nobody forced her little boy to see the porn. Maybe if parents would take a little more responsibility and punish their child when they do something wrong instead of blaming something else, we might have a few less problems in our society.
But not all technology is resisted. When taking a look at all the new medical technologies that have come about in the last 50 years, I am amazed at what we can accomplish. We have implanted an artificial heart in humans. We have cured countless diseases and have preventive measures for most of the rest. Who knows how many of the people sitting in our classroom would even be alive if it wasnt for all the medical advances. Most anyone who was born more than a month premature might not be around. The average life expectancy would be a lot shorter because we are able to stop things like some forms of cancer from spreading throughout the body and we can perform bypass surgery on people who have clogged arteries.

What Ive noticed for the most part is that if a technology doesnt benefit a person, then they dont really care that its even there. Like if I had a cancer that was easily curable with medicine, Id be pretty thankful that the treatment existed to help me. But if I didnt have it or know anybody who had it, I might not even care that it was around. Or if I wasnt so hopelessly dependant on the Internet to keep in touch with my friends and for entertainment, I might not be for free speech on the net. And just like if I didnt have Mononucleosis right now, I wouldnt be wishing there was a cure or treatment so much.
1. Block, Marylaine. My Words Mouth Nov. 1996 vol. 2 #19
Computers and Internet

Victor Hugo a French Romanticist Poet

Victor Hugo is a French Romanticist poet. He has written numerous dramatic plays, books, and romantic poems. His poetry is best known and appreciated in France. In France Hugo is haled as the leader of the French Romanticism Movement. Victor Hugos poems Once More to Thee and Regret reflect Hugos remorse and wish for happiness as a result of his uncaring and adulterous actions.

At a young age Victor Hugo married a young women named Adle. Their young love turned sour when a critic fell in love with Adele and Hugo used it to blackmail him into giving wonderful reviews of Hugos newest poems and to promote his dramas and books with tons of publicity and articles on them (Ionesco 25-26). Hugo proceeded to forbid Adle to leave the house and considered it okay for him to cheat on her for the rest of his life (Ionesco 26).Hugo had a twisted sense of love as is seen in this quote from the Hugoliad, His wife Adele he neglects completely using her only to arrange his theatrical success. Absorbed as he was in his literary glory and Juliette Drouet he refuses to notice that Sainte-Beuve is falling in love with his wife. He refuses to notice it even when Sainte-Beuve intimates it to him (Ionesco 25). Hugo carried on an affair with Juliette Drouet for over 50 years to the knowledge and in sight of his wife, Adele (Victor Hugo 732).
Victor Hugos family influenced many of his early poems. When Hugo was in his early teens his mother forced poetry on him (Ionesco 13). During a grave illness Hugo stayed with his mother and she requested that he write a poem, when the poem was completed she promptly stopped dying. Things that occurred in his family often
influenced his works. The conflicts between his loyalist mother and his Bonaparte father strongly influenced many of his poems (Houston 1). His early works were also influenced by the comradery and the sometimes rivalry between him and his two brothers (Houston 1).

Victor Hugo was born in the year of our lord 1802 (Victor Hugo 732). He was born in a small French town known as Bescancon (Victor Hugo 732-733). Victor Hugos father was General Count Lopold Sigisbert Hugo (Ionesco 11).

Eugene Ionesco said this about the General Victor Hugos father was a sort of rough and simple trooper, sufficiently devoid of scruples to abandon his wife and very young children. Infatuated with a bogus Spanish countess, he went and set himself up in Spain, where he governed a province in the name of Napoleon I (11). Victor Hugos mother packed up herself and her children and left for Spain to try and take her husband back from this fake countess (Ionesco 11). Sophie failed in her endeavor to win back her husband, so she fled back to Paris and replaced General Count Lopold Sigisbert Hugo with another man (Ionesco 11). She replaced him with a man in good favor with Napoleon, General Lahorie (Ionesco 11). After obtaining Lahories love Sophie did not neglect Victor in the least, in fact she began to guide his life once more, she forced him to turn away from the study of Polytechnic which he was well suited to with his low intelligence and strong work ethic (Ionesco 12).
Victor Hugos poems were strongly influenced by his adultery. After he believed his wife had betrayed him his work had a strong melancholy tone (Victor Hugo2 165).
Ionesco speaks often of this effect on Hugos poems Hugos poems spoke only of goodness and forgiving but his life was anything but. He showed nothing but the opposites of what he spoke of in his poems (26).
Victor Hugos early literary understanding came from his father. Lopold Hugo was dominated by a crude sensuality, he nevertheless had a sort of flair that we might call literary, though totally lacking in taste or discretion, a flair inherited and amplified by Victor Hugo to proportions we well know (Ionesco 12). Hugo had a falling out with his father when he felt that he had abandoned him and his mother for a fling with a Spanish countess. Hugo reconciled with his father before he died in the year 1828. This relationship served to balance the loyalist fervor that he received from his mother. In the years of 1829 to 1833 Hugos work was erratic due to severe emotional difficulties (Victor Hugo 733). He received the literary ability from his biological father, however his stepfather General Lahorie gave him the means to express himself, he taught him to read and write. Hugos mother affected his poetry more than anyone else due to the fact that without her he would never have written any poetry in the first place. After his mothers death in 1821 Hugos poetry became more royalist in nature (734). This earned him a royal pension and a place in the Legion of Honor (734).

Hugos poetry is best defined by this quote,
Victor Hugos poetry took many forms, from lyric to the epic to the
elegiac. Along with this variety of forms, the range of the poets ideas
expanded during his long career. From poems with political overtones,
Hugos poetry grew to exhibit tenets of romanticism. He wrote of more
personal and intimate subjects such as family and love. He also wrote about
mans relationship with the Creator. As Hugo matured, his themes became
more philosophical and humanitarian and his self-appointed role became
that of a poet-seer attempting to understand the mysteries of life and of
creation. (Victor Hugo 732)
Hugos poetry often showed a wish for the revival of dead gods and the beauty they stood for (Victor Hugo 2 164) Victor Hugo once said I believe in God far more than myself .. I am more certain about the existence of God than myself (161). The form of Hugos poetry was far more surprising than the content, he used alternative forms of verse instead of the common form of the day Classical Alexandrine. He used forms of verification such as octosyllabic lines. As his work progressed it began to show more philosophical intent (Victor Hugo 735)
The poem Regret by Victor Hugo shows the melancholy attitude that was common in much of his work after what he saw as his wifes betrayal. This is expressed in the line Are we, with many a grief to others known. This poem also expresses the mourning after his fathers death in the line of that we mourn always. The poem Once More to Thee reflects Hugos conviction in the fact that God exists. This is shown in the line A virgin pure, to heaven thy soul brings. This poem also displays Hugos melancholy attitude in the line When on my sorrows though hast shed thy light.

The poem Regret relates to Hugos life in many ways. The poem shows his regret at his wifes betrayal and his own slight regret that he is carrying on an affair in revenge for what he believed that his wife had done wrong. Regret also reflects his life through the fact that it speaks of tender recollections referring to his mothers love for him and it says that they are cherished long, this refers to his mothers death and how it affected Hugo and how he thought often of her.
Once More to Thee also reflects his life. It contains references to God and show Hugos solid belief in God. This is shown in the lines I seen to touch the temples sacred veil and And say with Tobit to the Angel, Hail. Once More to Thee also refers to his mother. This is shown in the line For all her days belong, O Lord, to thee.

Regret and Once More to Thee parallel in many ways. They both reference to Hugos sense of loss at his mothers death and they both refer to the perceived betrayal of his wife. They both contain references to God and holy objects. They both refer to multiple people, not objects or places, and their emotions.


Huck finn racism

“To Be or not To Be”
In extreme cases the book, Huckleberry Finn, has been banned from some schools because of the depiction of racial tension towards Jim, the black slave, in Huckleberry Finn. This story takes place at a time where slavery was considered moral. Blacks were considered inferior to whites, but Huckleberry challenges the notion that he was raised upon. Through Huckleberry’s adventures Twain expresses his challenge towards civilization’s rules and moral code. One must read between the lines and reach for the meaning in Mark Twain’s subtle literature dialog. If one were to do this that one would realize that it is not racist, but anti-slavery. For someone to think that Twain considering the era was racist would ludicrous.

Considering that Mark Twain is a revolutionary writer and must use detail from an era to make the story unique he shouldn’t be considered racist. Their time period is set around the Civil War which was fought for abolishment of slavery. Huck to some people would be the argument for Twain’s racism, but Huck was raised from a boy by people with extreme hatred towards blacks such like Pap and Miss Watson. Even if bigotry was part of Huck’s attitude towards blacks it should be excused. Towards the end of the novel Huck encounters Aunt Sally who makes a remark towards blacks. She remarked that thank god no one was hurt but it was okay if a black person was. This is just a fine example of the extremities that Huck was raised under and the society’s views towards blacks. Twain is merely revealing the harsh truth of society in a subtle tone. It is also important to remember that Mark Twain’s description of Jim was not being racist but honest. Back in their era majority of black slaves were non-educated, ignorant, never allowed independence, and were maltreated. Twain was merely using the historical accuracy to his advantage in the novel for a heightened impact.

Since Huck is the center piece of the novel people could say that Mark Twain expressed himself through the character. They would use the fact Huck was degrading Jim. As I have said Huck was raised that way from a child, but he evolved to different beliefs. In the beginning after Huck and Jim have run away they find each other. Huck’s first step to overcoming prejudice occurs on that island. Huck feels relief that he is no longer alone and needs Jim for comfort. You start to see a bond form which never forms between man and his “property”. This may not be a gigantic step but it is a step. As the story unfold farther they form a rather special bond of needing each other which shows strong when Jim is auctioned off. He decides to save Jim which is totally unheard of for a white to do for a black. At first he challenges his views of religion whether or not he should write Miss Watson, his owner, and probably still lose Jim for good, or go for Jim himself. Huck decides that he would rather be damned to hell than lose Jim, so he tears up the note a journeys forward. Huck challenged society’s views which damns himself to “kissing boot heels” or humiliation for helping a slave. Huck evolved from “sivilized” boy to an “unsivilized” or non-racist boy.

The society’s values and views are an important factor in this novel. They are brought out to show the horrible society which we once embraced. Huck goes through a complete metamorphosis and stops accepting their values. In a very satirizing and subtle manner Twain tell the reader not to be racist, not to advocate racism, but to challenge society’s beliefs which they accepted.

Frosts Use of Simple Everday subjects

“Robert Frost is a poet of genius because he could so often make his subtleties inextricable from an apparent availability.” (Poirier p. x)
Frost uses simple everyday subjects such as nature, man, and home to get his point across in his poetry.

Robert Frost was born on March 26, 1874, in San Francisco California. His father, William Prescott Frost, was a journalist who worked for the Daily Evening Post in San Francisco. His mother, Isabelle Moodie Frost, came into the United State when she was 12 years old. Frost was born a year after his parents had gotten married. After Frost’s father had died in 1885, he moved with his family to New England where he attended Lawrence High School. “Frost had published several poems in the school magazine and was named class poet.” (Bloom p.12) “He graduated in 1892, sharing valedictorian honors with Elinor White, to whom he became engaged.” (Bloom p. 12) Frost then went onto Dartmouth College, he ended up dropping out of school after one semester. “He instead pursued a variety of jobs, including teaching at his mothers private school and working in a textile mill. In 1894 he published a few poems in The Independent and began corresponding with its literary editor.” (Bloom p.12) In December 1895 he married Elinor. “In the early years of there marriage, Frost attended Harvard as a special student but withdrew in 1899 and took up poultry farming to support his growing family. The Frost’s family life, often strained by emotional and financial anxieties, was marked by a series of tragedies. Their first child, Elliott, died of cholera at age three. Another child, Elinor Bettina, died two days after birth. Of the four children who lived to adulthood, Frost’s daughter Marjorie died of childbed fever at age 29, and his son Carol committed suicide at age 39. Another daughter, Irma, had to be institutionalized for mental illness, as did Frost’s sister Jeanie.” (Bloom p.13) Frost moved with his family in 1912 to England so he could focus more on his poetry and book publication. “A Boy’s Will was published by the London firm of David Nutt and Company in 1913, and was reviewed favorably by American poet and critic Ezra Pound, a highly influential figure in modernist letters. Nutt published North of Boston a year later.” (Bloom p. 13) As Frost was continuing to write poetry, he began to pursue what would be a life long career as a part-time college teacher. He and his family moved between teaching posts in New Hampshire, Vermont, and many other places. “In the course of his lifetime, Frost was recognized with more than 17 honorary degrees from prestigious colleges and universities in the United States and England. He continued to write books of poetry, receiving the Pulitzer Prize and unprecedented four times.” (Bloom p.14) “Later in life Frost toured Europe, the Middle East, and South America as a cultural emissary and a personage.” (Myers p.24) Frost was chosen in 1961 to read at President Kennedy’s inauguration, he read “The Gift Outright”. Frost died on January 29,1963, just 2 years after reading at the president’s inauguration. He was said to be the most famous American poet and also the most popular of his time.

“If a reader, even the most superficial takes anything at all from Frost’s poems, it is likely to be a memorable impression created by the overwhelming presence of nature.” (Gerber p.131) “Frost visualizes man always cradled within nature, totally immersed in environment.” (Gerber p.132) “Frost’s views of nature does possess a persistent ethical or metaphysical dimension of very substantial importance in any examination of Frost’s work or of the values expressed in that work.” (Nitchie p.5) This is saying that Frost basically tends to pull away from the statements of a theory of nature, or man’s relationship. “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”, is said by many people to be one of Frost’s most famous poems. “He himself always offered it as the prime example of his commitment to convention.” (Gerber p. 85) “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” the pressure of distant responsibilities, referred to in abstract terms, prevents the speaker from lingering to contemplate a sensuously appealing landscape near at hand. In his longing for the darkness and sleep represented by the “lovely” woods swept by “easy wind and downy flake,” he seems to look forward to the final rest that succeeds all engagements with reality.” (Gerber p.76) ” Whose woods these are I think I know” suggests that is a poem concerned with ownership and does not choose to care even about owning himself. “The terrifying lightness of sight and sound leads the speaker to contemplate the woods as “lovely, dark, and deep,” a desire to lose himself in this self-annihilating scene.” (Bloom p.64)
The woods are lovely, dark and deep,
This rejects nature’s impersonal plea in favor of purpose, the last verse refuses to imply whatever such purpose is self produced and determined

Macbeth: Serpentine Imagery

The snake has long been used as a symbol of sly subtlety. A serpents presence has been characterized by cunning cynicism dating as far back as biblical times, when the snake persuaded Eve to eat the forbidden fruit of Edens garden. Even the phrase snake in the grass expresses latency. Shakespeare uses this treacherous reptile in Macbeth to convey the same evil. In his poetic prose, Shakespeare may not speak of a characters malevolence directly; rather, he alludes to it through serpentine imagery. Macbeth contains four separate images of this type. What is their purpose, and what do they signify? A deep undercurrent of meaning flows beneath each image.
In act one, scene five, Lady Macbeth tries to instill invisible evil into herself and her husband in preparation for Duncans murder. She asks for supernatural unsexing, for a thickening of her blood that will stop up th access and passage to remorse. She fears her husband is too weak to murder Duncan, which she believes is Macbeths only path to the crown. After tauntingly questioning her husbands manhood, she convinces him to follow her gory plan and gives him instructions to do so.
To beguile the time, look like the time. Bear welcome in your eye, your hand, your tongue. Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under t.
She says that to succeed, they must feign mediocrity amongst their guests, concealing their sinister desires. Appearing normal will not invoke suspicions. The serpent Lady Macbeth speaks of is the evil ambition Macbeth has, craftily slithering out of the shade of the virtuous flower when the deed is to be done. This image is used in a traditional manner, denoting mischief and concealment. It represents Macbeths hidden ambitions and his wifes plans. This is the first example of an extensive amount of scheming that will occur in an effort to cover the bloody truths of Macbeths rise to the throne. It also follows the theme of appearance versus reality- fair is foul and foul is fair. What Duncan thinks to have a pleasant seat is actually the poisonous serpent underneath, waiting till nighttime to prey on its docile victim.

Macbeth expresses his suspicions about Banquo and Duncans murder in act three, scene two. When Lady Macbeth says things without all remedy should be without regard, he disagrees.
We have scorched the snake, not killed it. Shell remain close and be herself whilst our poor malice remains in danger of her former tooth.
Here, the snake is a metaphor for the obstacles impeding his rise to power. He says they have merely injured these hindrances, not eliminated them. In time, theyll reassemble just as strong, while Macbeth and his wife will be vulnerable to them again. He feels his work is not yet done, and hires murderers for Banquo to finish it. The former tooth of the snake Macbeth fears will get revenge on him foreshadows the remainder of his life. Upon scorching Duncan, Macbeth sets off his devilish ambitions and begins butchering his way through a downward spiral. His scorching of the snake ultimately leads to he and his wifes painful demises and a loss of all he had gained.
The snake Macbeth was apprehensive about earlier is eliminated by the murderers when they kill Banquo in act three, scene four. Macbeth thought that his impediments would dissipate with the General; instead, they remain in Fleances escape. About the incidents, Macbeth says:
There the grown serpent lies. The worm thats fled hath nature that in time will venom breed, no teeth for th present.

The serpent that has plagued him is lying still in a ditch, certainly not a bother to him any more. He is now troubled by its spawn, the presently innocent worm that he knows will become a danger in time. Even after more bloodshed, Macbeth is not free of the weighty snake. Fleance will mature into a threat, fathering a son that will begin the seven generations of Scottish kings Macbeth wanted to kill off. A final serpentine image is used in act four, scene one. The Weird Sisters initiate their brew with a fillet of a fenny snake. The serpent, along with many other animalian ingredients, is used to show vileness. It is not a particularly significant image in the full play, yet in this scene it precedes twenty-six lines of further ingredients. Heading the filthy brew with a snake, easily the most loathsome of all animals, the Witches set the revolting tone of their potion.

If a picture tells a thousand words, consider the importance of an image upon a play as short as Macbeth. Shakespeare colorizes his play with contrasting dark images of snakes. The four examples of serpentine imagery in Macbeth illustrate the theme of appearance versus reality, foreshadow coming events, and set the tone of passages, all the while maintaining the deceptive finesse that characterizes the snake in all literary works.


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