Aircraft Simulators

A simulated flight environment for pilot training may soon
be made more realistic through the use of eye-tracking
technology developed by researchers at the University of
Toronto’s Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IMBE).


Many safety and cost benefits are obtained by training
aircraft pilots under simulated conditions, but to be effective
the simulation must be convicingly realistic. At present, th e
training facilities use large domes and gimballed projectors, or
an array of video screens, to display computer-generated images.


But these installations are very expensive and image resolution
is low. Further, it would take an enormous amount of addi to
improve image quality significantly throughout the whole viewed
scene.


However, based on the visual properties of the eye,
realism can be obtained by providing a high-resolution ‘area of
interest’ insert within a large, low-resolution field of view.


If the image-generating computer ‘knows’ where the pilot’s
fixation is, it mage there.


The technology to make this possible was developed by a
research team headed by Professor Richard Frecker and Professor
Moshe Eizenman. The work was carried out in collaboration with
CAE Electronics Ltd. of Montreal with financial support from the
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


Their eye-tracker can record and analyze accurately up to
500 eye positions per second. The system works by means of
capturing and processing the reflections of a low-level beam o f
invisible infra-red light shone onto the eye.


Multi-element arrays capture the image of the eye and
digitize the information, which is then processed in real time
by a fast, dedicated signal processing unit. The difference in
position between the ligh tre of the pupil reveals the
instantaneous direction of gaze.


Developments by the IBME team have significantly increased
the speed of signal processing in addition to enhancing accuracy
of eye position estimates. Eizenman believes that “these
improvements make our eye-tracker very effective in monitoring
the large G-force environment where the pilot tends to make
larger eye movements because of contraints which exist on
movements of his head”.


In a new generation of aircraft simulators, under
development by CAE Electronics Ltd. of Montreal, a head tracker
which tells the direction of the pilot’s head is mounted on top
of the helmet. The eye tracker is mounted on the front of the
helmet, and is ll exactly where the pilot’s eye is fixating.


Frecker said that “successful integration of our eye
tracker into the novel helmet-mounted CAE flight simulator would
result in a new generation of simulators that would likely
replace the current large domes and cumbersome video display
units.”
Initial tests of the integrated system will be carried out
in collaboration with CAE Electronics at Williams Air Force Base
in Arizona later this year.

Elements in Road not taken

Robert Frost’s Poetic Techniques Uniquely Used in “The Road Not Taken”
Robert Frost utilizes several poetic techniques to reveal the theme in his poem, “The Road Not Taken”, which is stressing the importance the decision making of one is, regardless of whether or not it is agreement with the resolution of their peers, and how it can affect their future. The techniques exercised in this piece of work are symbolism, imagery, and tone. Symbolism is the most powerfully used technique due to the fact a good number of lines located in this poem is used to signify a certain object or idea related to our life or today’s world. Imagery is significant in drawing out the theme for the reason that it allows the reader to construct a depiction in their mind, permitting them to relate more to the poem and interpret the theme their own way. In this poem, imagery permits the reader to imagine the scene that this poem takes place in resulting in an enhanced understanding of the theme. The tone this work presents is an insecure attitude which allows the theme to be brought out due to the fact the theme relates to a dilemma in one’s life. As seen by the reader, these techniques strongly aid in the revealing of this specific theme. The first technique Frost utilizes to uncover the theme is the strongest method, symbolism.

Exploiting symbolism is used by containing objects in the poem that represent an article of something relevant in the reader’s life; therefore, assisting in the presentation of the theme. The primarily symbolized object in this poem is the fork in the road, which is the basis of the theme. “Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, /And sorry I could not travel both / And be one traveler, long I stood / And looked down one as far as I could / To where it bent in the undergrowth” (Frost.1-5). Symbolically speaking, Robert Frost does a proficient job of transforming a seemingly common road to one of great importance, representing a decision that could lead one in two separate directions. The resolution the traveler comes upon may possibly affect his or her life; therefore, stressing the importance of decision making. The following symbolic element is the quality of the courses the voyager encounters. The earlier path is worn down

The Dirty South

The Dirty South
During the times of the Civil Rights Movement the black communities of Birmingham, Alabama suffered severely due to the notorious acts of racism geared towards them simply because they were black. They boldly endured beatings, lynching, bombings, and demeaning treatment from the white community and especially from the Clan. The September 15, 1963 racially motivated bombing of the Birmingham’s Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, which resulted in the deaths of four innocent black girls, was one of the darkest moments of the Civil Rights Movement and perhaps one of the darkest days in Birmingham, Alabama’s history. Betty Blackman was born and raised in Birmingham. Her life was engulfed by the racism and left her with dramatically scaring memories of Birmingham.
I grew up in the city of Birmingham, Alabama. I was born there December 11, 1947. Most of the memories I have of growing up there are the most painful memories that I have, which is strong racism and living in every day fright. I remember not being able to drink out of the cleaner water fountains around town; they were for the white people. The water fountains that were available to us were few, far between and very filthy. The black people were treated like dogs in Birmingham. I remember having to enter of the all stores and restaurants in town through the back entrances. One place I remember so vividly was a restaurant called Stadium Grill. We ordered food there every week while we were doing the wash across the street at the Laundromat. We enter in the back door into a very tiny poorly lit room. There were no tables or chairs for us to sit and eat there, it wasn’t allowed. There was only a small window to which we placed our orders and left. The front of the restaurant was large; it had tables with real cloth coverings and beautiful flowers sitting in the middle of the tables. I never once stepped foot inside the front of that restaurant. The way our communities were much different than they are now. Black people were not allowed to live among the white people. The white people lived in big lavish homes on the far east side of town and the blacks lived on the west side of town in small run down homes. There was, however, one subdivision that the wealthier black families lived. The name of it was the Goldwire Area and even now it never compares to the homes in which the poverty stricken families live now. The other less fortunate blacks lived in run down shack like homes farther west of town.

I was sixteen years old when the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church took place. I remember it so well, because it was such a traumatic time and we tend to remember traumatic times more than the less traumatic. I remember sitting in a chair in our kitchen getting my hair pressed when my family got the news. The smell of freshly pressed hair takes my mind back to those times. My parents got a phone call and I remember hearing my mother scream the most horrible scream I’d ever heard. She was weeping very hard when she told my siblings and me about it. I can still see the pain of that memory in her eyes today. A few days later, I heard some other adults around our neighborhood talking about it. They were saying this explosion wasn’t very loud but it had a tremendous impact on the church. The bombings had become a way of life for us and well as the harassment from the Clan. Someone’s house was bombed almost every week, but until this point in time no one was killed. I remember an incident when the Clan set off a small bomb in the center of the black neighborhood. The plan was to draw a crowd, set off a much larger bomb, and kill a large majority of black people. Their plans were intervened by the FBI. They found the bomb, but I don’t remember anyone being charged with anything because of it. When I found out about the girls being killed, my heart went out to them and their families. Although, I didn’t know any of the girls personally, I did know one of the girls father, Mr. Chris Mc Nair. Mr. Mc Nair was a prominent black photographer in Birmingham. He took all of the school photos, wedding portraits, and all of the family portraits in the black community. Before the explosion and the death of his daughter, Mr. Mc Nair was a cheerful, happy, calm man, but even years later he was a cold, unconcerned and just an impatient man. This was the case among most of the black people in Birmingham after the bombing. We didn’t have much, but we did take pride in family and our community.
After the bombing, the town went pretty much back to normal to a certain degree. I can say, however, that there was a stronger sense of fear in the black community and a stronger sense of resolve, because these kinds of tragedies had to be stopped. So, the bombing in a sense caused our community to pull together more and push harder to make the change. More black people than before began to participate in the Civil Rights movement. More of them showed up for the marches and more people attended the meetings. Most of all, people had more respect for the ministers that participated in the movement at Birmingham. They realized that any minister that participated life was literally in danger because they had such a big influence on the black community. Really, I think more people were also participating more because the lives that were lost were so innocent and precious, and it was in their own back yards. The children killed in that church could have been their own and because of these facts a change had to be made. I remember my mother saying that she believed that the bombing was geared at the church because Reverend Shadowsworth was a big supporter of the movement. Reverend Shadowsworth was the minister residing over the church at that time and he supported and participated in much of the movement. He and his wife had been beaten several times by the Clan and their house had been bombed more than once. I just couldn’t understand what black people had done that was so awful to be treated this way.
Lately, I’ve been thinking about the racism and all of the bombings in Birmingham. I compare the terrorism we endured then to the terrorism the United States is enduring now. Then, we were living in constant fear for our lives and the lives of our loved ones. Now, the whole country is living that way today. It’s funny how the Old South was always called the “Bible Belt,” when nothing was ran according to the teachings of the Bible. I often think of what my great aunt used to say, “The white folks threw the rock and now they are trying to hide their hands.”
I am fifty-six now and I have two children of my own. I couldn’t imagine them having to live in the conditions that we were forced to live. I am proud of the men and women that gave their sweat, blood, and lives to get us where we are today and I thank them for it everyday. I think mostly about those times around the month of February, because it is dedicated to black history and Birmingham has a lot of black history. I am a better person today than I was years ago in Birmingham. It took me a long while to get from that bitter place that I was in. I actually hated white people, because of the tragedies we witnessed and endured in Birmingham. Back then, I never could understand why Dr. King always preached for non-violence, while unnecessary violence was displayed on us on a daily basis, but now through the grace of God I understand. Nothing positive comes out of violence and because I had found the Lord, I know that vengeance is His. For these two reasons, I no longer feel hate toward any white person or my life in Birmingham. I can move along with my life and have love for all.

John steinbeck

John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck was a famous American author who wrote from the 1920 to the 1940. Steinbeck was constantly moving across the country trying to succeed as a writer. John Steinbeck lived a life of constant up and downs, successes and failures before he landed on his feet and became a famous author.
John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California on February 27, 1902. He was the only son and the third child of John Ernst Steinbeck and Olive Hamilton. Steinbeck’s father owned comfortable Victorian house in Salinas. John’s father managed the Sperry Flour Mill. Things were pretty good for the Steinbeck, they were settled in a nice home they did not have to many financial problems, but then economic difficulties forced John’s father dismissal from the mill. Steinbeck’s father deiced to open a feed and grain store and go into business himself. The store struggled to survive and eventually failed completely. A close friend of John’s father got him a job as an account for the Spreckles Sugar Company. “Although he had a job, John’s father was extremely devastated by the lose of his business”(Stephen)
“Encouraged by his parents John began to develop a love literature”(Morrow). At his ninth birthday John received a copy of the book Morte d’Arthur. This was the first book John ever owned. He later said it was a great influence upon his life. During his years at Salinas High School, John excelled in English. At the end of his Freshman year in High School John had determined that he wanted to become a writer.

At the end of his Senior year John applied to Stanford University and was accepted as an English major. Coming of his success in high school John felt very confidante that he would succeed. To pay for his education John went to school half a year and worked the other half. John found college boring and felt that he was a “writer in training”(Ito, 14) not a college student. After six years of struggling to pass John left Stanford in 1925. “John was far from confidant about his future”(Harmon, 56) so he packed his few belongings and headed to a resort near Lake Tahoe.
One of John friends found him a job at Lake Tahoe in June of 1925. His plan was to make enough money to become a freelance writer in New York City.Low on funds John signed on as a working berth on a freighter headed to New York is November of 1925. When he arrived in New York John got a job as a newspaper cub reporter. He finally seemed to a secure job and things seemed alright. After a couple of months working as a reported John realized that he did not fit this kind of job. “Due to his lack of experience John was never given a chance to show his talent and he was given unimportant assignments with no value”(Morrow 75).Numerous times he failed to show up at work and was soon after fired.

Barely scraping by John wrote a collection of short stories. He went to two publishing companies and he was shot down by both. One explained that they would not publish an unknown writer, they other refused to publish short stories. Heart-broken and broke John got a job as a waiter on a California bound freighter and headed back to his old job at Lake Tahoe.

To just make things a little harder for John when he arrived at his old job, winter was close behind and he got snowed in for eight months. He took advantage of this time and wrote A Cup of Gold, a biography of the pirate Henry Morgan. A publishing company called McBride and Company agreed to publish A Cup of Gold and the book was on shelves in the autumn of 1929. Then in 1930 John married Carol Henning. To add on to John’s good luck streak one of his books The Pastures of Heaven was published in 1932. In 1933 To a God Unknown and two parts of The Red Pony were published. John finally seemed to be on his feet. In 1934 John won the O. Henry prize for his short story “The Murderer”, but that prize came at a price. John’s mother Olive Steinbeck died from paralysis. After grieving the lose of his mother, John had to continue on and trying and get over this one of many hurdles in his life.
Pascal Covici, who worked for McIntosh & Otis contracted John to publish Tortilla Flat threw his company. Tortilla Flat was published in 1935 and “was destined to become John’s first commercial success and literary classic”(Ito, 33). The book was an immediate success for John, but once again there was a dark side to John’s success, his father John Ernest Steinbeck died. “Steinbeck resolved that he would never abandon the pursuit of his own professional destiny as a writer”(Ito, 35).
“The success of Tortilla Flat had gained him national renown”(Pastori).
John had finally gotten the respect and recognition the he deserved. In 1937 Of Mice and Men was published and was chosen by the Book-of-the-Month club. Continuing with John’s success The Grapes of Wraith was published in 1939. This book was and still is considered to be one of the best books written. John gained extreme fame from this novel. “This novel is still effecting generations today”(Ito, 49)
John Steinbeck lived through some tough times of ups and downs. Whenever things seemed to be going right for him, everything turned around. John had to jump many hurdles to finally make his life long dream come true, become a writer. After many years of hardships John landed on his feet and made it as a famous author.

Hamlet10

When was Hamlet written and who was the ruler of England?
1600-1601 The king of England was James I, who was a great supporter of theater. In fact he patented the Chamberlains in 1603, and the company renamed itself The Kings Men.

Who was the ghost? What does it tell Hamlet and how does he respond?
The ghost was the King Hamlet, elder brother to Claudius who named himself King after King Hamlets death. The ghost told the tail of his murder. He explained to Hamlet that it was his uncle that pored poison into the king’s ear. It was also Claudius that seduced his mother Gertrude.

Why is (what makes) Hamlet a tragic figure and Hamlet a tragedy?
Traditional tragedy generally deals with extraordinary people i.e. Kings and Queens Princes and Princesses. When Hamlet wants nothing ells in life but too seek revenge for his father’s death which robbed him of his birthright. We find a Price trying to kill a King. When the hero Hamlet accomplishes his task all the royalty dies even our hero.
Discuss the characters of Hamlet, Horatio and, Laertes.

Hamlet – Manic depressive. He loathes himself and awaits his fate. He is so evil and merciless, yet so loved by the people. A truly complex character one that you could truly relate to almost as you could a close friend. When I imagine putting a person of this nature into a that position. All I can think about is all the controversy. For I am not one that seeks revenge but have had the craving to inflict my pain back on to it’s source many of times. So I do understand where he is coming from but don’t always agree with his actions. I believe that Hamlet has some of the same feelings about himself. Take his hatred for his mother because she married Claudius. Yet a part of his mission was to protect his mother.
Horatio – Is a commoner and a true friend to Hamlet, also the only person Hamlet really trusts. He isn’t a stupid man, in fact he follows Hamlet’s word play very well. He also aids and agrees with most of Hamlet’s actions. He is the only person Hamlet could trust in tell the truth about the slaying of his father and clearing his name. Because of this Hamlet would remain the people’s hero.

Laertes – He and Hamlet grew up together. Not being as well spoken as the Prince forced him to be more physical. His father was the aid to the king, his sister was the love of Hamlet. I believe that Laertes inspired to be like Hamlet but could never seem to make the grade. If I wanted to know what it was like in Hamlet’s shadow Laertes is the one I would ask.

If you were to produce or direct Hamlet, why might you, or might you not update the language to make it more “accessible” or “relevant” or “hip” ?
I if I was going to reproduce the picture I would redo the language in order to make it easier to read. I think people are turned off by Shakespeare’s works because the language is so hard to read. I know I am very interested in his works but resist because it is so hard for me to understand what is being said. I think the language also has it’s benefits as well. The old English helps set the stage giving the audience an great feel for the times.
Arthur Miller’s theory about tragedy for the common man says that… “I think the tragic feeling is evoked in us when we are in the presence of a character who is ready to lay down his life, if need be, to secure one thing – his sense of personal dignity.” I say this would describe Prince Hamlet’s feelings when he was on his quest. If a common man could feel as Hamlet did and take similar action, what would you call it but tragedy? Tradition says that tragedy deals with kings and queens but in this day and age we run short of kings and queens. Do you not think it’s tragic that in some communities in the United States if you wear the wrong color you could be shot and killed in an effort to protect the sanctuary of your killer’s turf.


Bibliography:

Braham Stoker’s Dracula Dracula Essays

Free Essay on Dracula

In the novel Dracula there are many qualities that are necessary for success. Firstly determination is a key factor to succeeding; secondly revenge is a factor in succeeding; furthermore fearlessness plays a big role when they go to kill Lucy; lastly intelligence is needed to make all the plans.

When Jonathan Harker get captured by Dracula he is afraid, but he is also determined to get free. “I can not say in this room much longer for I shall die,” he said. A small crack of light appeared through the stones. “I pushed the stone with all my might but it only move, I found a carving utensil which I used to make the hole bigger” said Jonathon. “The hole got bigger and bigger then the stone just fell out.” When Jonathan Harker and the rest of the people go to hunt Dracula they are determined to kill him because they do not want Dracula to kill anyone else. In order to kill Dracula they must plunge a stake through it’s heart, cut off it’s head, and stuff it’s mouth with garlic. They use silver knives to kill him just as the sun sets. “Get him before he flees” said Jonathan, “he must not get away.” Arthur proceeds with the stake cautiously. “I got him” yelled Arthur. Abraham shoves a clove of garlic in the Count’s mouth. “get him before he tries to get away.” Jonathan and Quincey, use silver knives to cut off his head. “We have finally done it we killed Dracula” said Quincey. Jonathon was determined to escape. Arthur, Abraham, Jonathan, and Quincey are determined to kill Dracula.

In order to get out of the Count’s castle Jonathan thinks of three things survival, escaping and kill the Count for trapping him in the castle. “I can’t die I have to get out, I have to end his rain of terror, he can`t get away with what he did to me” said Jonathan. This shows that Jonathan Harker wanted to kill Dracula through revenge, but he also killed him so Dracula would not kill anyone else.

When Van Helsing, Holmwood, Seward, and Quincey Morris go to kill Lucy they must be fearless of the un-dead. Van Helsing leads Holmwood, Seward, and Quincey Morris go on there search to kill Lucy. “We have to go kill her there is no other way” said Van Helsing Therefore they must be fearless to go and kill vampire.

Jonathan Harker was an intelligent man so was Arthur, Abraham, and Quincey. If they were not intelligent they would not have come up with plans to kill Dracula, and Jonathan would not have escaped from his castle. Therefore if these men were not smart Jonathan would not have escaped and the rest of the story would not have happened .

In conclusion there are many qualities that are necessary for success such as, determination, revenge, and intelligence if the qualities did not exist the story would not have gone anywhere.

Catcher In The Rye

The Catcher in the Rye is narrated by Holden Caulfield, a sixteen year-old boy
recuperating in a rest home from a nervous breakdown, some time in 1950. Holden
tells the story of his last day at a school called Pencey Prep, and of his
subsequent psychological meltdown in New York City. Holden has been expelled
from Pencey for academic failure, and after an unpleasant evening with his
self-satisfied roommate Stradlater and their pimply next-door neighbor Ackley,
he decides to leave Pencey for good and spend a few days alone in New York City
before returning to his parents’ Manhattan apartment. In New York, he succumbs
to increasing feelings of loneliness and desperation brought on by the hypocrisy
and ugliness of the adult world; he feels increasingly tormented by the memory
of his younger brother Allie’s death, and his life is complicated by his
burgeoning sexuality. He wants to see his sister Phoebe and his old girlfriend
Jane Gallagher, but instead he spends his time with Sally Hayes, a shallow
socialite Holden’s age, and Carl Luce, a pretentious Columbia student Holden
treats as a source of sexual knowledge Increasingly lonely, Holden finally
decides to sneak back to his parents’ apartment to talk to Phoebe. He borrows
some money from her, then goes to stay with his former English teacher, Mr.


Antolini. When he believes Mr. Antolini to be making a homosexual advance toward
him, Holden leaves his apartment, and spends the rest of the night on a bench in
Grand Central Station. The next day Holden experiences the worst phase of his
nervous breakdown. He wanders the streets, looking at children and talking to
Allie. He tries to leave New York forever and hitchhike west, but when Phoebe
insists on going with him he relents, agreeing to go back home to protect his
sister from the ugliness of the world. He takes her to the park, and watches her
ride on the merry-go-round; he suddenly feels overwhelmed by an inexplicable,
intense happiness. Holden concludes his story by refusing to talk about what
happened after that, but he fills in the most important details: he went home,
was sent to the rest home, and will attend a new school next year. He regrets
telling his story to so many people; talking about it, he says, makes him miss
everyone.

Domus Aurea, Golden House Of N

The Domus Aurea, Golden House of Nero
In AD 64, Nero set fire to the city of Rome.The exact reasons he did it are not fully known. It is thought that he partly did for poetic or artistic purposes, or for the purpose of clearing away a city that had currently dissatisfied him. In its place however he did rebuild a better Rome, for the most part that is. A large portion, and arguably too large of a portion, was expropriated for the use of his own residence to be called the Domus Aurea. This is translated: The Golden House, and so, the residence is called: The Golden House of Nero. While the Domus Aurea had rather unjustified reasoning behind it, it is one of the greatest architectural achievements of the ancient world.
Neros residence before his Golden House, was the Domus Transitoria. This was by now means any small living space. It was considered to be a mansion in itself. This palace linked to the Imperial Gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline hill. It also spanned up the Velian slope beside the Forum (Grant 164). However this structure was not destroyed in the fire of 64. However it did clear out a valley behind it making room for Neros future house. Promptly after the fire construction was begun on Neros Golden House. It would continue until AD 68 (Wheeler 142).In fact the Domus Transitoria would soon become part of the new Domus Aurea.

The architects of this great project were more engineers than they were architects. Their names were Severus and Celer (Picard 116). They were more like Italian bosses heading up a team of technicians who came to Rome in hordes due to their recent fire. However, these engineers main goal was to make the estate look bigger and be bigger without actually expanding. They accomplished by working on it from the inside out, utilizing paintings on walls that gave the impression of going on for infinity.

It is an under statement to refer to these buildings as houses at all though. They were clearly much more than this, in even their smallest proportions. The Domus Aurea itself was a series of buildings and landscapes designed to give the impression of a vast park in a relatively small area for such a thing (Picard 116). The idea behind this was that you would create something more beautiful for the beholder if your creation was beautiful for how you used the earth. For example, there was a large lake in the center of the Domus Aurea, and around it were situated villas and other buildings to go beyond the beauty of precious things, but to attain the beauty that only nature can give. Suetonius commented on the Domus Aurea saying:
An enormous pool, more like a sea than pool, was surrounded by buildings made to resemble cities, and by a landscape garden consisting of ploughed fields, vineyards, pastures, and woodlands- where a variety of domestic and wild animals roamed about (Grant 170).


The Domus Aurea took up about two- hundred and ninety to three hundred and forty acres (Maso 52). Never before had or would any monarch ever take such a large piece of the central city, for his own personal living quarters. As you can imagine, this made for a very restless people because the portion of Rome the site took up was heavily populated. For this the citizens of Rome came up with nasty verses like this:
The Palace is spreading and swallowing Rome!
Let us all flee to Veii and make it our home.
Yet the palace is growing so damnably fast,
That it threatens to gobble up Veii at last.


The building of this large and spacious building was one of the first clues to the Romans that the burning of Rome was not actually the Christians fault.

The Domus Transitoria had now become the entryway or vestibule to the Domus Aurea. Even though it was the biggest building on the property, it was at the head or beginning of Neros house (Grant 170). Directly to the left of the Domus Transitoria was the main residential building. It was at roughly a right angle and is hard to notice from a distance because it is built into a hill. In fact, one could almost miss it if they did not see tall, barrel ceiling hallways. The building was shallow; two to three stories high, and made up of two wings, a west and an east (Grant 172).

The west wing was thought to be the Place where Nero and Poppaea had their bedrooms, however it is difficult to say because more likely, their rooms would be on the second level. The west wing had two personal apartments, each with a bedroom, two other rooms, and chapel (Grant 172). At the back of these suites, the view was unimpeded by a hill because it had been cut away or just sloped down, but they looked out onto a garden type of courtyard with a fountain in the middle (Rossiter 141).

The east wing was shorter and shallower than the west wing. Its rooms faced openly out into the courtyard ahead. The Hall of the Golden Vault leads into the back of the wing into a corridor having no faade. Here the building is built right into the hill and therefore cannot having any open facing side. This makes for a dark damp hallway that is very high running the length of the wing. At the middle of the east wing, interrupting the rooms facing out is an octagonal hall. It is forty-two feet wide and has a domed ceiling, one of the first on any major building of this scale (Maso 52). Light filtered in from a round hole at the top of the cupola. It preceded and foretold of the Pantheon to come. This new technological advance was made possible by the invention of concrete. This octagonal atrium though was a bold new step towards something that had never been practiced on such a large scale. Each side of the octagon had an opening. The front three let out into the courtyard before it. This is one reason it is assumed to be a place of greeting. The next four in, two on either side, were vaulted rooms, two of which were cross-shaped, two were square. The last opening at the top and directly in the center was a stairwell with a stream running down it (Grant 173).

Nero was intrigued by small gadgets or neat architectural inventions, and so, he had many put into his house. In his baths he had both salt water and sulphurous water. His music room had the largest and most powerful hydraulic organ ever. In his dining room he had panels put into his ceilings to shower his guests with flowers and hidden pipes to spray perfume on them. He was also able to move panels in his ceiling to show a different ceiling during different courses of the meal. In his banquet hall, Suetonius tells us:
circular, and constantly revolving, day and night like the heavens.


It is now a topic of great discussion whether the entire room actually revolved, or if it was just the ceiling. Either way, it would have required a large power source for this and would have required the latest technology (Grant 175). The new trend of the times was artificially stained marble. Another rock that was sort of a novelty was one recently discovered in Asia Minor that let the light in while doors were still closed (Grant 176).

Art was very prevalent in Neros Golden House. The artist in charge of the art was named Famulus or Fabullus, no one is sure. He managed many other lesser artists who would do the busywork. During these times though, artists werent appreciated at all, and so Famulus would wear a full toga every day painting on the scaffolding in order to show the respect painters deserved. There were really two distinctive types of art that were noticeable in Neros house, what was in the hallway, and what was in rooms. Hallways were more corridors with barrel vaulted ceilings. Hallways often had paintings giving the trompe loeil effect of having a beautiful landscape viewed through a window (Grant 164). Most of the paintings in the hallways were landscapes or impressionistic mosaics. However in the rooms there were more architectural paintings of colonnades continuing on. The rooms also had gilded semi-precious stones implanted into the walls and sheets of ivory plated to the ceilings (Maso 52).

Nero has thus far been very generous to his people in the funding of rebuilding Rome and especially his palace. However one of the more expensive aspects of the dcor of his home, would be the sculptures. Famous sculptures ran a high price for quality work and so, Nero decided to steel the existing sculptures that were already very good, and most importantly paid for in the world. He sent two consortiums of people to roam around the Roman Empire and gather anything that looked good. This infuriated many people because quite often the best sculptures were in temples, and stealing from the temples is a sacrilege. One statue we know he paid for was the one he had Zenodorus sculpt of himself. It stood 120 feet high and was placed in the reconstructed Domus Transitoria, most likely in the center of the main colonnaded atrium. Nonetheless, Nero collected thousands of sculptures and put them in the many nooks and crannies of the Domus Aurea (Grant 178-80). Today there are many in the Vatican Museum.

Nero committed suicide in AD 68, after his home had been dedicated, but before it had been completed. At its dedication, Nero said that he could finally live like man was intended to. Unfortunately and ironically, he hardly got to enjoy it. While the Domus Aurea was a great architectural work in their time, it had left a sort of bitter taste in their mouths that they wanted to avenge. After Otho short reign of protecting this monument, Vitellius became emperor for an equally short time but disliked the palace while he was in charge. It came down to the fact that the Domus Aurea was not objectionable in its splendor, but in it size and wasted space. The emperor could not justify having so large a dwelling when it was robbing the city of places to live, highways, and other amenities of the city. So, Vespasian (69-79) demolished most of the great house (Grant 185). Trajan built baths over much of it (Grant 164). The Colosseum now sits over the large lake that was the center of the great park (Maso 53).This year in celebration of the year two thousand, thirty new rooms are being opened up of the Domus Aurea, about an entire new wing (Archeology 28).
Bibliography
Grant, Michael. Nero: Emperor in revolt. New York: American Heritage Press, 1970.


Maso, Leonardo B. Dal.. Rome of the Caesars. Firenze: Bonechi, 1974.
1971.


Picard, Gilbert. Living Architecture: Roman. New York: Grosset and Dunlap Inc., 1965.


Slayman, Andrew L.. Rome 2000; the Eternal City Celebrates the Jubilee in grand
Imperial Fashion. Archeology. Jan.-Feb. 2000:28
Rossiter, Stuart. The Blue Guides: Rome and Environs. London: Ernest Benn Limited,
Wheeler, Martimer. Roman Art and Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press,
1964.

The unisys

hhjjkh Unisys Corporation is in the process of creating a corporate university challenged to foster a learning culture. This new entity will replace seven loosely connected professional development organizations that currently design, develop or procure, and deliver professional development programs to 34,000 world wide employees. The widely dispersed locations of these employees, as well as the requirement to build corporate profitability while containing costs, will require many of the courses to be delivered using distance education technologies. The corporation has engaged in a limited number of distance learning courses to date; most of these have used video technology distributed over the corporate business television network. Additionally, an attempt to apply asynchronous learning network technology over the corporate Intranet was researched with limited success. The application of distance learning technologies, when applied in corporate settings, carries a preconceived set of executive expectations.Gayeski(1998) found that “most executives are trying to foster management cultures of speed, performance, collaboration, flexibility, continuous improvement” (p. 37). Additionally, Sheridan(1996) states that “experience to date shows that effective distance training requires the right mix of instructional design, expert talent and delivery media” (p. S12).

Unisys Corporation is in the process of creating a corporate university challenged to foster a learning culture. This new entity will replace seven loosely connected professional development organizations that currently design, develop or procure, and deliver professional development programs to 34,000 world wide employees. The widely dispersed locations of these employees, as well as the requirement to build corporate profitability while containing costs, will require many of the courses to be delivered using distance education technologies. The corporation has engaged in a limited number of distance learning courses to date; most of these have used video technology distributed over the corporate business television network. Additionally, an attempt to apply asynchronous learning network technology over the corporate Intranet was researched with limited success. The application of distance learning technologies, when applied in corporate settings, carries a preconceived set of executive expectations.Gayeski(1998) found that “most executives are trying to foster management cultures of speed, performance, collaboration, flexibility, continuous improvement” (p. 37). Additionally, Sheridan(1996) states that “experience to date shows that effective distance training requires the right mix of instructional design, expert talent and delivery media” (p. S12).


Unisys Corporation is in the process of creating a corporate university challenged to foster a learning culture. This new entity will replace seven loosely connected professional development organizations that currently design, develop or procure, and deliver professional development programs to 34,000 world wide employees. The widely dispersed locations of these employees, as well as the requirement to build corporate profitability while containing costs, will require many of the courses to be delivered using distance education technologies. The corporation has engaged in a limited number of distance learning courses to date; most of these have used video technology distributed over the corporate business television network. Additionally, an attempt to apply asynchronous learning network technology over the corporate Intranet was researched with limited success. The application of distance learning technologies, when applied in corporate settings, carries a preconceived set of executive expectations.Gayeski(1998) found that “most executives are trying to foster management cultures of speed, performance, collaboration, flexibility, continuous improvement” (p. 37). Additionally, Sheridan(1996) states that “experience to date shows that effective distance training requires the right mix of instructional design, expert talent and delivery media” (p. S12).


Unisys Corporation is in the process of creating a corporate university challenged to foster a learning culture. This new entity will replace seven loosely connected professional development organizations that currently design, develop or procure, and deliver professional development programs to 34,000 world wide employees. The widely dispersed locations of these employees, as well as the requirement to build corporate profitability while containing costs, will require many of the courses to be delivered using distance education technologies. The corporation has engaged in a limited number of distance learning courses to date; most of these have used video technology distributed over the corporate business television network. Additionally, an attempt to apply asynchronous learning network technology over the corporate Intranet was researched with limited success. The application of distance learning technologies, when applied in corporate settings, carries a preconceived set of executive expectations.Gayeski(1998) found that “most executives are trying to foster management cultures of speed, performance, collaboration, flexibility, continuous improvement” (p. 37). Additionally, Sheridan(1996) states that “experience to date shows that effective distance training requires the right mix of instructional design, expert talent and delivery media” (p. S12).


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Champ D? Avoine

The “rebirth” of art in Italy was connected with the rediscovery of ancient philosophy, literature, and science and the evolution of empirical methods of study in these fields. Increased awareness of classical knowledge created a new resolve to learn by direct observation and study of the natural world. Consequently, secular themes became increasingly important to artists, and with the revived interest in antiquity came a new repertoire of subjects drawn from Greek and Roman history and mythology. The models provided by ancient buildings and works of art also inspired the development of new artistic techniques and the desire to re-create the forms and styles of classical art.


As these new styles of linear and aerial perspective and pyramid structures came into use by Alberti, paintings were able to carry better-recognized religious ideas because the paintings became more transparent and more vivid in detail. Finally, artists in the high Renaissance such as Da Vinci, and Raphael developed paintings in the narrative style that demonstrated the “body in a more scientific and natural manner,” thus demonstrating the various aspects of every day life.


Claude Monet is perhaps one of the most world renowned impressionist painters. Born in Paris in 1840, he entered the world just as technology began to change the ways of society. As a child Monet showed his interests in nature. He could barely keep his patience in school, and felt the presence of the nature and outdoors call to him from inside. He would sketch out caricatures of teachers, and relatives, and sell them from within the window of a local framing shop owned by a Eugene Boudin. When it came to his art work, Monet received no inspiration from his parents. Eventually when drafted in 1860, Monet was sent to North Africa where he experienced nature the way he always felt it deep inside. That little feeling that buzzed in him as a child awakened in Africa, and it was here that his appreciation for nature emerged and would affect his works for the rest of his life. Monet returned to France in 1862 after he became ill and was sent home. From there he enrolled in the Charles Gleyre’s studio, but this only turned out to be a disappointment for Monet, but held significance in his life since it is where he met Renoir, Bazille, and Sisley. In 1864, the parents contempt for his artistic endeavors placed him in a position where his parents basically disowned him. Having little to no money, he moved in with Bazille, and worked from Bazille’s studio. Shortly thereafter Monet entered two paintings into the Salon which gained him some success. From there in 1969, Monet travels with friend Renoir to La Grenouillere, where together they begin their studies side by side.


Claude Monet can be classified as a forerunner of Impressionists, Neo-Impressionists, Fauvists, Cubists, Abstract painters, and the Non-Figurists. He is often called “The Father of Impressionism” (Taillander 6). Although Monet had some works accepted into the Salon, he was one of the first to paint in the Impressionist style, and persisted even after his works were rejected and shunned. Renoir said “Without Monet, we would all have given up” (qtd. in Taillander 8). Monet was seen as an extremist because he “captured the fleeting moment, creating a degree of wooliness in his canvasses which have not been interpreted with any certainty”(Taillander 8). In Monet’s paintings, his interest “lies not in details, but in capturing the effect of the whole scene as it would be perceived in a fleeting glance” (Welton 14). The term Impressionist was first given by a critic when reviewing Monet’s painting,
There were many important developments that made the Impressionist style of painting possible. One of these developments was painting outside or “en plein air”. Previously, artists had to paint in their studios because it was too burdensome to take large canvasses and other supplies outside. Metal tubes invented in the 1840s allowed long-term storage of paints. Paint was previously stored in pouches made from pig’s bladders. The paint hardened rapidly when exposed to air. Smaller canvasses were more easily available, making it easier for the artist to take their supplies outside. Because of these new developments, artists could paint directly and spontaneously from nature.


Monet’s painting of the Champ d’ Avoine allows us to experience his feelings through various techniques that visually speak to the viewer. It is his life in his brush stroke, and the application of paint, that presents a vivid, active, and alive environment where his subjects interact. Monet seems to show a speed in the application of his paints, and it is this speed that adds to the overall feeling within the viewer. His strokes are all seen, there is no attempt to hide stroke, or keep a clean surface like classical painting. There is some sense of line work and contour in the foreground creating a greater detail, but I feel it is just an accurate representation of environmental distortion and its affects as things become more blurry in the distance.


Monet took his personal feelings and moods, and transferred them into the Champ d’ Avoine , altering the techniques he used. “He altered his technique according to his sense of the quality of the whole, whether joyous or somber, that he wanted to construct in response to the powerful stimulus from the object that engaged him in the act of painting” (Schapiro 180). Monet’s brushstrokes would change with the condition of his feelings. A festive holiday painting contained ecstatic, rapid brushstrokes, forceful and swift. There was little or no separation in time between the vision of the encounter with the object and its rendering on the spot (Schapiro 61). He had a degree of impulsiveness and freedom which was realized through correspondingly chaotic brushstrokes, but was held together by his firm touch and rhythms of execution which modeled the enthusiasm of the human world in movement (Schapiro 184).
The techniques Monet is most remembered for were his use of light and color in the Champ d’ Avoine . Monet was one of the first of the Impressionists to paint “en plein air”. “A craving for open-air light was the mainspring of Monet’s artistic development…Monet began by portraying the intensity of light by showing the contrast between bright light and dark shadow”(Taillander 86). As part of his impulsiveness, Monet refused to paint from memory. He said, “I paint only what I see”(qtd. in Taillander 76). “Sunshine was essential if Monet was to capture the true effects of light. He would stop painting and wait for a cloud to pass over the sun because it altered the intensity of the light and shadows”(Taillander 77). Monet’s use of color is as equally appreciated as his use of light effects, and the two go hand in hand with each other.
Even through Alberti, Leonardo, and Vassari would appreciate Monet’s hard work and unique style, it is in my opinion that they would have found this work of art lacking in many ways. Monet unlike Alberti, Leonardo, and Vassari, tried to move away from the classical style of painting. Monet believed in spontaneous painting. He believed by doing this he could capture a fresh image, which in his opinion would have been more realistic. Monet’s Champ d’ Avoine also had no religious meaning behind it. This painting just reflected Monet’s mood at the time, Unlike Leonardo’s The Virgin of the Rocks, were in it you could clearly pick out the mean focal point, and its religious meaning behind it. I think Vasari would have found Leonardo’s work more inspirational and creative than Monet’s Champ d’ Avoine. Vasari believed in art that evoked tremendous emotion, and gained knowledge when someone looked at it, and I don’t think that Monet’s painting does that in any fashion due to the lack of a central focal point in the painting.
In conclusion, even though the artist from the Renaissance period had a different style of creating great works of art. I think they would have found Claude Monet’s Champ d’ Avoine a piece of good art, and I think they would have found him to be an elite sprit, and posses an imagination that will never die.
Works Cited
Brenner, Carla. Weekends with the Impressionists. New York: Universe Publishing, 1997.

Mason, Antony. Famous Artists: Monet. New York: Barron’s Educational Series, 1995.

Schapiro, Meyer. Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. New York: George Braziller, 1997.

Spence, David. Monet and Impressionism. New York: Barron’s Educational Series, 1997.

Taillander, Yvon. Claude Monet. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1963.

Welton, Jude. Eyewitness Art: Impressionism. London: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

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