Siddhartha

Human life contains crisis. This is one reason that religions exist; they seek to deal with the crises that face every human being. Crisis is a major component of any religion including Hinduism, Siddhartha’s religion. Therefore, crisis is a major theme in the novel Siddhartha. He has multiple experiences with life changing crises. The first crisis in his life leaves the biggest impression on me. Siddhartha decides to become a Samana after a group of them come through his town. His best friend, Govinda, does not want him to leave. His father is angry that he wishes to leave. He stands in one place all night until his father finally tells him to go and be a Samana, that is how determined he is. Siddhartha knew it was time to make a choice in his life and do something different. He made this choice although it caused crisis in his life. His crisis had two elements, the first was all the anxiety associated with leaving his family and friends and going out on his own. Second, he realized he had to become a Samana to break the cycle of Samsara. He knew he could do this by bettering himself through discipline and finding his true self. I have had two crisis experiences that stand out in my recent memories. First, in the eighth grade I made the choice to attend a private school that was 30 miles away from where I lived. This was a school that none of my current friends were going to attend. I chose to leave all my friends and thrust myself into a new experience for my own good. My friends didn’t want me to leave, just like Siddhartha’s. The second crisis experience happened four years later when I chose to leave my town and attend college here at the University of Portland. Most of my good friends were staying and going to school in the town that we lived in. These two experiences bear resemblance to Siddhartha’s because they contain similar elements of what makes a crisis. First, the anxiety of leaving friends and starting anew is present in both of my experiences. The anxiety associated with switching to high school was compounded with the even worse anxiety of having to meet all new people and make new friends. My second experience, going away to college, also contains the anxiety of leaving old friends and starting out somewhat on my own. These two decisions were crises because I was fearful and felt great amounts of anxiety, as I believe Siddhartha must have when he chose to be a Samana. Once I made these choices, I knew I should go through with them and that they would be beneficial. I think Siddhartha realized this same thing about his choice. Both of these experiences contain the second element of Siddhartha’s crisis. The two decisions were made with the intent of bettering and finding myself. I knew a quality education is one of the best ways to better oneself. I am in that process right now, but it seems to have been the right decision. I believe I have been semi-successful at finding myself thus far in my life. Crises like leaving a comfort zone and making all new friends have required me to find who I am and what I am like. This is required in order to make friends with people who please me and to reestablish a comfort zone. In conclusion, by analyzing Siddhartha’s crisis and determining the elements present in it, I have been able to see how two experiences of my own were also beneficial crises and not just isolated unpleasant times of my life.
Bibliography:

Napoleon The Russian Conflict

Napoleon “The Russian Conflict”
Napoleon was one of the greatest military leaders of all time.By 1812 Napoleon had expanded
the territory of France all over Europe including Spain, Italy, Holland, and Switzerland. The countries that
Napoleon did not directly control, he was usually allied with.The turning point of Napoleon’s career also
came in 1812 when war broke out between France and Russia because of Alexander I’s refusal to enforce
the continental$
Even the French nation could not provide all the manpower and supplies needed to carry out the
Emperor’s grandiose plan for subduing Russia. Throughout 1811, he worked to mobilize the entire
continent against Russia. He not only levied the vassal kingdoms in Spain, Italy, and Germany but also
summoned Austria and Prussia to furnish their share of men and goods.Altogether, Napoleon could count
on nearly 700,000 men of 20 nationalities of whom more than 600,000 crossed the border. Grown far
beyond its original intended size, the army was difficult to assemble and hard to feed. Between Tilsit and
Moscow, there lay over 600 miles of hostile barren countryside. Because of lack of supplies and the
difficulty to feed the large army, Napoleon’s plan was simple:bring about a battle, defeat the Russian
army, and dictate a settlement. Apparently neither he nor his soldiers, who cheerfully began crossing the
Nieman River, thought beyond the immediate goal.
Already 300 miles into Russia, Napoleon had not yet found a way to exploit his advantage. In the
Emperor’s programming the resources necessary to achieve his objective, he had anticipated fighting a
battle within a month after crossing the Nieman. Toward the end of that month Napoleon began to realize
that events were disproving the validity of his estimates. Dying horses littered the roads and the advanced
guard found little forage as Russians everywhere abandoned their homes. Napoleon knew that he needed to
fight. At Smolensk, he set up for a battle and waited but the Russians, afraid of a trap steadily withdrew
their troops from Smolensk and continued to retreat deeper into Russia.


The only major battle in the Russian campaign proved that something was definitely lacking in
Napoleon’s judgment. Borodino was a battle of legendary proportions.Before the battle Napoleon
proclaimed, “Soldiers, here is the battle you have so long desired!” However, the fight was inconclusive.


At its end, Napoleon found himself the possessor, not of a victory, but of a barren hillside and an
increasingly compelling commitment to advance further into the east. Well into the battle, the French had
almost cracked the left side of the Russian Army. Several French generals had requested that Napoleon
would commit the guard infantry into battle. This would create the final blow and insure the Russian defeat.


After 14 hours of intense combat, the fighting died out at nightfall, and Mikhail Illarionovich Kutusov, the
Russian general, gratefully began to retreat his troops. The guard infantry had remained unused. After the
Battle of Borodino, in which losses on both sides totaled !
over 70,000 men, Napoleon had 100,000 effectives remaining, while Kutusov probably had no more than
55,000.Both sides claimed a victory, whereas actually, both sides had lost.While the Russian army filed
disconsolately toward Moscow, the Emperor of the French rationalized his indecision at Borodino b…..y
contenting himself with the capture of the city.


On September 14, Napoleon rode into Moscow at the head of a fraction of the Empire’s military
strength.Meanwhile, Napoleon’s opponent had made a decision that was to shape the remainder of the
campaign.Kutusov made up his mind not to fight another battle in defense of Moscow.Kutusov ordered
the city’s population out into the countryside, released all inmates from the city jails, and destroyed the city
firefighting equipment.Napoleon and his army of 100,000 arrived only to find a handful of the original
inhabitants and several hundred criminals and lunatics freely roaming and plundering the streets.That
night, fires sprang up all over the city.Fire swept through the city for several days and by morning it was
apparent that most of the city had been consumed by the flames. Left with no choice, Napoleon sent peace
proposals to Alexander, but Alexander refused to even discuss the concept of peace while the French
remained on Russian soil. Napoleon was given an opportu!
nity to evacuate Moscow by acting like he was reinforcing his brother-in-law’s troops.Napoleon’s plan was
to march to Kaluga and Bryansk.By returning along an untraveled route, he hoped to find forage for the
horses, avoid the appearance of a retreat, and eventually settle the army in winter quarters somewhere
between Smolensk and Minsk.There appeared to be a good chance to reach his destination before the first
frost.It was imperative to do so.The horses were not shod for heavy snow, nor had the troops been issued
any winter gear.On October 31, Napoleon and the guard reached Vyuzma; Davout (his general) had
cleared Borodino.One week later a heavy snow fell and, with it, the morale of the French.On icy roads it
was impossible for the starving horses to pull their loads.Tired men dropped in their tracks and pushed to
the side of the road, were lost forever.Artillery pieces, loot, and many of the wounded were left behind.


November was an unending catastrophe!
for the decimated French army.Men began to fight for scraps of bread and frozen horseflesh.As the army
began to fragment, there were extraordinary acts of individual heroism.Mere survival itself required
unending strength of will.Many men fell and simply refused to rise again and go on. Marching out of
Smolensk, the ragged, frozen and famished group of men knew that they must sooner or later fight the
Russians as well as the winter.On November 16, Kulusov blocked the French escape routes.The Russians
made many attacks on the French.And because of the health of the French soldiers, there was little
opposition for the Russian’s attacks.Napoleon had returned to France to preserve his empire.With his
desertion marking the end of the war.


A lengthy bulletin had appeared in The Moniteuron the return of Napoleon.Until November 6,
the weather was good, and the movement of the army was executed with success, but on the 7th the cold
commenced. French officers and soldiers had fought bravely, and their General had led expertly.The
Russian winter, not the Russian army, had defeated him.







Electronic Arts EA 3D Atlas 1995, N.Y. New York
Grolier Incorporated Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1994 N.Y. New York
SoftKey Infopedia 2 1996 N.Y. New York
Webster New World Dictionary 1984 N.Y. New York

Scientist

Scientists and the products of their work are far from neutral.’ Rather than embodying neutrality, scientists are inextricably connected to the existing distribution of interests and power. White, male scientists over the centuries have attempted to use science as a medium for all their findings, which inevitably support their personal beliefs. In my experience, scientists are extremely intelligent, but particularly one-sided. Hearing the words scientist’ and neutral’ in the same sentence disturbs me–after all, scientists have tried to prove’ an unlimited amount of times that blacks are innately less intelligent then whites, and that women are innately weaker and possess less natural ability in math and science than men do .
Ruth Hubbard, in her essay “Science, Facts and Feminism,” explains that, “as scientists, our job is to generate facts that help people understand nature. ” Webster’s dictionary defines the word scientist as one who studies natural science. Scientists seek knowledge from Mother Nature, which David Barash views as sexist, to understand many things including the certain roles genders play in society. Similar to these science critics, I believe trying to figure out and define roles based on our biological make-up is immoral. It causes conflicts and biases that account for the separation between genders.

Hubbard argues that the ideology of woman’s nature that is invoked at these times would have us believe that a woman’s capacity to become pregnant leaves her always physically disabled in comparison with men. This ideology, supported by male scientists, has affected the roles of women in society and the workplace. It hinders women’s access to employment and influences some to believe that their place in society is at home (based on nature). Other scientists have also tried to prove that women’s disproportionate contributions to childcare and homecare are biologically programmed because women have a greater biological investment’ in children then men do. My view on this assumption is that the cause of the disproportionate contributions is psychologically, rather than biologically, determined. Fathers might be more sensitive to their children than mothers, and vice versa, proving that scientists’ point about biological investment’ is not only obscure, but also invalid. I find no neutrality in that argument, nor in most of their cases.

Scientists could be more neutral if they actually tried to provide conclusive evidence for some of their findings. Keller stated, “The net result is that scientists are probably less reflective of the tacit assumption’ that guide their reasoning than any other intellectuals of the modern age. ” Scientists will arrogantly argue a point without evidence, showing that their point was quite possibly preconceived and thus hardly gender-neutral in today’s sexist society. For instance, in the early 1900’s, scientists proclaimed that men could fly if they flapped their arms in the same fashion birds did. When the public tested this theory, they proved that scientists were wrong . Also, in the 1980 scientists asserted that only homosexuals could contract AIDS, a theory that was disproved in 1983.
Scientists are blinded by their own confidence and beliefs. In their world, everything is absolute, with no eyes monitoring society. They think that scientific language, because it is neutral, is absolute. This view helps secure borders that prevent criticism of what is believed to be objective’ science. Language, assumed to be transparent, becomes impervious. For instance, Emily Martin’s “The Egg and the Sperm” explains the gender stereotypes hidden within the scientific language of biology. The depiction of menstruation as a failure, and the femininity of the egg, while the process of making sperm is viewed as remarkable. The egg is passive and depends on the masculine sperm for rescue. This example shows biased scientific language, which is used by scientists to define gender roles in society.
Scientists not only show their biases in their language, but also their products. They define nature and the rules in society to please their well-being and beliefs. Until they become less prejudiced, humanity will continue to view them as bias individuals.

Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre Nature in Jane Eyre C

Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre Nature in Jane EyreCharlotte Bronte makes use of nature imagery throughout “Jane Eyre,” and comments on both the human relationship with the outdoors and human nature. The Oxford Reference Dictionary defines “nature” as “1. the phenomena of the physical world as a whole . . . 2. a thing’s essential qualities; a person’s or animal’s innate character . . . 4. vital force, functions, or needs.” We will see how “Jane Eyre” comments on all of these.Several natural themes run through the novel, one of which is the image of a stormy sea. After Jane saves Rochester’s life, she gives us the following metaphor of their relationship: “Till morning dawned I was tossed on a buoyant but unquiet sea . . . I thought sometimes I saw beyond its wild waters a shore . . . now and then a freshening gale, wakened by hope, bore my spirit triumphantly towards the bourne: but . . . a counteracting breeze blew off land, and continually drove me back.” The gale is all the forces that prevent Jane’s union with Rochester. Later, Bront, whether it be intentional or not, conjures up the image of a buoyant sea when Rochester says of Jane: “Your habitual expression in those days, Jane, was . . . not buoyant.” In fact, it is this buoyancy of Jane’s relationship with Rochester that keeps Jane afloat at her time of crisis in the heath: “Why do I struggle to retain a valueless life? Because I know, or believe, Mr. Rochester is living.”Another recurrent image is Bront’s treatment of Birds. We first witness Jane’s fascination when she reads Bewick’s History of British Birds as a child. She reads of “death-white realms” and “‘the solitary rocks and promontories'” of sea-fowl. We quickly see how Jane identifies with the bird. For her it is a form of escape, the idea of flying above the toils of every day life. Several times the narrator talks of feeding birds crumbs. Perhaps Bront is telling us that this idea of escape is no more than a fantasy — one cannot escape when one must return for basic sustenance. The link between Jane and birds is strengthened by the way Bront adumbrates poor nutrition at Lowood through a bird who is described as “a little hungry robin.”Bront brings the buoyant sea theme and the bird theme together in the passage describing the first painting of Jane’s that Rochester examines. This painting depicts a turbulent sea with a sunken ship, and on the mast perches a cormorant with a gold bracelet in its mouth, apparently taken from a drowning body. While the imagery is perhaps too imprecise to afford an exact interpretation, a possible explanation can be derived from the context of previous treatments of these themes. The sea is surely a metaphor for Rochester and Jane’s relationship, as we have already seen. Rochester is often described as a “dark” and dangerous man, which fits the likeness of a cormorant; it is therefore likely that Bront sees him as the sea bird. As we shall see later, Jane goes through a sort of symbolic death, so it makes sense for her to represent the drowned corpse. The gold bracelet can be the purity and innocence of the old Jane that Rochester managed to capture before she left him.Having established some of the nature themes in “Jane Eyre,” we can now look at the natural cornerstone of the novel: the passage between her flight from Thornfield and her acceptance into Morton.In leaving Thornfield, Jane has severed all her connections; she has cut through any umbilical cord. She narrates: “Not a tie holds me to human society at this moment.” After only taking a small parcel with her from Thornfield, she leaves even that in the coach she rents. Gone are all references to Rochester, or even her past life. A “sensible” heroine might have gone to find her uncle, but Jane needed to leave her old life behind.Jane is seeking a return to the womb of mother nature: “I have no relative but the universal mother, Nature: I will seek her breast and ask repose.” We see how she seeks protection as she searches for a resting place: “I struck straight into the heath; I held on to a hollow I saw deeply furrowing the brown moorside; I waded knee-deep in its dark growth; I turned with its turnings, and finding a moss-blackened granite crag in a hidden angle, I sat down under it. High banks of moor were about me; the crag protected my head: the sky was over that.” In fact, the entire countryside around Whitecross is a sort of encompassing womb: “a north-midland shire . . . ridged with mountain: this I see. There are great moors behind and on each hand of me; there are waves of mountains far beyond that deep valley at my feet.”It is the moon, part of nature, that sends Jane away from Thornfield.Jane narrates: “birds were faithful to their mates.” Seeing herself as unfaithful, Jane is seeking an existence in nature where everything is simpler. Bront was surely not aware of the large number of species of bird that practice polygamy. While this fact is intrinsically wholly irrelevant to the novel, it makes one ponder whether nature is really so simple and perfect.The concept of nature in “Jane Eyre” is reminiscent of Hegel’s view of the world: the instantiation of God. “The Lord is My Rock” is a popular Christian saying. A rock implies a sense of strength, of support. Yet a rock is also cold, inflexible, and unfeeling. The second definition listed above for “nature” mentions a thing’s “essential qualities,” and this very definition implies a sense of inflexibility. Jane’s granite crag protects her without caring; the wild cattle that she fears are also part of nature. The hard strength of a rock is the very thing that makes it inflexible. Similarly, the precipitation that makes Jane happy as she leaves Thornfield, and the rain that is the life-force of everything in the heath, is the same precipitation that led her to narrate this passage: “But my night was wretched, my rest broken: the ground was damp . . . towards morning it rained; the whole of the following day was wet.” Just like a benevolent God, nature will accept Jane no matter what: “Nature seemed to me benign and good; I thought she loved me, outcast as I was.” Praying in the heather on her knees, Jane realizes that God is great: “Sure was I of His efficiency to save what He had made: convinced I grew that neither earth should perish, nor one of the souls it treasured.”Unsurprisingly, given Bront’s strongly anti-Church of England stance, Jane realizes at some level that this reliance on God is unsubstantiated: “But next day, Want came to me, pale and bare.” Nature and God have protected her from harm, providing meager shelter, warding off bulls and hunters, and giving her enough sustenance in the form of wild berries to keep her alive. It is Jane’s “nature,” defined above as “vital force, functions, or needs,” that drives her out of the heath. In the end, it is towards humanity that she must turn.Nature is an unsatisfactory solution to Jane’s travails. It is neither kind nor unkind, just nor unjust. Nature does not care about Jane. She was attracted to the heath because it would not turn her away; it was strong enough to keep her without needing anything in return. But this isn’t enough, and Jane is forced to seek sustenance in the town. Here she encounters a different sort of nature: human nature. As the shopkeeper and others coldly turn her away, we discover that human nature is weaker than nature. However, there is one crucial advantage in human nature: it is flexible. It is St. John and his sisters that finally provide the charity Jane so desperately needs. They have bent what is established as human nature to help her.Making this claim raises the issue of the nature of St. John — has he a human nature, or is he so close to God that his nature is God-like? The answer is a bit of both. St. John is filled with the same dispassionate caring that God’s nature provided Jane in the heath: he will provide, a little, but he doesn’t really care for her. We get the feeling on the heath, as Jane stares into the vastness of space, that she is just one small part of nature, and that God will not pay attention to that level of detail. Similarly, she says of St. John: “he forgets, pitilessly, the feelings and claims of little people, in pursuing his own large views.” On the other hand, St. John exhibits definitely human characteristics, most obvious being the way he treats Jane after she refuses to marry him. He claims not to be treating her badly, but he’s lying to himself: “That night, after he had kissed his sisters, he thought proper to forget even to shake hands with me, but left the room in silence.” What is important here is that St. John is more human than God, and thus he and his sisters are able to help Jane.From the womb, Jane is reborn. She sees the future as an “awful blank: something like the world when the deluge was gone by.” She takes a new name, Jane Elliott. With a new family, new friends, and a new job, she is a new person. And the changes go deeper than that. The time she spent in the heath and the moors purged her, both physically and mentally. Jane needed to purge, to destroy the old foundations before she could build anew.It is necessary to examine these scenes of nature in the context of the early to mid nineteenth-century. This was of course the time of the Industrial Revolution, when as Robert Ferneaux Jordan put it, there was “a shift from the oolite, the lias and the sand to the coal measures. What had been the wooded hills of Yorkshire or Wales became, almost overnight, a land of squalid villages and black, roaring, crowded cities. Villages and small country markets became the Birminghams and Glasgows that we know.” They were draining the fens and the flats. For Bront, this posits the heath in “Jane Eyre” as something dated, the past more than the future. Jane therefore must leave it in order to remake herself.Another aspect of nineteenth-century England relevant to nature in “Jane Eyre” was the debate over evolution versus Creationism. Though Darwin didn’t release “On the Origin of Species” until 1859, the seeds were already being sown; indeed, there’s speculation that Charles Darwin’s grandfather adumbrated some of Charles’ theories. Lamark was the principle predecessor of Darwin in terms of evolutionary theory. Though he turned out to be completely wrong, he and others provided opposition for the Creationists of the first half of the nineteenth century. One of evolution’s principles is “survival of the fittest,” and this is exactly what happens to Jane in the heath. Her old self is not strong enough, and must die. The new Jane she is forging is a product of natural selection. In fact, Jane is echoing the victory of evolution over Creation by the fact that it is humans who save her, and not God.

Mathematics Technology Lesson Plan

NTeQ Lesson Plan
Project Title: Developing Time Management
Unit Topic: Statistics and Data Collection
Grade Level: High School (9th-12th)
Overview: Students all over the world seem to battle with time management. Many students are involved in extra-curricular activities, or they work while they attend school. Therefore, they not only have the burden of the everyday school assignments, they have several responsibilities outside of school itself. This project will allow students to communicate with students from other tellecollaborating classrooms to discuss the issue of expectations versus time and create a project on their data. This project will provide the opportunity to research topics on how our lifestyles affect our health. Another important aspect of this project is to propose ideas for why we are so constricted by time and if our time constraints have changed over the years. The project will take three weeks to complete and it will address content in mathematics, health, history, and language arts.
The students will be responsible for developing their own questions in the survey they will conduct. The surveys will need to be word processed. They will survey a variety of people asking fellow students how much time they spend various activities each day. The students will then classify the information into categories they feel are important. These categories can be discussed with the tellecollaborating classrooms for further input. Once they have collected sufficient data they will present the information on a spreadsheet through a program like Microsoft Excel. After analyzing the data the students will research the information they found through resources such as the library and/or Internet. Once the students have gained sufficient knowledge from their research they will need to develop a paper/presentation on the effects of time constraints and how it has changed through out the years. They can begin by organizing their ideas using concept map software. In displaying the data the student will have the opportunity to develop a PowerPoint presentation.


Objectives:
Students will be able to:
Collect data and present ideas that support the data.

Present the data in the form of a spreadsheet.

Analyze data to support and draw conclusions.

Classify information.

Identify ways to collect information.

Express data and interpretation of data in a presentation.

Expand their understanding of mathematics in real world settings.

Understand and interpret graphs and charts.


Benchmarks/Standards:
Patterns, Relationships and Functions
(Strand I, Standard I, and Benchmark II)
Analyze, interpret and translate among representations of patterns including tables, charts, graphs, matrices and vectors.


Patterns, Relationships and Functions
(Strand I, Standard I, Benchmark III)
Study and employ mathematical models of patterns to make inferences, predictions and decisions.


Patterns, Relationships and Functions
(Strand I, Standard I, Benchmark IV)
Use patterns and reasoning to solve problems and explore new content.


Data Analysis and Statistics
(Strand III, Standard I, Benchmark I)
Collect and explore data through observation, measurement, surveys, sampling techniques and simulations.


Data Analysis and Statistics
(Strand III, Standard I, Benchmark II)
Organize data using tables, charts, graphs, spreadsheets and data bases.


Data Analysis and Statistics
(Strand III, Standard I, Benchmark IV)
Identify what data are needed to answer a particular question or solve a given problem and design and implement strategies to obtain, organize and present those data.


Data Analysis and Statistics
(Strand III, Standard II, Benchmark III)
Use the data and their characteristics to draw and support conclusions.


Data Analysis and Statistics
(Strand III, Standard II, Benchmark V)
Formulate questions and problems and gather and interpret data to answer those questions.


Data Analysis and Statistics
(Strand III, Standard III, Benchmark III)
Formulate and communicate arguments and conclusions based on data and evaluate their arguments and those of others.


Prior Knowledge:
Students will have worked on the following mathematical skills:
Reading data from a chart, graph, and spreadsheet.

Exploring patterns and describing mathematical relationships.

Classifying information into categories and groups based on similar properties.

Formulating and supporting arguments based on statistical data.


Students will have performed the following tasks with technological devices:
Found sources of information by using a search engine via the Internet.

Exchanged and responded to email messages from teacher and fellow students.

Word processed papers.

Input data into a graphing calculator and displayed results on a graph.


New technology skills the students will acquire in this project include the following:
Develop a small computerized presentation.

Save and create different types of files.

Create graphs and charts.

Input data into an Excel spreadsheet.

Make a computer projected concept map.


Computer Functions:
LEARNING TASKCOMPUTER FUNCTIONCOMPUTER APPLICATIONDATA MANIPULATION
Computer PresentationCreate a small three-slide presentation.Microsoft PowerPoint→ Copy charts and graphs onto slides.

→ Create title slide.

→ Incorporate slide transitions.

Saving FilesLearn what the different types of files are from webpage.Internet
http://www.wiley.com/college/service/file.html
→ Save files in jpg. and PDF. formats.

→ Read info. from the given webpage.


Create graphs and charts.Take data and create a graph or chart.Microsoft Excel.→ Highlighting information wanted for chart/graph.

→ Show the various types of charts/graphs available.

→ Display information using a given graph.

→ Label axis on the chart/grid.

Continued on next page.

Input data into spreadsheet.Enter data into a spreadsheet.Microsoft Excel.→ Input data into formatted spreadsheet.

→ Label cells accordingly.

Create a concept map.Outline key concepts of their project.Inspiration Software.→ Insert ideas into concept map.


Materials:
Computer Access
Overhead Projector
Computer Programs (Excel, PowerPoint, Inspiration, Internet)
Hand-outs
Graphing Calculators
Opening Set Activity:
This lesson will begin by asking the students to think about how much time they spend through out the day on various activities. The students will then be asked to break down their day by writing the activities that consume the parts of their day (sleeping, homework, school, extra-curricular activities, video games, eating, etc.). Each student will take their data and calculate the percent of the day spent on each activity.
Check for understanding: “Can someone please tell me how to calculate a number in to a percent? What number should we divide by?”
Once they have done this the students will be divided in to groups and compare their data with fellow classmates. In groups they will discuss if the way they spend their time constitutes a healthy lifestyle. And I will raise the question if they feel time constrictions have changed over the yearsand whether or not younger generations are expected to do more? If so, what has brought about these changes? The students will have to come up with some sort of hypothesis and they will be given the chance to test the hypothesis through the project. This will serve as a great introduction to the project they are about to partake in.


Procedures:
Once the students have discussed their own personal data in their groups I will hand them a packet filled with information for their project. The directions for the assignment will be handed out in the packet with the link to the project website. I will discuss the project with the students.

Check for understanding: “Does everyone understand what is being asked of them? Ask me some questions.”
On the project website students will be able to connect with the tellecollaborating classroom as well as access an example of a similar project. The guidelines for tellecollaborating with another classroom will be clearly outlined on the project website. They will also have site information from the other classroom into their project. I will let the students know that I will be checking the correspondence among the classrooms on a regular basis and providing feedback and suggestions. The students will also be informed that the tellecollaboration part of the project is a large part of their grade, so it is important that they participate in sharing their data with the other classrooms.
During the first day, the students will discuss in their groups how they are going to collect the information from the audience they intend to survey. The student will also design and sign a contract with one another that must be approved by the teacher. Since the use of the computer is limited (only three in the classroom), the students will have to come prepared each day with a description of how they are going to use the computer each day.

Check for understanding: “Can someone please explain what it means to tellecollaborate with another classroom? Where can I go to do this? Is it important that I include this in my project?”
Outline of Computer use:
Since the use of the computers is limited and must be shared, here is an idea of how the students will be rotated through the computer stations.


Providing the fact that there are three computers in the classroom, the students will be divided into six groups. Each day three groups will be assigned to a computer, while the other three groups analyze their data and receive instruction from the teacher in regards to the new technology skills they will be acquiring. Each day at the computer the students will get the information they need and input the information into the programs that are required. This will be switched back and forth until completion of the project. So basically, they will have a planning/learning day, followed by a day on the computer.


For example:
Analysis Day (Before Computer Use)Computer Day
*Round One:-Begin to formulate questions.

-Look over the project website.

Round Two:- Decide on sample audience
– Type questions on Microsoft Word.

Round Three:-Lesson on Microsoft Excel and saving files.-Begin tellecollaboration.

-Look at webpage about saving files and answer questions.

Round Four:-Analyze data collected from survey.

– Begin to develop keywords for search.

-Think about classification of information.

– Compare data found with the data of the tellecollaborating classroom.

– Begin to discuss possible classification ideas w/tellecollaborating classroom.

Round Five:-Lesson on Inspiration-Enter data in to Excel template spreadsheet and calculate formulae.

Round Six:-Analyze spreadsheet and decide on the graphical information.

-Discuss area of research.-Graph the information.

-Begin search on chosen research aspect (lifestyle, history, etc.)
Round Seven:-Lesson on PowerPoint-Discuss research idea with tellecollaborating classroom.

Round Eight:-Discuss project idea.

-Outline key concepts.-Insert key concepts into Concept Map template.

-Discuss project with tellecollaborating classroom.

Round Nine:-Discuss presentation-Work on PowerPoint presentation.
-Save work on disk.

*Denotes that the computer time and analysis time is rotated at the half of the period, not a full class period.


Once this is complete the students will present the project to the class and evaluate their fellow group members. They will also be responsible for journaling their project experience.


Guided Practice:
Through out this project I will take the time in class to visually show them how to use Excel, PowerPoint, Inspiration, and how to save files prior to those points in their projects (the new technical skills required for this project).
Check for Understanding: I will be walking around the room during the students cooperative group work. I will be available to answer any questions the students may individually have and to assess whether or not they understand the material.

At the end of each day, a spokesperson from each group will have the responsibility of telling me what they accomplished each day. The groups will also have to write down any questions they have about the project at the end of each day and I will go over the questions with the whole class each day. This will provide additional feedback on how the project is going.

The students will be required to hand in a copy of their computer work each day they work at the computer stations. And I will be checking the tellecollaborating aspect of the project regularly to guide student discussion in case they are getting off course. The students will also have to journal their experiences, so they can express in writing what they understood and what was difficult for them to understand. These activities will all serve as a great opportunity to assess the students’ understanding and knowledge of the material.


Assessment:
I will be assessing the students through out the project by questioning and observing. The formal assessment of this project will be the completed project itself, the PowerPoint presentation. This will be graded using a rubric, making sure that the key concepts were obtained in the project. The tellecollaboration will also serve as graded assessment, as well as the peer evaluations.
Plan for Reteaching:
For the students that require additional assistance they will have the opportunity to work on practice assignments. I will give them additional worksheets that reiterate key concepts, such as converting numbers to percents, and reading information from a chart and graph. I will also have my lecture notes on the various technological skills available for them to look over. They can also access the instructions and an example on the project website for further understanding. I will also be available before and after school for any additional help that they may need.


Inclusion of Diverse Learners:
This lesson incorporates a multitude of different teaching techniques to incorporate all types of learners. There is visual material, as well as auditory directions and discussions. For those students who are better learning through social interaction, they will have the opportunity to do so in their groups. An adaptation that could be made to this activity to include a student with a visual impairment would be to make sure the room was equipped with a computer than magnified the print on the monitor. As for students with ADHD, this project allows the students to move around the classroom, and they are not confined to their desks for an extended period of time. And for the kinesthetic learners, the computer is a great hands-one activity in itself.


Implementing the Plan:
Handouts:
-notes on computer programs
-information packet describing the project
-sample questions example
-question hand-out for daily questions
-worksheets the reiterate key concepts
-sample surveys for references
-peer evaluation forms
-student contracts
Technical:
– advertise tellecollaborative project
– identify tellecollaborating schools and set up plans with teachers
– create project webpage
– bookmark internet sites
– create project folder and group folders on each computer desktop
– Software icons available on desktop
– create PowerPoint and Excel examples
– create Excel and Inspiration templates

Marie Curie: A Pioneering Physicist

Aspirations come from hopes and dreams only a dedicated person can
conjure up. They can range from passing the third grade to making the local
high school football team. Marie Curie’s aspirations, however, were much
greater.

Life in late 19th century Poland was rough. Being a female in those
days wasn’t a walk in the park either. Marie Curie is recognized in history by
the name she took in her adopted country, France. Born in Poland in 1867, she
was christened Manya Sklodowska. In the year of her birth, Poland was ruled by
the neighboring Russia; no Pole could forget it, or at least anyone involved in
education, as both Manya’s parents were. Manya’s mother was a headmistress of a
girls’ school. The Russians insisted that Polish schools teach the Russian
language and Russian history. The Poles had to teach their children their own
language and history in secrecy.

Manya enjoyed learning but her childhood was always overshadowed by
depression. At the young age of six, her father lost his job and her family
became very poor. In the same year of 1873, her mother died of tuberculosis.

As if that wasn’t enough tragedy for the family already, two of her sisters died
of typhus as well. Her oldest sister, Bronya, had to leave school early to take
care of the family. Despite all these hardships and setbacks, Manya continued
to work hard at school.

Although her sister Bronya had stopped going to school to act as the
family’s housekeeper, she desperately wanted to go on studying to become a
doctor. This was almost impossible in Poland, however. In Poland, women were
not allowed to go to college. Many Poles took the option to flee from Russian
rule and live in France; this is exactly what Bronya did.She had set her
heart on going to Paris to study at the famous Sorbonne University (The
University of Paris). The only problem now was that she had no money to get
there.

Manya and Bronya agreed to help each other attain their educations.

Manya got a job as a governess and sent her earnings to support Bronya in Paris.

Then, when Bronya could afford it, she would help Manya with her schooling and
education in return. Manya went to live in a village called Szczuki with a
family called Zorawski. Aside from teaching the two children of the family for
seven hours a day, she organized lessons for her own benefit as well. Manya
spent her evenings, late evenings, and even mornings devouring books on
mathmatics and science.

Bronya finished her studies and married a Polish doctor, Casimir Dluski.

They invited Manya to live with them in Paris while she went to college. Manya
didn’t want to leave her country and most importantly, her family. Her
eagerness for the quest of knowledge overcame her fear of the unknown,
nonetheless. She travelled to Paris in an open railroad car on a trip that
lasted three days in the Polish winter. She arrived safely to her long-since-
childhood dream, the city of Paris. Manya Sklodowska quickly became Marie.

While Marie improved her French, she stayed with Bronya and her husband.

They lived more than an hour away from the university. Marie wanted to be
nearer to her work, so she eventually ended up moving out of her sister’s home
and into a single cold damp room, eating only enough to keep her alive.

Fortunate enough for a scholarship, Marie was able to go on studying until she
had completed two courses. In her final exam-inations, she came in first in
the subject of mathematics and second in physics. By 1894, at the age of 27,
Marie had aquired not one, but two degrees from France’s top university and also
became a totally fluent speaker of the French language.

Marie had always ruled love and marriage out of her life’s program. She
was obsessed by her dreams, harassed by poverty, and overdriven by intensive
work. Nothing else counted; nothing else existed. She did, however, meet a
young man every day at Sorbonne and at the laboratory. Marie and her destiny
actually met on coincidence. Marie needed somewhere to conduct her experiments
for research ordered by the Society for the Encouragement of National Industry.

The lab at Sorbonne was too crowded with students, in addition to not having the
right equipment. A friend of hers suggested a friend’s labratory. His name was
Pierre Curie. Marie soon completed her commitment to her adopted country by
marrying this Frenchman.

Marie and Pierre Curie got married in 1895. The two of them combined
probably made up the best team of scientists ever. Pierre had made important
discoveries about magnetism. Marie decided to follow this up by looking at the
magnetic properties of steel. In the same year of their marriage, a German
scientist by the name of Wilhelm Roentgen made an accidental discovery. He
found that certain substances produced rays of energy that would pass through
soft materials as opposed to hard materials. Due to the fact that scientists
often use the symbol “x” to stand for anything unknown, he called his mysterious
discovery the “x-ray.” The x-ray was more than an ammusing puzzle. By directing
x-rays and photographic film at a solid object that consisted of both soft and
hard substances a positive image can be made of the hard substance. A prime
example would be the human body. This discovery now made it possible to look
inside the human body without performing surgery. Within the few days of the
findings, x-rays were used to locate a bullet in a man’s leg. The world of
medicine had acquired a major new tool for examining the sick and injured.

The year after Roentgen’s discovery, a French researcher and a friend of
the Curie’s, Antoine Henri Becquerel found that a rare substance called uranium
gave off rays that seemed to be very much like the x-rays that Wilhelm Roentgen
had described.

In 1897, the year of Roentgen’s discovery, Marie Curie gave birth to her
very first daughter, Irene. Despite being caught up in family life, Marie was
still determined to go on with her scientific work. She decided to follow up
Becquerel’s discovery and do special research on the study of uranium and the
rays it produced.

Elements are the raw materials of our universe. Everything is made up
of these basic substances. Scientists are able to break things down into their
various elements and tests can be made to discover its array of properties.

In the small damp labratory in the back of Sorbonne’s School of Physics
and Chemistry, Marie began a long, tedious and painstaking series of experiments
that tested every element known to man. She found that only the two elements
uranium and thorium gave off rays. “Radioactivity” was the name Marie gave to
this property. Marie soon again made another important discovery about a
mineral called alled pitch-blende, a black substance, somewhat stiff like that
of tar, which contains tiny quantities of uranium but absent of thorium.

Pitchblende gave off eight times more rays than the uranium that it contained.

It was, utilizing Marie’s new term, more radioactive. Marie figured out that
pitchblende must therefore contain another element,which was also radio-active
that no one had discovered as of yet. Pierre was so overwhelmed with this
discovery, he quit his own work to join in his wife’s research and find out more
on this new element. The Curie team decided to call it radium.

Marie realized that the new element within the pitchblende was in minute
quantities only, therefore, to isolate any respectable amount to test and
measure large portions of pitchblende were needed. To separate the radium from
the pitchblende, it would have to be heated, which purifies the substance.

While working with the pitchblende, another element was discovered which wasn’t
radioactive, therefore not radium. Marie named this element polonium, in honor
of her native homeland Poland.

Marie’s experiments were now being conducted in an abandoned wooden shed,
furnished with only old kitchen tables, a cast-iron stove and a blackboard. One
evening, in 1902, after four long years of exhausting work, Marie decided to go
back to their lab and check on the experiments they had done earlier in the day.

When Marie and Pierre got to the laboratory, they saw a “faint blue glow” in the
darkness; it was the radium.

Radium proved to be one of the world’s most important discoveries,
especially for its miraculous medical uses. Radium was measured to be two
million times more radioactive than uranium. The smallest amount of radium was
capable of giving off immense radiation. Radium is extremely powerful and,
unless used with care and in a controlled environment, very dangerous.

Unfortunately, this was not known in the days of the Curies. While working with
radioactive materials, both Pierre and Marie suffered from many illnesses and
pains. They encountered aching arms and legs, sores, colds and blisters that
never seemed to go away. They often pinned these problems to their lack of rest
due to being in the laboratory. Only later did the two connect their
improvement in health with their absense from the radium. The Curie’s great
discovery prompted scientists and doctors to work and further develop its uses.

It was found that radiation could be used to destroy unhealthy growth in the
human body, thus helping to stop cancer. Besides being able to cure, radium can
also kill. Handling and controlling the radium is the first and foremost
dilemna. The Curie’s found this out the hard way…

The discovery of radium did, however, bring the Curies something they
were proud of. In 1903, Marie Curie was awarded the degree of Doctor of Science.

At the awards ceremony, Marie showed how grateful she was by wearing a new
dress. The Curies were then showered with awards and honors from then on. That
same year, Pierre was invited to London to give a lecture on radium. In
November of that year, the Royal Society, Britain’s leading association of
scientists, presented Pierre and his wife with one of its highest awards, the
Davy Medal. Not a month later, they heard from the Academy of Sciences in
Sweden that the Nobel Prize for physics was to be awarded to the Curies along
with Henri Becquerel. Marie and Pierre felt too ill to make the jounrney to
Sweden to accept the prize in person, so Becquerel accepted the medals for them.

The Nobel Prize included a rather large sum of money… 70,000 gold francs. The
Curies accepted the money finance for their experiments. This released Pierre
from his teaching so that he could concentrate on research and to repay to
kindness and support they had received from their friends and family over the
years. They also gave gifts to poor Polish students and made a few improvements
to their small apartment.

One new comer that the Curies didn’t mind was Eve, their second daughter,
born in December in 1904. Her arrival didn’t disrupt the Curies research and
teaching, as their first child Irene had threatened. The Curie’s lust for
science still lingered.

In the year of 1905, Pierre was elected a member of the French Academy of
Sciences and became a Professor of Physics at the Sorbonne. Early in the
following year, tragedy struck. Crossing the road in a shower of rain, Pierre
stepped out from behind from a cab straight into the path of a heavy horse drawn
wagon. The driver tried to stop the wagon, but all was in vain. The weight of
his load was too great for him to stop, and the left back wheel crushed Pierred
as he lay stunned in the road. Pierre Curie died instantly.

Marie was shattered by the news of her husband’s death but soon
recovered the determination to carry on with her work. The French govern-ment
proposed to recognize Pierre’s work to the nation by granting Marie a pention
for herself and her children. She refused saying, “I am young enough to earn my
living and that of my children…”
The Sorbonne agreed with her because The Faculty of Science voted
unanimously that she should succceed Pierre as Professor. It was a unique
tribute, for she became not only the first woman professor at Sorbonne but the
first at any French university.

Marie had felt it was her duty to succeed her husband. He had always
said he would have liked to see Marie teach a class at Sorbonne. Marie at last
showed her final feeling on the matter by the way in which she gave her first
public speech lecture to a packed crowd.

In the year of 1910, four years after Pierre’s death, Marie published a
long account of her discoveries of radioactivity. This led to her being awarded
a second Nobel Prize. Not for another fifty years would anyone accomplish such
a remarkable honor. This time, Marie went to Stochholm in Sweden to accept her
prize in person. 1911 should have been a year of triumph, but it turned out to
be a awful year of anguish, however. The awarding of Marie’s second Nobel Prize
was controversal because many say it was given to her out of pity of her husband.

That same year, Marie failed by two votes to be elected to be in the Academy of
Sciences. Worse yet, some newspapers said that her close friendship with the
scientist Paul Langevin was wrong because he was a married man with four
children.

Marie received many spiteful letters and became distressed. A spell in
the nursing home and a trip to England helped her to recover. Marie’s real cure
for her problems was definitely her work. The Sorbonne at last decided to give
her what she needed to do it properly – a special institute for the study of
radium, newly-built on a road renamed in honor of her husband, “Rue Pierre
Curie.” Marie was thrilled with this new project and gave it, as her own
personal gift, the precious radium she and Pierre had prepared with their own
hands. This radium was precious in every sense. It was vital for further
scientific research. It was essential for it’s use in medicine and it was worth
more than a million gold francs.

The Radium Institution was finished on July 13, 1914. Less than a week
later, World War I broke out. Marie gave up all thought of scientific work in
her new institute and threw herself behind the cause of her adopted country.

Before dedicating herself to the war, Marie made a special trip to Bordeaux, in
western France and put the precious gram of radium away in a bank vault.

Marie donated all her money toward the war efforts including her own
personal savings in gold to be melted down. She even offered her medals, but
the bank refused them. Marie quickly saw that there was one service that she
could do for France that no one else could – organize a mass x-ray service for
the treatment of wounded soldiers. During the course of the war, Marie, along
with volunteers, equipped 20 cars as mobile x-ray units and set up more than 200
hospital rooms with x-ray equiptment. Over a million men were x-rayed, which
saved tens of thousands of lives and prevented an untold number of amputations.

Between 1916 and 1918, Marie Curie trained 150 people including 20 American
Expeditionary Force members in x-ray technology of radiology. After the war
ended, Marie continued to train radiologists for another two years.

Marie disliked reproters and kept away from journalists. One American
reporter, Mrs. Marie Melaney was persistent. Marie finally gave in to her and
agreed to an interview. The two quickly became friends. Mrs. Melaney understood
how Marie had put aside her scientific work during the war and knew that in the
whole of France there was only one gram of radium that Marie had presented to
the newly-established institute. Mrs. Melaney went back to the United States
and asked the country for a sum of $100,000 for another gram of radium for
Marie’s research. Marie was widely known and millions dutifully complied. In
1921, Marie was invited to the United States to receive her radium. After
stepping out into the public just once, the world fell in love.

She became sort of and ambassador for science, travelling to other
countries, educating as well as still receiving honors. In 1925, the Polish
government erected another radium institute, this time in her honor – The Marie
Sklodowska/Curie Institute. The President of Poland laid the first corner stone
while Marie laid the second. The women of the United States acknowledged her a
second time and collected enough money to produce yet another gram of radium to
be presented to the Polish Institute for its research and treatment program.

In may of 1934, Marie Curie was stricken to her bed due to the flu.

Being too weak to fight against the virus, she died in a sanitarium in the
French Alps. She was quietly buried on July 6, 1934 and laid to rest next to
her husband Pierre.

Marie Curie was a woman of the ages. She represented true humanity in
the pusuit of perfection. Marie found humanity’s perfection in chemistry and
her work. Loving what she did and devoting herself to the sciences is what made
her happy in the sense that true perfection was found.


Category: Science

Dead Poets Society

Dead Poets Society Hysterical Text
One person’s interpretation of a story is always different than another’s. Some of us may see things that are not being shown to us. Dead Poets Society, in author Tania Modleski’s eyes has taken on a manifestation larger than the author herself. This story is not what the author will have you believe, whereas the true story was hidden in the misconception of Modleski’s beliefs. The sexual content, homoerotic tensions, and antiauthoritarian behavior, seemed to come from the author’s wishful thinking as opposed to the reality of the film.

In the film a homosexual theme could not be seen. When Mr. Keating came to the school to teach, he did not insist on being called oh captain my captain. That phrase was used only three times in the movie, once by Mr. Keating himself. Oh captain my captain was used by two separate young men as a show of admiration and respect for Mr. Keating. In contrast Modleski sees oh captain my captain as a “pious deference to male authority”(Modleski “ Dead White Male Heterosexual Poets Society” 315) because the very authority the film pretends to be challenging.

One character that just enrolled at the school and was somewhat of a loner, and misfit, and is expected to achieve great success as his brother did before him. He is an example of how some families push one child to be exactly like another i.e. his older brother. When he first comes in contact with Mr. Keating he could not speak openly in front of a crowd. This is evident when he decides not to write a poem that is to be read in front of the class the following day. When Mr. Keating calls upon him to read and he cannot, he uses the technique of spinning him around while spewing out poetic phrases. This seems to work because he belts out some poetry from within and Mr. Keating says to him “don’t you ever forget this”, knowing that the technique had worked.

There is one character that committed suicide according to Modleski because his father would not let him play a fairy in a play. What this character was trying to show was that he had finally broken free of his father’s decisions on how, and what, he should do. He auditioned for a play and got the part all by himself, without his fathers approval. This was something that he wanted to do, and was good at it. When his father forbid him to pursue acting, even second to him being a doctor, this was all he could take. Him putting his fairy crown on the open window ledge, just before committing suicide, symbolized the freeing of the actor inside, like an offering to a higher being. The boys in Welton Boarding School share what all boys their age share while at school. There are no signs of homoerotic tensions present. There are signs of groups forming and friendships being made. When they decided to form the Dead Poets Society it was a normal male bonding experience. An all male boarding school does not mean that they are all homosexuals who are crying out for recognition. The movie did not illustrate any homosexual tension between the boys at any time in the movie.
When Mr. Keating told the boys to rip out he introduction of the book he was trying to illustrate that writing poetry was not like reading a recipe. Poetry was feeling what you are writing, and it was from the heart not the mind. You cannot just put words down on paper they have to as Mr. Keating put it “Drip off your tongue”.

Standing on the desk in a nonconforming way illustrated that when you’re up there you see things in a different way. Do not follow the same old way of doing things because it stifles creativity. Mr. Keating wanted these boys to break through of their fears, and achieve more than just what was expected of them. This boarding school was very strict and old fashioned, and Mr. Keating knew this, once being a student himself. His way of breaking out was to be in the Dead poets Society were he could make-up, and read poetry without conforming to the conservative attitude of the school. When he came to this school he knew that he was going to encourage freethinking. This is why there is no explanation for him leaving the school in England. Mr. Keating probably was dismissed from the school in England for his freethinking ways. He may travel from school to school spreading the Dead poets Society way of free expression. This is illustrated when a boy returns to his room, and finds Mr. Keating’s book of poetry lying on his desk.

When Modleski critiqued this movie, with good intentions in mind, somehow she lost her way. There are two sides to every story and these boys and Mr. Keating’s has been told. The illustrations, and aforementioned reasons, show that Dead poets society is a hysterical text. We may never know the real meaning behind this movie, but we all have our interpretations of it. There are no hidden or reclusive meanings being portrayed here, just a boarding school that suppresses freedom of thought, and creativity. This is why Mr. Keating’s character comes through loud and clear.


English Essays

The Crucible – Comparing Play and Movie

Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible, and the movie with the same name have many differences and similarities, all of which contribute to the individual effectiveness of each in conveying their central message.

There are several additions and variances in the movie. First of all, the scene where the children and Tituba are dancing in the forest is never seen in the forest; we simply learn of it from dialogue. This scene was most probably added in the movie for a dramatic effect: foreshadowing.

Along the same lines, there are many scenes included in the movie that are outdoors, however; there were no such scenes in the play. All of the action in the play was indoors. The director, in this case, was simply using the advantages of movie making. It is difficult to replicate an outdoors scene in a theatre. Also, some of the techniques used when filming outdoors create a symbolic message. A portion of the scenes before the beginning of the witchcraft trials is seen in a downpour of rain, possibly foreshadowing doom and dreariness to come.
There were some scenes added or adapted in the movie as opposed to the play. First, the large group of “stricken” girls, which indeed had a greater number than did the group in the play, left the church meeting at the beginning of the movie to see about Betty’s condition. Betty seemed to be much more violent in the movie and she tried to jump out of the window, which did not occur in the play. These details were most likely added to augment the idea of “mass hysteria.” A scene was added in the movie, showing the hangings and cheers of the crowd watching, also to add to that effect.

Next, Tituba was not whipped into confession in the play, whereas she was in the movie. This was most indefinitely added to show that the profession was typically not made willingly. One had to be forced one way or another into confessing, to save their skin or their life. Also, around the time of this scene is one where Abigail and John Proctor have a conversation. In the movie, Abigail kisses John Proctor and he throws her off of him, which did not occur in the play. This was no doubt inserted to show the audience that Abigail was oddly and obsessively lusting over the man while he was making a sincere attempt to get over her.

Another significant change is in the character portrayal. In the play, Parris seemed to be overly egocentric and self-conscious. He is still thus in the movie, but is more whiny, and annoyingly so. Putnam, also, seems to have a personality change. In the play, his personality is not so domineering as in the movie, where he is bordering on psychotic. His role seems to be made larger and more significant in the movie, which presumably accounts for the change in character representation.

Another difference is the presence of three judges in the movie, whereas in the play there were only two, both of whom where made out to be “bad guys.” One additional judge is added in the movie possibly to show that it was not the entirety of the Church that was unjust, cruel, and nearly ignorant. I wonder how much the Puritans paid the director off for that little extra.

The Proctor children were never present in the play. We know of their existence, apparently sleeping upstairs, when Elizabeth is arrested for witchcraft. They appear to cry, and hug their mommy, and make the scene extremely sentimental. Their whole purpose was to show people how devastating these witch-hunts were to families, especially children.

A scene that was added to the movie was one where Parris opened his door and found a large knife stuck in it. This is to show how much Parris was despised in the community.

In the section of the movie where Mary Warren goes to confess that she has “seen no spirits,” there are a few changes. First of all, the girls never came after Mary in the play, while, on the contrary, they did in the play. This is simple foreshadowing, showing that further on the girls will unite against Mary. Next, the girls never ran into the water after the bird scene, obviously because there were no outdoor scenes in the play. I believe the purpose of their running into the ocean was that the girls needed to cleanse themselves of the evil spirits. The accusation of John Proctor practicing witchcraft comes when he is standing in the water to his mid-thigh, possibly meaning that, although he has sinned less than some, he still needs to be baptized (in a sense) completely to be free of his misdoings.

The final three differences all have to do with Abigail. First of all, she is seen stealing money from her uncle where in the play we only hear of it second-hand. Second, in the movie, Abigail visits John Proctor in jail, which never occurred in the play. Lastly, Abigail accuses the Reverend John Hale’s wife of witchcraft, and is told by Judge Danforth that she is mistaken. This did not happen in the play, but helps in the movie to more clearly define Abigail as one of the “bad guys” in the movie.

Personally speaking, I prefer the movie to the play. Granted, the play may have deep, underlying meanings, but to me, it wasn’t very moving or emotional. The additions made in the movie help to more clearly define the roles of good and evil, and play on the hidden feelings people have. I think most of the additions, if not all, were appropriately made and were quite successful. I enjoyed both the movie and our reading of the play very much, but again, I would have to say that I prefer the movie.

Mr. Smith Goes To Washington

Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Mr. Smith was too naive to survive as a senator during the time the movie Mr. Smith Goes to Washington took place. Mr. Smiths naivet was most evident in his ambitious proposal to start a national boys camp. However, when false allegations regarding Mr. Smiths motives for starting the camp surfaced, Smith was too idealistic to defend himself from the political machine that accused him of acting in self-interest. Making matters worse, Senator Smith was a genuinely honest and simple-minded man, making it difficult for him to survive among his scheming colleagues.
Senator Smith clearly demonstrated his lack of government experience and overall ignorance of the Senates character when he ambitiously struggled to create a national boys camp. When Smith asked his secretary, Clarissa Saunders, to help him assemble the bill aimed at forming a boys camp, Saunders explained that the bill was very unlikely to be successful in the Senate and tried to discourage Smith from proceeding on the bill.


However, Senator Smith was determined to introduce his bill despite the grim prospects of its ratification, and refused to step back and take a passive role in the Senate. Historically, however, Senators in Smiths time and position would not have taken on such an ambitious project as a new Senator.
In fact, most new Senators would have relied on the opinions of the older and more experienced Senators to help them make their voting decisions. This was evident when Senator Paine told Senator Smith that he would tell Smith how he should vote on any given bill. This docility and willingness to vote according to the older Senators was most likely caused by the new Senators fear of the political bosses. Mr. Smith, however, was sheltered from knowing that the political bosses even existed and, as a result, was not afraid to stand up for his beliefs. Mr. Taylor, a typical political boss of Smiths time, had extreme power in his state and was able to tilt the public opinion of Senator Smith. He did this through his control of the state media and connections within the government. Taylor concocted evidence with the help of his government connections alleging that Smith owned the property intended for the boys camp and was only promoting the camp bill so that he could sell his own property to the government at a high price. Taylor then publicized these false accusations against Smith in the newspapers that he controlled, thus persuading public opinion and ultimately causing Smith to be accused of wrongdoing by a Senate committee. Throughout this entire entourage, Smith was too inexperienced and naive to stand up against Taylors political machine and resorted instead to crying at the Lincoln Memorial. Smith only returned to the Senate after Saunders convinced him that he should fight for his rights. This situation ultimately proved once again that Senator Smith was too naive to be an effective Senator. Smith did not realize that the other Senators were inclined to believe the accusations against his character, and therefore, Smith was not compelled to defend himself at the Senate hearing against the false accusations created by Taylors machine. Smith assumed the fact that he did not own the property planned for the boys camp would be made known to the other Senators in time, and that the other Senators would be honest enough to absolve Smith of guilt. However, Smiths hopes were in vain and he was ultimately forced to initiate a 24-hour filibuster to convince the Senate of his innocence. Smith proved that he was too naive to be an effective Senator when he innocently proposed the bill for a national boys camp. He did not realize that his participation in the Senate would ultimately lead the Taylor machine to attack his character with severe repercussions. Smith then demonstrated once again that he was too inexperienced to be a Senator when he assumed the other Senators would be honest in judging his character and that, as a result, it was unnecessary for Smith to defend himself in the Senate committee. Senator Smith was too naive to realistically serve as a Senator during the time Mr. Smith Goes to Washington was filmed.

Words
/ Pages : 700 / 24

Our World In Medicine

Our World In Medicine
One of the most important factors about people’s lives is the
information of, the use of, and the growing knowledge of medicine. Medicine is
a science that nations all over the world use. It is a science because it is
based on knowledge gained through careful study and experimentation. Medicine
is also an art form because it depends on how skillfully doctors and other
medical workers apply their knowledge when dealing with patients.1
Medicine is one of the most respected professions. The two important
goals of medicine are to save lives and to relieve suffering, which is why it is
so respected. But the medical field is not open to anyone who wants to help.

It takes many long years of college and medical school to get even a license to
work with medicine.2While some doctors are more important than others, almost
all of them are on call twenty – four hour a day, seven days a week. Because
they have to apply themselves to their job at all times, they are payed at very
good wages.

Human beings have been suffering from disease since they first appeared
on the earth about two and one -half million years ago. Throughout most of this
time, they knew little about how the human body works or what causes disease.

But medicine has gone through many stages throughout history.

In prehistoric times, people believed that angry gods or evil spirits
caused disease. To cure the sick, the gods had to be pacified or the evil
spirits driven from the body. In time, this task became the job of the first
“physicians”.3The first – known surgical treatment was an operation called
trephining. Trephining involved use of a stone instrument to cut a hole in a
patient’s skull. Scientists have found fossils of such skulls that date back as
far as 10,000 years.

Prehistoric people probably also discovered that many plants can be used
as drugs. For example, the use of willow bark to relieve pain probably dates
back thousands of years.4Today, scientists know that willow bark contains the
important ingredients that is included in making aspirin.

In the Middle East, the Egyptians began making important medical
progress. Around 2500 B.C., Egyptian physicians began to specialize. Some
physicians treated only diseases of the eyes or teeth. Others specialized in
internal diseases. Egyptian surgeons produced a textbook that told how to treat
dislocated or fractured bones and as well as tumors, ulcers, and wounds.5
The civilization of ancient Greece was at its peak during the 400’s B.C.

Throughout this period, sick people flocked to temples dedicated to the Greek
god of healing, Asclepius, seeking magical cures.6 But at the same time, the
great Greek physician Hippocrates began showing that disease has only natural
causes. He thus became the first physician known to consider medicine a science
and art separate from the practice of religion. The Hippocratic oath, an
expression of early medical ethics, reflects Hippocrates’ high ideals.7
The Greek physician Galen made the most important contributions to
medicine in Roman times. Galen performed experiments on animals and used his
findings to develop the first medical theories based on scientific experiments.

For this reason, he is considered the founder of experimental medicine. But
because his knowledge of anatomy was based on animal experiments, Galen
developed many false notions about how the human body works.8
During the Middle Ages, which lasted from the A.D. 400’s to the 1500’s,
the Muslim Empire of Southwest and Central Asia contributed greatly to medicine.

Rhazes, a Persian – born physician of the late 800’s and early 900’s, wrote the
first accurate descriptions of measles and smallpox. Avicenna, an Arab
physician of the late 900’s and early 1000’s, produced a medical encyclopedia
called Canon of Medicine. It summed up the medical knowledge of the time and
accurately described many known diseases. Avicenna’s work became popular in
Europe, where it influenced medical education for more than 600 years.9
The chief medical advances during the Middle Ages were the founding of
many hospitals and the first university medical schools. In the 900’s, a
medical school was started in Salerno, Italy. It became the chief center of
medical learning in Europe during the 1000’s and 1100’s. Other important
medical schools developed after 1100. During the 1100’s and 1200’s, many of
these schools became part of newly developing universities.10
A new scientific spirit developed during the Renaissance, 1300’s to the
1600’s. The laws against human dissection were totally relaxed during this
period. As a result, the first truly scientific studies of the human body
began.11A French army doctor named Ambroise Par improved surgical techniques
to such an extent that he is considered the father of modern surgery. For
example, instead of burning a wound to prevent infection, he developed the much
more effective method of applying ointment and then allowing the wound to heal
naturally.12
The scientific study of disease, called pathology, was developed during
the 1800’s. Rudolf Virchow, a German physician and scientist, led the
development. Virchow believed that the only way to understand the nature of
disease was by close examination of the affected body cells. He did important
research in such diseases as leukemia and tuberculosis.13 Pasteur, a
brilliant French chemist, proved that microbes are living organisms and that
certain kinds of microbes cause disease. He also proved that killing specific
microbes stops the spread of specific diseases. Koch, a German physician,
invented a method for determining which bacteria cause particular diseases.

Other research scientists followed the lead of these two pioneers.

Pasteur’s early work on bacteria convinced an English surgeon named
Joseph Lister that germs caused many of the deaths of surgical patients. In
1865, Lister began using carbolic acid, a powerful disinfectant, to sterilize
surgical wounds. But this method was replaced by a more efficient technique
known as aseptic surgery. This technique involved keeping germs away from
surgical wounds in the first place instead of trying to kill germs already
there.14
Advances in many fields of science and engineering have created a
medical revolution in the 1900’s. For example, the discovery of X-rays by the
German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen enabled doctors to see inside the human body
to diagnose illnesses and injuries. The discovery of radium in 1898 provided a
powerful weapon against cancer.15
The development of new vaccines has helped control the spread of such
infectious diseases as polio, hepatitis, and measles. During the 1960’s and
1970’s, the World Health Organization conducted a vaccination program that
eliminated smallpox from the world.

Much progress in modern medicine has resulted from engineering advances.

Engineers have developed a variety of instruments and machines to aid doctors in
the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders. Some of
these devices have helped surgeons develop amazing new lifesaving techniques,
especially in the fields of heart surgery and tissue transplants.16
Throughout many, many centuries, medicine has been used in hundreds of
different forms. But the main goal of every different form was the same, to
help the diseased and unhealthy. Every passing day, another scientist or doctor
discovers another breakthrough in science and medicine. In years to come, we
will have cures to incurable diseases, and people will be living ten to twenty
years longer then they are today. Medicine provides us with the needs and hopes
for the future, as our technology makes the path for us to follow.
Science

x

Hi!
I'm Camille!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out