Evolution of Computers

How many inventions in your lifetime can you think of that have changed everything in our society today? Computers have taken over today’s society. From everyday tasks to moving satellites in space, PCs have revolutionized almost everything in our society. Computers weren’t always this complicated though, and were around a long time before anyone even knew what the word “computer” meant.


The Abacus was the first known machine developed to help perform mathematical equations. From what researchers have discovered it was invented around 500 to 600 BC in an area around China or Egypt. This early tool was used to perform addition and subtraction and can still be found used in some of today’s Middle Eastern cultures. In 650 AD the Hindus invented a written symbol for zero. Before this no true written calculations could be made, making this one of the most essential inventions to help computers. In 830 AD the first mathematics textbook was invented by a man named Mohammed Ibn Musa Abu Djefar. The subject of this textbook he wrote was “Al Gebr We’l Mukabala” which in today’s society is known as “Algebra” (History of Computers).


So what does all of this have to do with computers? Well without numbers computers wouldn’t exist or have any reason to exist. The whole point of a computer is to perform mathematical computations. Computers weren’t the first to do these mathematical calculations though. In 1623 AD Wilhelm Schickard invented “The Calculating Clock” which would perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. In the year 1801 Jacquard Loom devised a punch card system with a power loom and an automatic card reader. Later that century in 1890 Herman Hollerith invented a census calculator that put each person’s information on a punch card and sent it through an electrical/mechanical tabulating machine. This sped up the process from about 7 years to 2 years making this a very efficient method of performing a census, which in turn helped spread it around the world (History of Computers).


Jump to the year 1937 when John V. Atanasoff invented the first electronic computer. This computer and others below, unless otherwise stated, were made using vacuum tubes, “an electronic device in which conduction by electrons takes place through a vacuum within a sealed glass or metal container and which has various uses based on the controlled flow of electrons” (Dictionary.com). From 1941 to 1954 the governments of various countries started developing different computers for different purposes (Sandiego 1).
The year of 1941 was a very important year for computers. It marks the year the first fully functional program controlled computer was invented. This pc was developed in secret by Konrad Zuse and was called the Z3. It was the first to introduce the general architecture for today’s microprocessor. In the picture below the items seem simple, but at the time this was very advanced. This was the start of the true evolution of computers.
After this, from 1943 to 1954, governments and research teams continued to pump out different computers. The last of the vacuum tube computers was created in 1954, and was called the SAGE aircraft warning system. This was the largest vacuum tube computer system every built (Sandiego 1). These were all first generation computers.


Second generation computers utilized transistors instead of vacuum tubes and were invented from around 1954-1959. In 1950 NBS (The National Bureau of Standards) created SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer). This system used over 10,000 germanium diodes, germanium is a semiconductor that is more expensive than silicon but better suited and more efficient than silicon, and was used to solve over 50 unrelated scientific problems per day. In 1959 GE, General Electric Corporation, made an ERMA (Electronic Recording Machine Accounting) computer system for the Bank of America in California. This system introduced automation in banking, which later helped with the creation of ATMs (Sandiego 2).
The era of third generation computers was from 1959-1971 and they utilized ICs (Integrated Circuits) for these computers. In 1959 Jack Kilby, of Texas instruments, patented the first IC. The first commercial IC product was a hearing aid made and produced in 1963. IBM produced SABRE in 1964 for American Airlines. It’s a tracking system for ticket reservations, which helped speed up the reservation process considerably. DEC was the creator of the first “mini-computer” called the PDP-8. It was one of the first mini-computers made in mass production that pretty much anyone could afford at the time. In 1969 the DOD, Department of Defense, developed the precursor to the internet which was called ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). This was an experimental WAN (Wide Area Network) that would survive a nuclear war. (Sandiego 3)
Fourth generation PCs were the first to use microprocessors and were in the era of 1971 to 1987. Gilbert Hyatt patented the microprocessor in 1971. Later that year Ted Hoff, of Intel, introduced new microprocessors to use in calculators. IBM arrived with the first 8 in. floppy disk. They also started using these microprocessors in unison with LCD screens in calculators and watches. November of that year Intel introduced the first microcomputer to the public called the MCS-4. In 1972 Nolan Bushnell introduced the “arcade game” to the public with “Computer Space.” Later that year he also created and introduced Atari and the game “Pong” to the public which became the beginnings of today’s “Video Gamer.” The next year in 73′ IBM developed the first hard disk drive utilizing two 30MB platters. Two years later they started selling Altair personal computers. This is when Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak became influenced and developed the Apple personal computer. Also within the same year the 5.25 in. floppy disk was introduced (Sandiego 4).


It seems that computers began to progress exponentially. In 1977 Nintendo started creating video games on plastic cartridges with chips inside. Throughout the 80’s typewriters were slowly being replaced with PCs and word processing software was created to help this process along. In 1980 Microsoft signed a contract with IBM to supply their PCs with an OS (Operating System). In 1984 Steve Jobs and his company Apple created the Macintosh personal computer, which is still to this day a popular alternative to PCs (Sandiego 4).


Fifth generations PCs are present day and beyond computers. The WWW (World Wide Web) was created in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee. In 1993 the first web browser called Mosaic was created. Later on two more browsers took over the internet browsing industry. These were called Netscape Navigator (which was free) and Microsoft’s Internet explorer (Sandiego 5). These allow people to communicate their views around the world and express themselves without fear of being outcast. After this, computers still progress with newer standards and updates to standards being released every year. This will continue until performance increases level off and consumers start to leave the computer market.


Throughout history computers have affected everything. From international commerce to international security computers make everything simpler. They make it easy to communicate with others and even help when researching projects for school. Overall the good points for computers and the internet outweigh most downsides. The computer has changed most things in the world today whether bad or good. Computers are not done evolving yet and may never be
Works Cited
“The History of Computers.” Florida State University. October 10, 2004
http://www.scri.fsu.edu/odyssey/cyberkids/computers/history/
“Evolution of the Computer.” University of Sandiego. October 10, 2004
http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html
“The Z3.” Konrad Zuse. October 10, 2004
http://irb.cs.tu-berlin.de/zuse/Konrad_Zuse/en/Rechner_Z

The Pearl – How Greed Destroys People

Ever since Midas’ lust for gold, it appears that man has acquired a greed and appetite for wealth. Juana, the Priest, and the doctor in John Steinbeck’s novel “The Pearl” have all undergone a change due to money. They are all affected by their hunger for wealth and in turn are the base for their own destruction, and the destruction of society. Steinbeck’s “The Pearl” is a study of man’s self-destruction through greed.

Juana, the faithful wife of Kino, a paltry peasant man, had lived a spiritual life for what had seemed like as long as she could remember. When her son Coyotito fell ill from the bite of a scorpion, she eagerly turned towards the spiritual aspects of life, beginning to pray for her son’s endangered life. The doctor, who had resided in the upper-class section of the town, refused to assist the child, turning them away when they arrived at the door. Lastly, they turned to the sea to seek their fortune. When Juana set sight on the “Pearl of The World,” she felt as though all her prayers had been answered. If she could have foreseen the future, what she would have seen would have been a mirror of her reality. Juana’s husband was caught in a twisted realm of mirrors, and they were all shattering one by one. In the night he heard a “sound so soft that it might have been simply a thought…” (Pg. 48) and quickly attacked the trespasser. This is where the problems for Juana and her family began. The fear that had mounted in Kino’s body had taken control over his actions. Soon even Juana, who had always had faith in her husband, doubted his motives greatly. “It will destroy us all,” (Pg.50) she cried as her attempt to rid the family of the pearl had failed. Kino had not listened, however, and soon Juana began to lose her spiritual side and for a long time she had forgotten her prayers that had once meant so much to her. She had tried to help Kino before too much trouble had aroused, only to discover that she was not competent enough to help.

A Hippocratic oath is said before each medical student is granted a doctorate. In the oath, they swear to aid the ill, and cure the injured. “Above all else, do no harm” is its primary promise. In the village of La Paz, there lived a doctor who had earned his wealth by helping those that were ill and could afford his services. Not once in his long career would he have dared refuse to aid a wealthy lawyer or noblemen. However, when Kino and the group of money hungry peasants arrived at his door with a poisoned child, he had refused them entry, saying “Have I nothing better to do than cure insect bites for ‘little Indians’? I am a doctor, not a veterinary.” (Pg. 14) The doctor had known that the peasants didn’t have any money. He had been to Paris and had enjoyed the splendors of the world, and therefore he wouldn’t be seen dealing with the less fortunate, as he knew that the less fortunate would surely always be just that – less fortunate. However, it seemed that he had been stereotypical of the less fortunate, as he soon discovered when hearing of a great pearl discovered by the peasants who had knocked upon his door earlier that day. A hunger for wealth was what pushed him to visit the peasants’ house and aid their destitute son. “The news came to the doctor where he sat with a woman whose illness was age, though neither she nor the doctor would admit it. And when it was made plain who Kino was, the doctor grew stern and judicious at the same time. He is a client of mine,’ the doctor said.” (Pg. 28) However, he had already ended Coyotito’s life without knowing he’d done so, for if he had administered aid to Coyotito when they were first at the doctors door, Kino would not have had reason to seek his fortune in the ocean, and would not be led down the road to hardships. One might think that a doctor, one who has the image of being passive and caring, should not stoop to such a level.

When someone is down on their luck, chances are they will turn to superstition in hope to acquire that that they wish for most. In La Paz, the peasants were uneducated and probably had never heard of a superstition. The peasants’ only reliability, their only scapegoat was God. God had always been their to aid them in their times of need. The first reaction of Juana when seeing the scorpion is a good example of spirituality; rather than attempt to kill the scorpion, she began to pray to God for safety. “Under her breath Juana repeated an ancient magic to guard against such evil, and on top of that she muttered a Hail Mary between clenched teeth.” (Pg. 6)
In La Paz, the only form of God that the peasants knew was that of the Priest of the church. To the peasants, the Priest was so God-like that they were unable to see any faults in his actions. However, the reader is able to determine that the Priest is abusing his position in society. In order to receive the sacraments the person requesting the sacrament must “donate” a small amount of money to the church. Whether this is correct or not is a matter of opinion. The church may need funding and the peasants may be unable to provide this money, but does that make them unworthy to receive the sacraments should they want to acquire them? The Priest is so set on achieving money and social status that he puts aside the real reason one becomes a Priest- to help, and to teach the word of God. “I hope thou wilt remember to give thanks, my son, to Him who has given thee this treasure, and to pray for guidance in the future.” (Pg. 36)
In “The Pearl”, Steinbeck expresses the fact that man’s manifestation for wealth and property leads to the self-destruction of man, both mentally, and physically. The Priest of La Paz, the doctor, and Kino’s family were all affected by greed. Whether they are striving for wealth or are in the path of those that are, they are all equally affected. The story of Midas lives on as a caution to those who crave the warmth and comfort of money, beckoning to those who struggle to achieve wealth, and hoping that they will respond, and possibly not put wealth on the top shelf of life.

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If you have never heard of Animal Psychology as a field in psychology, it may because there are other terms, Animal Behavior and Comparative Psychology, for example, being used to mean similar things. If you still have doubts, I recommend that you take a look at two journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Journal of Comparative Psychology “publishes original empirical and theoretical research from a comparative perspective on the behavior, cognition, perception, and social relationships of diverse species.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes “publishes experimental and theoretical studies concerning all aspects of animal behavior processes. Studies of associative, nonassociative, cognitive, perceptual, and motivational processes are welcome.”
Another research journal indicating the place of basic psychological concepts in the field of animal behavior is Animal Learning and Behavior It “publishes experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews that cover the broad categories of animal learning, cognition, motivation, emotion, and comparative animal behavior. Specific topics include classical and operant conditioning, discrete-trial instrumental learning, habituation, exploratory behavior, early experience, social and sexual behavior, imprinting, and territoriality.”
Considering the fact that, biologically speaking, humans are animals, it is only natural that psychology, the science that devotes itself to the study of the human mind and human behavior, also be involved in the study of non-human animals. However, the perspective of psychology is unique compared with that of the other disciplines involved in animal behavior studies. Psychologists study animal behavior to enhance our knowledge of human physiology and psychology. In fact, animal research has already enhanced our understanding of human learning and intelligence, stress, and behavior such as aggression and reproduction. Furthermore, psychologists are currently applying animal behavioral knowledge to enhancing the well-beings of humans in areas of “Animal Assisted Therapy” and “Animal Assisted Activities”. Behavioral psychologists, along with clinical psychologists and professionals from other areas of animal science have joint their efforts in areas of applied companion animal ethology, psychology and behavioral therapy.
Like psychologists in other areas *aa010500a.htm*, animal psychologists who have obtained a Ph.D. usually engage in three types of work: teaching, research, and applied work. Although it is most likely for animal psychologists to find teaching positions in departments of psychology, biology, and zoology, there are also opportunities in departments of anthropology, sociology, entomology, animal and poultry science, wildlife biology, and ecology, or in medical or veterinary colleges. Research opportunities usually lie in universities, research institutions (both government and private), zoos, conservation groups, and museums. Research areas range from purely scientific to more applied.
For animal psychologists interested in applied work, there are a variety of career fields for them: companion animal behavior consultancy, livestock production, managing wildlife populations, treating the behavioral problems of pets or other domestic animals. The Animal Behavior Society (ABA */gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.cisab.indiana.edu/ABS/index.html*) has certification programs for those working in the clinical animal behavior field (i.e., working with animals with behavioral problems). To become a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist requires either a doctoral degree from an accredited college or university in a biological or behavioral science with an emphasis on animal behavior and five years of professional experience, or a doctorate in veterinary medicine from an accredited college or university plus two years in a university-approved residency in animal behavior. Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist can be viewd as the counter-title to Licensed Clinical Psychologist.
Clinical animal behavioral specialists who has a Master’s Degree but not a Ph.D. can also be certified by the ABA, as an Associate Applied Animal Behaviorist. They often find jobs as research assistants or educators in universities, zoos, museums, and government, and private facilities.

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