Nucleosynthesis

The big bang which created the universe, only created the elements Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He) and possibly a very small amount of Lithium (Li). However, a glance at the periodic table of the elements shows that today (some 15 billion years after the big bang) there are at least 108 known elements. Every atom of every element heavier than Li has been produced since the big bang! The factories which make these elements are stars. Nucleosynthesis or the synthesis of nuclei, is the process by which stars (which start out consisting mostly of H and He) produce all other elements.

The key is nuclear fusion, in which small nuclei are joined together to form a larger nucleus. (This contrasts with nuclear fission, in which a large nucleus breaks apart to form two smaller nuclei). Fusion requires an extremely large amount of energy (see fig. 1), and can typically only take place in the centers of stars.

FIGURE 1
a) Low energy proton is strongly repelled by the 7Be nucleus.b) High energy proton moves so fast that it can strike the 7Be nucleus. Once the proton touches the nucleus, it has a chance to stick. If the proton sticks, the 7Be becomes a 8B nucleus.c) 8B is radioactive and changes into 8Be plus a positron (b+) and a neutrino (n). 8Be is itself radioactive, and almost immediately breaks into two 4He nuclei.

Protons repel each other. This repulsion becomes stronger as the protons get closer together (just like when you try to stick two magnets together north to north, or south to south. Try this! As you push the magnets closer together, it becomes harder to do). However, if the protons can actually touch each other, they have a chance to stick together! This is because of the strong nuclear force which attracts nucleons (protons or neutrons) together, and is much stronger (at close range) than the electromagnetic force repulsion that makes protons repel other protons. (Magnets do not do this: two like poles will never stick together).

In order to get a proton to strike another proton (or a nucleus that contains several protons) they must be traveling at high relative speeds; if their closing velocity is not great enough, they will never get close enough to stick together, because they strongly repel each other. But, just as you can make two of the same magnetic poles touch each other by providing sufficient force, so too can protons touch when they have sufficient relative speed. This can take place in the center of the sun, where the temperature is extremely high. Temperature is related to atomic motion: the hotter something is, the faster its atoms are moving see demo food coloring in water.

Table 1 shows the nuclear reactions that are taking place in our sun, as well as nuclear reactions that take place in stars that are either older than our sun, or hotter than our sun. The reactions in columns 2 and 3 occur after a star has entered the red giant phase. How fast a star evolves to this point depends on its mass: stars heavier than the sun can reach this phase in less than 5 billion years (the age of the sun) whereas stars with about our sun’s mass take about 10 billion years to get there. The particles you may be unfamiliar with are: n the neutrino, g a gamma ray (high energy light wave), and b+ the positron (the antimatter version of the electron).

TABLE 1. NUCLEAR REACTIONS IN STARS
OUR SUN NOW OLDER, OR HOTTER STARS
p + p 2H + b+ + n 4He + 4He 8Be + g 12C + p 13N + g
2H + p 3He + g 8Be + 4He 12C + g 13N 13C + b+ + n
3He + 3He 4He + p + p 12C + 4He 16O + g T1/2 = 10 min
16O + 4He 20Ne + g 13C + p 14N + g
3He + 4He 7Be + g 20Ne + 4He 24Mg + g 14N + p 15O + g
7Be + p 8B + g 15O 15N + b+ + n
8B 8Be + b+ + n T1/2 = 120 ms
8Be 4He + 4He 15N + p 12C + 4He
He burning (core) H burning shell
In our sun, the first three nuclear reactions shaded} are the major source of energy. The second group (of four) reactions also occur in the sun, but much less frequently than the first group (which is called the p-p chain). In both cases, the fuel (hydrogen) is converted into the product (helium), and energy (in the form of heat and light) is produced. The third column of reactions is called the CNO cycle, because carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) are produced and C is recycled. The CNO reaction cycle is now occurring in the sun (the energy required for these reactions is roughly the same as that required for the p-p chain) because the sun had carbon to begin with (it hasn’t made any C yet!). Since the sun had carbon present when it formed, it is referred to as a ‘later generation’ star. The ‘first generation’ of stars contained only H, He and Li from the big bang. Later generation stars contain material that has been processed in other stars.

As a star like the sun evolves, a vast amount of H is consumed, and a vast amount of 4He is produced. This 4He can not combine with other 4He because this reaction requires more energy than is available, i.e. the 4He nuclei are not moving fast enough. However, as the 4He accumulates in the star’s core, the pressure rises (which causes the temperature to rise since the core consists of gas). With increased temperature, more energy becomes available, and the star eventually reaches a point where the second column of above reactions can occur; this is called He burning. As we proceed down the second column, the reactions become increasingly less likely since they require increasing amounts of energy. This is because all nuclei have a positive electric charge, and like charges repel each other. The bigger the charge, the stronger the repulsion. This set of reactions can not produce any nucleus heavier than Fe (iron, atomic number 26). Again, a brief glance at the periodic table reveals that there are many elements heavier than Fe; these are also produced in stars, but not by any kind of fusion reaction. What takes us beyond Fe are two nucleosynthetic processes, called the ‘s-process’ and the ‘r-process’.

The S-Process
Since a star’s H is usually not fully used up when He burning begins, the star’s energy comes from two distinct zones: the He burning core and the H burning shell. At the boundary between the two zones, material from both regions is free to mix together. Thus we can get the following reactions:
12C + p 13N + g 14N + 4He 18F + g
13N 13C + e+ + n 18F 18O + e+ + n
13C + 4He 16O + n 18O + 4He 22Ne + g
22Ne + 4He 25Mg + n
The bracketed equations are important because in these reactions, a free neutron is liberated. Neutrons are not repell through a beta decay. This reaction is in the form: This process restores the balance between protons and neutrons in the nucleus. However, it also changes the chemical element (because the number of nuclear protons increases). This new element will also absorb neutrons until it reaches an unstable isotope, and then it will beta decay to yet a different element (see fig. 2). In this way, a star can produce elements heavier than Fe.

figure 2
The solid line shows the progression of the s-process starting from the seed nucleus 56Fe. We can get a rough idea of the neutron flux (the number of neutrons hitting a given location each second) by comparing the half-lives of ‘branching isotopes’ with non-branching isotopes. For instance, 69Zn has a half-life of 13.8 hours, and 75Ge has a half-life of 82.8 minutes, whereas 63Ni has a half-life of 100 years and 85Kr of 10.7 years. Thus neutrons are only absorbed very infrequently (probably on the order of weeks between absorptions).

An important parameter regarding an unstable nucleus is its half-life. This is the time during which the nucleus has a 50/50 chance of decaying. Another way of thinking of this is that if we have a large collection of a certain unstable atom, after a length of time equal to one half-life, half of these atoms will have decayed. For some of the unstable isotopes along the s-process path, the half-life is sufficiently long that some will absorb another neutron before they decay, the rest will simply decay. The s-process path is said to branch at these isotopes (see fig. 2).

Thus we see that in the s-process, neutron absorptions and beta decays cause an 56Fe nucleus to ‘march up the chart of the nuclides’ along the so-called ‘valley of beta stability’ which is simply the location of the stable isotopes in the chart of the nuclides. The reason it is called this may be clear from figure 2 in the Radioactive Decay module. The stable member(s) of each isobar are those that have minimum nuclear energy. The nuclei on either side of the stable nuclide have a higher energy. This makes it look like the stable nuclides lie in the bottom of a valley). Of course, not all of the 56Fe nuclei, or any other nuclei for that matter, are used up in this process, and new 56Fe (the so-called ‘seed nucleus’) is continually made in He burning. Thus the star eventually has a distribution of nuclides between 56Fe and 209Bi (above 209Bi, a decays happen rapidly. These have the effect of regenerating Pb or Bi. Thus the s-process can not produce elements heavier than Bi).

Again, a brief glance at the periodic table reveals that there are elements heavier than Bi in nature. Also, we see from figure 2 that not all of the stable isotopes are produced in the s-process (for instance 70Zn, 76Ge, 82Se, etc., the nuclides to the right side of the s-process path) though these isotopes exist in our solar system. These isotopes, and the elements above Bi are produced in the ‘r-process’. (Other isotopes, like 58Ni, 74Se, 78Kr, etc., the nuclides to the left side of the s-process path, are produced in a third nucleosynthetic process, called the ‘p-process’. Because this process did not contribute much matter to the solar system (note the low abundances of these isotopes in the chart of the nuclides) it will not be discussed here).

The R-Process
Why can’t the s-process make isotopes like 70Zn? Basically it’s because there just aren’t that many free neutrons available, so they don’t ‘come around’ very often. When a 68Zn nucleus absorbs a neutron to become 69Zn, it has a chance to absorb another neutron to become 70Zn. However, with a half-life of 13.8 hours, by the time another neutron is absorbed, the 69Zn has already decayed to 69Ga. If 70Zn is to be produced (and we know it must be produced) we must increase the rate of neutron production. With more free neutrons available, the 69Zn would have a better chance of absorbing one. This is the r-process, the rapid addition of neutrons.

The word rapid is actually an understatement; it could be called explosive; the r-process occurs in supernova explosions! Here’s how it works: Before a supernova, a star has produced an excessive amount of 56Fe. This accumulates in the core (recall that we can’t go beyond 56Fe with fusion). As always, there is a battle between gravity (which tries to compact the core) and heat (which tries to expand the core). Eventually, after enough 56Fe is produced, gravity wins. When the Fe core collapses, it does so dramatically, and generates pressures which are truly incredible. The pressure is so great that the orbital electrons are pushed into their nucleus! Thus in one incredible electron capture reaction, all of the Fe in the core is converted to neutrons (1.4 solar masses worth!). An implosion shock wave reaches the core’s center and rebounds. As it does so, it sweeps vast numbers of neutrons out with it, and they smash into the matter above them. Now the neutron absorptions occur rapidly enough to bridge the gap out to nuclides like 70Zn. In fact, they happen rapidly enough to bridge the gap from Bi to the heavier elements (we know that 244Pu existed in the early solar system. This means that a 209Bi nucleus would have to absorb at least 35 neutrons before any a decay could occur!). Thus in one brief event, lasting at most only a few seconds, we produce all known elements heavier than Fe.

Appendix (applications)
There is an interesting application of s-process branching, through which we can roughly calculate the temperature that existed inside a red giant star even though the star exploded almost five billion years ago!
The key is that dust is produced in the atmospheres of red giant stars, and the unique isotopic distributions of the elements made in the star are frozen in as solids. These dust grains survive to the present day, preserved in primitive meteorites see Interstellar Grains module. Let’s look at the specific example of 85Kr to see how this ‘remote thermometer’ works.

Our bodies, at a temperature of about 40 C (100 F) give off infrared radiation which can be seen with special cameras. A log in a fire, at a temperature of about 600 C (1100 F) glows red. Molten metal in a furnace, at a temperature of about 1500 C (2700 F) shines with intense white light. Thus as temperature increases, the radiation (light) emitted becomes more energetic (changes color to shorter wavelengths) as well as more intense (more photons emitted per second). This is basically a result of the increased energy of the atomic collisions in the hot material see Blackbody Radiation module. For temperatures characteristic of star cores (hundreds of millions of C) the collisions produce nuclear reactions as well as an abundant supply of high energy gamma rays. When these gammas are absorbed by a nucleus, they can make the nucleus transition to an excited energy state (just as visible or ultraviolet light can make an atomic electron transition to a higher orbital. This is the first step in making a laser beam).

As we saw in figure 1 of the Radioactive Decay module, 85Kr has a ‘metastable excited state’ which is only 0.305 MeV above the ground state (a fairly small energy when considering nuclear transitions). The temperature in the star will dictate how much of the 85Kr present will be in its excited state (the temperature determines the number of photons and their energy distribution. This together with the amount of 85Kr nuclei present in the star (which can be roughly calculated) gives the amount of 85Kr nuclei which should be in the first excited state.) But from figure 2 of the Radioactive Decay module, we see that this excited state has a much shorter half-life than the ground state (4.48 hours vs. 10.7 years) and that this excited state can decay directly to 85Rb. Thus the more 85Kr that can reach this excited state, the shorter its effective half-life will be. Finally figure 2 of this module shows that 85Kr is a branch point on the s-process path. The 10.7 year half-life of 85Kr is sufficiently long that many nuclei will absorb a neutron to become 86Kr. However, a half-life of 4.48 hours is not long enough to absorb another neutron before beta decay (which happens 79% of the time from this excited state) and will not produce 86Kr. Therefore, the amount of 86Kr present in a dust grain tells us what percentage of the 85Kr absorbed a neutron, which in turn tells us the temperature that existed inside the star.

This is a difficult idea. If you understood it, then you really understood this module

Power Vs Happeness

Power Vs Happiness
Claudius what are your motives for killing the king, marrying his wife and taking on the
role of father to his young son?
Claudius is introduced in act I, ii. In this scene he has an important speech. In this
speech he talks about the death of the king, his marriage to the queen and the foreign problems
of the state. He utilizes many transitions and tends to empiseze the foreign affairs of the state. I
don’t know what to make of this, it could mean various things. It could mean that Claudius is
making a grab for power shown in his concentration on the foreign polices trying to distract from
his lust for power, along with his marriage to the queen giving the change in leadership a
smoother and more acceptable feel. He also down plays the death of the formal king so that he
can redirect the peoples’ attention to his plans and the problems of the state. But I could mean
something else I’m not sure. Later on in this scene Claudius talks to Hamlet, Hamlet is very
depressed, Claudius gives hamlet some comforting and fatherly advice here trying to get him out
of his deep depression. But what is his true motivation here is he trying to get hamlet as a backer
for his new rain, so he is just lying and manipulating hamlet, or dose he have true and deep
feelings for Hamlet and is just trying to help hamlet and was no self-interest in it. I feel right now
that it a bit of both I think he cares about hamlet but would also like him to support his rise to
power.


Next we come to act II, ii, hamlet has made many strange comments and actions lately,
many people think he is going, or has gone insane. Claudius finds two of Hamlets good friends
to spy on him and try to find out what wrong with him. At this point we know that Hamlet knows
that Claudius killed his father but we don’t know whether Claudius knows that hamlet knows or
even if he suspects, this cast a strange light on this scene. First if Claudius suspects hamlet
knows that he killed his father then we might assume that Claudius is sending these spy to find
out for sure if he knows, but if he dose not suspect hamlet then this might be another show of
Claudius’s affection towards Hamlet. So the same question keeps coming up dose Claudius like
Hamlet or is he just using him? At this point it to hard to tell so we must delve deeper in to the
story and there is still the mater of the queen. Claudius is marred to the queen but dose he love
here, and was there an affair before their marriage? In this scene there is an interesting couple
of lines that the queen says, “I doubt it is no other but the mainHis father’s death and our
o’erhasty marriage.” in reference to the possible causes of Hamlets strange attitude recently, but
what caught my eye was that she admits that there marriage was over hasty, something in which
Hamlet accused her of very early on, this gives me reason to believe that she was having an
affair with Claudius before the death of the king, or at least that she was overly accepting of his
advances. But this raises a different question, did she know of the killing maybe even help plan
it? I don’t know yet but I would like to think that she is a good wife and didn’t help with the killing
of her husband, but …


After a couple more unsuccessful tries to figure out what Hamlet is thinking, also fairly
uninlighting, Claudius is caught in a clever trap set by Hamlet to prove to Hamlet that Claudius
killed his father. This is bad news for Claudius but is good for my quest for knowledge. We see in
this scene Claudius reacts very deeply when he is reminded of the deed that he committed,
which is shown by the line “Give me some light. Away!” right in the middle of a play. Then
admittedly he goes to the church to repent his sins and ask for forgiven for his crimes with the
passage “Thanks, dear my lord. …. Be soft as sinews of the newborn babe. All may be well.” this
bring a whole new light on to the question, it give significance evidence that he is deeply
remorseful about his crimes. At this point I think that he is not after power solely but maybe he
was joules of his brother great success and let his emotions get out of control and in this fit he
forfill his fantasy to be his brother. It goes well with his desire to be a father to Hamlet, a husband
to the queen, and the king. the queen must also be finding comfort in Claudius taking over, it
probably help her coup with the pain of losing her husband
Now the table turns Claudius has wanted to love and be the father of Hamlet, but he
sees that that is no longer possible with hamlet need for revenge Claudius must kill him so that
he may continue to live at least part of his dream. In act IV, vii Claudius plots with Laertes to kill
hamlet. At this point it is as if Claudius has accepted what he must due and no longer shoes any
love or sypanthy towards Hamlet and instead plan his treacherous death.


Last scene is also a very reveling scene two lines in particular “Gertrude, do not drink.”,
“aside it is poisoned cup; it is too late.”. These revel to me much about his character, they show
that he was truly in love, or at least desired to be with, her. and by saying do not drink out loud
he was almost admitting his guilt to trying to kill Hamlet all to save the queen, this is powerful and
says to me that he did have a heart and I would figure that he just lost control of himself in the
pursuit of his dream which was to be all that his brother had been.


Category: Shakespeare

John Marshall

John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in Prince William County, Virginia.


When John was ten, his father decided that they were going to move into a valley
in the Blue Ridge Mountains, almost thirty miles from the house they lived.


John’s parents were not well educated but they could read and write. The books
were very hard to take care of and were very expensive. Marshall had a house
bible but other than that they have almost no books to refer to. John’s father
Thomas was good friends with George Washington. Washington had a library and he
let John use and was the books were very helpful. The Marshall family had
decided that John would be a lawyer. John went to William and Mary College,
where he attended the law lectures of George Wythe. John Marshall joined the
Culpeper Minute Men and was chosen as the Lieutenant. John’s grandfather, on his
mother’s side, had been one of Yorktown’s wealthiest men but the war had ruined
him financially. The family had taken a small tenement apartment next to the
headquarters of Colonel Thomas Marshall who extended his protection. Marshall’s
private law practice continuously grew. He became a well-known attorney but his
dress habits didn’t change. Then he hired the best dressed attorney he could
find for the customary one hundred dollars. Finally Marshall went to court to a
hearing and was so deeply impressed that he pleaded to take the case. The fellow
had paid the lawyer. He only had five dollars left and he took the case. In
1797, President John Adams appointed him to an American Mission to France to aid
in the trade negotiations. John Marshall returned to the United States to be
enthusiastically received by most of the country. Marshall was a part of the
Marbury vs. Madison trial, his opinion of the trial was his intellectual and of
moral force and he foreshadowed the views he would express in later trials.


After becoming the First Chief Justice Marshall was asked by the nephew of
George Washington to write the official biography. He was unprepared to write
the biography but he decided to do it anyway. The biography that he wrote took
four years to write and was five volumes. John Marshall fought in many trials
during his lifetime, they are: Marbury vs. Madison fought in 1803 McColloch Vs.


Maryland fought in 1819 Dartmouth College vs. Woodward fought in 1819 Cohens vs.


Virginia fought in 1821 Gibbons vs. Odgen fought in 1831 Cherokee Nation vs.


State of Georgia fought in 1831 Three years after the Cherokee Nation vs. State
of Georgia trial John Marshall died. Now, in his honor, there is a dedicated law
school, in Chicago, named after him because of his accomplishments. John
Marshall Law School is where my father attended law school.

http://slate.msn.com/id/2103263/

Tennis players are better conditioned and far stronger than they were 20 or
30 years ago. But the athletes have changed far less than the racket
technology. Compared to today’s composite frames and Kevlar strings,
rackets made of wood or the metal T2000 (popularized by Jimmy Connors) look
like they should hang in a natural history museum. Modern rackets are
significantly bigger and stronger than old models, yet weigh half as much.

No wonder a former technical director of the International Tennis
Federation has said that “we are approaching the limit on reaction time for
the return of serve.”
Men’s tennis offers a cautionary tale for other sports. An absence of
racket regulations has allowed the game to be transformed by technology. At
this point, turning back the clock will be exceedingly difficult. Any
fundamental changes to the game would lead to carping about the loss of
tradition and resistance from players who’ve crafted a style of play for
the game as it was presented to them.

The game’s amped-up power and speed present a kind of Goldilocks challenge.

If points are too long, spectators yawn; if they’re too short, the sport
loses its sweaty elegance. The problem with finding a balance between these
extremes is that playing surface fundamentally changes tactics, style, and
results. Fixing the game on grass could ruin it on clay, where big servers
don’t have nearly as big an advantage. So, how can you recalibrate men’s
tennis so it’s not simply a test of who can hit the ball the hardest?
Change the balls: In the late 1990s, the International Tennis Federation
introduced two new balls, one to speed up play on slow surfaces, another to
slow play on fast surfaces. The “slow ball,” which weighs the same as a
standard ball but is 6 percent larger (extra surface creates more wind
resistance, decreasing velocity), can offer up to 5 percent more time to
read a serve. But players hated the new balls, fearing they would cause
more injuries. Tournament directors sided with the players, and
manufacturers stopped making the balls. That’s probably a good thing. What
happens when players start hitting the big ball as fast as a standard one?
Soon, they’d be slugging those giant tennis balls that kids dangle out of
the stands for autographs.

Raise the net: A higher net would keep servers from pounding down on the
ball-less force means less speed. The problem is that every other shot
would have to be altered as well. What’s more, raising the net would launch
a technological arms race. Michael Chang compensated for his short stature
by using a longer tennis racket-it effectively made him taller. Raise the
net, and players will push to lengthen their rackets.

Change the dimensions of the court: Tennis courts were drawn up when
rackets were made of wood and strings were made of sheepskin. In
professional golf, where players with modern equipment now hit the ball
distances unforeseen years ago, courses have been altered to make them
“play longer.” But this approach wouldn’t work for tennis. There are
between 750,000 and 1 million courts around the world, all of which would
have to be relined. Think of the poor groundskeepers. What’s more, this is
only a temporary fix-what happens when technology catches up to the new
court sizes?
Regulate racket power: John McEnroe and Martina Navratilova have called for
the game to go back to wooden rackets. This kind of Luddism is too drastic-
players would revolt and the fans would fancy the lords of tennis a bunch
of reactionaries.

Still, fixing the rackets seems like the only sensible solution. While the
sport’s governing bodies obsessively regulate court, net, and ball
specifications, they’ve only just started paying attention to racket
technology. In the early 1980s, the ITF started imposing size restrictions
on racket heads, but 20 years later they’ve yet to limit what rackets can
be made from.

Top-of-the-line rackets are now fashioned from titanium, carbon fibers,
glass fibers, thermoplastic filaments like nylon, metal alloys, and epoxy
resin. One popular racket, the Head Liquidmetal, was developed at Caltech
and supposedly offers more power than titanium because of its amorphous (or
“liquid”) atomic structure. I’m no molecular physicist, but it seems like
these tennis scientists could stumble onto the cure for cancer while
developing next year’s model.

The ITF claims that it’s exploring some new guidelines to limit the power-
generating capacity of rackets. But any such ideas are in the early stages,
and there’s definitely no concrete plan at this point. Banning a particular
material would almost certainly be futile. Keeping a lid on racket tech is
like trying to stop athletes from using performance enhancing drugs-by the
time regulators find out about the newest innovation, something better will
already be in the pipeline.

Rather than micromanage the legality of space-age materials, perhaps there
should just be a speed limit. The ITF now has a ball-whacking machine at
its Technical Centre that can wield rackets and hit serves in excess of 150
mph. This kind of legislation has worked for golf-in recent years the USGA
banned “trampoline” driver faces that gave golfers an extra kick to those
already monstrous drives. Manufacturers will surely complain that they’ll
be forced to spend on research and development without knowing whether
their rackets will be legal. But this may be the only way to keep the
latest technology in the game without turning rackets into lethal weapons.

It’s likely that restricting rackets would even make the game more popular.

Tennis-elbow-addled fans admired stars like Borg and McEnroe because they
knew how tough it was to hit accurate, firm strokes with wooden rackets
with tiny sweet spots. Taming the equipment will reign in firepower-and
allow fans to marvel at the pros’ artistry. When players like Federer and
Roddick wield their mighty clubs, it’s all too easy to forget they’re
incredibly skillful tennis players, not just ball-spewing cannons.


|The Tennis Story |
|by Deborah Birkett|
|http://www.historytelevision.ca/archives/tennis/tennisStory/|
||
||
|The game we know as modern tennis is not greatly changed from its |
|origins in the Middle Ages. Its name is thought to be derived from the |
|Old French tenez (“take, receive”). Some believe the game originated in |
|the ancient world, but most authorities find little evidence for this|
|claim, tracing its beginning to France in the 11th or 12th century, when|
|monks played a crude handball game called jeu de paume (“game of the|
|palm”) with roughly made balls and bare hands against walls or over a|
|rope in a courtyard. As interest in this game developed, players began |
|using gloves and then paddles, which developed into racquets.|
|Since it would be many centuries before the advent of rubber balls,|
|tennis balls were made of hair, wool, or cork, wrapped in string, and|
|covered with cloth, leather, or later, felt. These were very hard balls |
|that could cause injury or even death. Wood frame racquets with|
|sheep-gut strings were commonly used by 1500, and while wooden racquets |
|were steadily improved upon throughout the centuries, there weren’t many|
|significant changes until the early 1970s, when aluminum and steel|
|racquets were developed. These were eventually surpassed by such |
|superior materials as graphite and advanced composites.|
|The game’s popularity with royalty and nobility grew and persisted|
|through to the eighteenth century, when interest dwindled. This older|
|form of the game is still played by some, and in order to distinguish it|
|from the modern lawn tennis game we now simply call “tennis,” it is|
|referred to by the British as “real tennis,” by Americans as “court|
|tennis,” and by Australians as “royal tennis.” |
|The origins of modern tennis are traced to 1873, when Major Walter|
|Clopton Wingfield introduced the game, publishing its first rule book. |
|Wingfield patented and marketed the game in 1874, calling it|
|”Sphairistik” or “Lawn Tennis” and prescribing an hourglass shape for |
|the court, narrowest at the net. When another player developed an |
|improved rubber tennis ball in 1875, Britain’s Marylebone Cricket Club |
|instituted a new set of standard tennis rules. Croquet’s great|
|popularity meant that there were many croquet lawns available for |
|playing tennis, and the All-England Croquet Club very soon decided to|
|designate one of its Wimbledon lawns for tennis, holding its first|
|championship there in 1877. The first winner was Spencer Gore. At the|
|same time the game was becoming popular in the U.S., and by 1881 the|
|U.S. National Lawn Tennis Association (now the U.S. Tennis Association) |
|had formed. The first American championship was held in 1881 in Rhode|
|Island, and its first winner was Richard Sears. |
|By the late 1800s interest was declining and clubs were losing money.|
|Two British brothers, Reginald and Laurie Doherty, managed to revitalize|
|interest in the game and propel it into the twentieth century, when new |
|championships and international competitions helped to interest players |
|and the public. However, as a sport and interest of the leisure class, |
|the white, upper crust image clung to tennis for many decades. In |
|addition, there was much controversy over professional and amateur|
|status and many supposed amateurs were paid under the table by sports|
|promoters, leading to charges of “shamateurism.” It was not until 1968, |
|which marks the beginning of the Open Era of tennis, that the|
|distinction between professionals and amateurs was abolished. Within 20 |
|years, prize purses for tennis competitions swelled from tens of |
|thousands to several millions of dollars. |
|In 1973, the Women’s Tennis Association launched its tour with a highly |
|publicized and anticipated “Battle of the Sexes” between champions Bobby|
|Riggs and Billie Jean King. This one competition probably did more to|
|popularize tennis than any other event in the history of the sport.|
|King, a winner of 20 Wimbledon titles, trounced Riggs and became a|
|feminist icon and athletic legend in one swoop. Other barriers were|
|broken by Arthur Ashe, who in 1963 was the first African American player|
|to represent the United States in Davis Cup play and the first to be|
|ranked #1 in the world. |
|While the rules of the game have barely changed since the Middle Ages, |
|tennis has evolved from a pastime in which everything from the balls to |
|the players were white, to a lucrative, extremely competitive sport that|
|attracts players from every nation and walk of life. And whether played |
|by professional or amateur, tennis retains the simple appeal it has held|
|for a thousand years.|

http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://espn.go.com/te
nnis/news/1999/1221/246330.html
Everything about tennis, except its essential rules, has changed from the
way it was played 100 years ago, when balls, clothes, players and
spectators all were white.

Andre Agassi’s baggy shorts and Serena Williams’ bright, skintight halter
tops are the latest fashion, far cries from the days when decorum demanded
pleated white trousers and ankle-length dresses.

| |pic|
| |Women, like Serena|
| |Williams, routinely |
| |serve at 110 mph — |
| |quite a departure|
| |from hitting the ball|
| |in safely with spin. |
Women routinely serve at 110 mph, rather than merely plopping the ball in
safely with spin. Pete Sampras serves more aces in a match than turn-of-the-
century players did in a season.

Middle class professionals, not upper class amateurs, rule the courts, and
hundreds of thousands of dollars, not merely silver cups and platters, are
at stake at the majors.

The Grand Slam events, once small, provincial affairs, now boast multiple
stadiums and draw tens of thousands of fans each day, along with worldwide
television audiences and millions in corporate sponsorships.

Where once the best players — Bill Tilden, Suzanne Lenglen, Ellsworth
Vines, Fred Perry, Don Budge, Pancho Gonzales and Rod Laver, among others —
were banned from the majors after turning pro, now they show up with
agents cutting deals during matches.

Rackets are bigger, lighter and stronger, crafted from space-age composites
rather than wood. The once-ubiquitous racket press, with its nuts and bolts
and washers in four corners to keep wooden rackets from warping, is a
curiosity found only in antique shops. Optic yellow balls made white ones
obsolete 30 years ago.

Even the lawn in “lawn tennis” has disappeared, except for Wimbledon and a
few other events, replaced by hardcourts and clay.

Although a few wrinkles in the rules have come along, most notably the
tiebreaker, tennis still has the same quaint scoring — love, 15, 30, 40,
deuce, advantage. The dimensions of the court and the height of the net
haven’t budged. Faults and double-faults bedevil players today as they
always have.

Cyclops, the electronic eye, guards the service lines at the bigger
tournaments, but linesmen still squat in every corner of the court and
matches still are called by the umpires perched high in their chairs.

The pride of tennis, and its curse, through the century has been its
heritage as a sport of the upper crust.

The modern game descended from “a portable court” patented in 1874 by
Britain’s Maj. Walter Clopton Wingfield and sold as a kit, complete with
poles, pegs, netting, four tennis bats, a bag of balls, and “The Book of
the Game” with its six rules.

Laid out on lawns that had been used for croquet, the game was quickly and
enthusiastically taken up by the Prince of Wales, Lords and Ladies of the
Empire and members of Parliament. Sweden’s King Gustav V, Russian royalty
and French aristocrats joined in the rage.

The class lines remained in place when the game traveled across the
Atlantic to high society in America, from Longwood near Boston to Newport
in Rhode Island to the West Side Tennis Club in New York.

For decades, only genteel amateurs — those who could afford to play for
nothing — won the trophies, ran the tournaments and locked the country
club gates to blacks, Jews and others.

The gates widened with the advent of the Open Era in 1968, but vestiges of
the past remain, despite the rise in the rankings of the Williams sisters,
who are among the few pros to have emerged from public courts.

Wimbledon, the most influential tournament, remains firmly in control of
the doyens of the All England Club. The U.S. Tennis Association, which runs
the mightily profitable U.S. Open and branches out nationally through
sectional chapters, retains an air of exclusiveness despite an avowed
commitment to grow the game in inner cities.

The International Tennis Federation, based in Paris with a haughty,
rarefied air of its own, and the ATP Tour, based in Florida, are barely on
speaking terms.

The WTA Tour, launched in 1973 and given a boost that year by the “Battle
of the Sexes” match between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs, still can’t
get equal pay with the men at three of the four majors.

These kinds of divisions in the hierarchy of the game have plagued tennis
throughout the century, at various times splintering the sport and
hindering its growth among spectators and players.

The huge, gaudy cup that Dwight Davis offered in 1900 to winners of an
international team tennis competition essentially pitted three Harvard men,
among them Davis as captain, against three British counterparts.

Though Davis Cup matches would expand to include dozens of countries, and
become the most influential and democratic of tennis events before the Open
era, it always stayed under the control of the sport’s main powers.

The men and women who played at all the major tournaments had to be rich
enough so they could afford to travel and practice and play throughout the
year without any hope of prize money.

Those who had the audacity to try to earn a living from their talents had
to give up their amateur status and the chance to compete at Wimbledon, the
U.S. Nationals, Davis Cup and the other major events.

From the ’20s until the creation of Open tennis, when the major tournaments
no longer could afford to lock out the biggest names, players made sporadic
attempts to create pro tours.

Lenglen, an immensely popular Frenchwoman, pioneered professional play in
1926 when she went on an American tour and won all 38 matches against Mary
K. Browne.

Pro tennis then languished until Tilden, winner of seven U.S. singles
titles and three Wimbledons and one of the biggest sports stars of the
Roaring ’20s, joined several Europeans on a tour in 1931. Tilden won his
pro debut against Karel Kozeluh of Czechoslovakia before 13,000 fans at
Madison Square Garden.

Tilden toured, playing before crowds large and small, until the 1940s when
he was pushing 50. He paved the way for Vines, Perry and Budge to leave the
amateur ranks and play for prize money.

Yet the pro life, despite the occasional jackpot, was more often a slog
through the hinterlands on all kinds of courts, from slick wood to fast
canvas to patchy grass. Tilden would drive all day and sometimes all night,
play a match, then move on.

There would be other tours, some successful, most not.

Bobby Riggs and Jack Kramer, two of the best players of the 1940s as
amateurs and pros, became the greatest promoters. Pancho Gonzales, twice
the U.S. champion before turning 21, became the top pro of the 1950s as
Kramer took over as boss of the pro game.

The great Australian players of the ’50s, Frank Sedgman, Lew Hoad, Ken
Rosewall, Rod Laver, were quietly put on sporting goods firms’ payrolls so
that they could keep their amateur status. Eventually, they, too, would
turn pro and be banished from the majors.

Kramer kept pushing for open tennis, frequently raiding the ranks of the
amateurs and stiffening the resolve of the powers at the top until he had
to yield to failure at the box office in 1962. For a brief period, pro
tennis was dead.

That began to change in 1963 when Laver, fresh from his Grand Slam sweep,
joined Rosewall and Hoad on their own pro tour while fellow Aussie Roy
Emerson began to dominate the amateur game. The Aussies, including Margaret
Smith on the women’s side, would rule tennis for most of the rest of the
’60s.

Finally, in 1968, open tennis between pros and amateurs arrived, some 40
years after the issue was first raised, and tennis changed irrevocably.

The first U.S. Open champion that year turned out to be Arthur Ashe, a
black man who could never have gained access to most tennis clubs in
earlier decades.

“In the 1970s,” tennis Hall of Fame writer Bud Collins observed in his
encyclopedia of the game, “tennis became truly the ‘in’ sport of the great
middle class, first in the United States, then abroad.

“In a single decade, the sport threw off and trampled its starched white
flannel past and became a favored diversion of the modern leisure class —
attired in pastels and playing tiebreaker sets in public parks and clubs.

… All this was inspired by the advent of open tennis.”
If only that had been envisioned early in the century by those who
controlled tennis, the history of the game, its greatest players, and,
perhaps, part of our culture, might have turned out different.

BOOK REVIEW

by
Colin Barker
Homeland, John Jake’s formidable novel about the final explosive events of the nineteenth century, in the first in a series that will focus attention on a new “Jakes” family, the Crowns.
Multiple characters and settings at the norm for Jakes; however, this story rivets primary attention on Paul Crown, a young German immigrant. Paul leaves behind a Germany of cholera, poverty, and political upheaval only to face problems of equal magnitude in America.

Undaunted by a difficult ocean crossing, Paul arrives at Ellis Island penniless but naively optimistic about his future. He makes his weary way to the opulent home of his uncle, Joe Crown, a well-established brewer in Chicago. Jakes uses the Chicago setting as a backdrop for his “class struggle” motif which is central to the plot of his story.

Pual’s uncle, Joe, and cousin, Joe Jr., are foils in this class struggle that ultimately fractures the Crown family and forces Paul to leave his uncle’s home to find work on his own. The behavior and work ethic of Joe Jr., who is born to wealth and privilege in America, is juxtaposed with that of immigrant Paul. Jakes portrays Joe Jr. as spoiled and with out focus, especially when compared to Paul’s mature approach to life and work.

Jades utilizes the character of Paul to introduce the reader to the fledgling business of moving pictures. Paul is fascinated with this new “art form;” which involves him in many adventures including war, a brush with death, and marrying his first love.

This first novel of the Crown series does a creditable job in setting the stage for future adventures of Paul Crown and his budding new family.


REFERENCE
Jakes, John. Homeland. New York: Bantam Books, 1994. (Paperback Edition)

Corner Stones of and Ideal Learning Environment

An ideal learning environment for a high school student includes a good size classroom where the student learns, a good home life, no violence, religion, and a social life. All these different kinds of envirments affect the students learning ability. If their classroom is too big, they might not be involved in classroom actives. If their home life is a bad place and they arent getting any time to study their grade suffers. Religion is important because they could go to their church to talk to someone if they have no one to talk to at home. Violence has a major part in a students learning envirment because it can lead to fight and that will get the student kicked out of school. Their social life is important because if you are a shy person, youll wont talk to people when you need help in class.


The classroom size is very important in a high school, because if there are in a class of 30 to 35 kids, the students wont get the attention they need to understand then class. Most kids in high school dont pay attention in class because there might be too many people in it so they tend to just stay quiet and not talk even if they dont understand the material the teacher is teaching. So once that happened they just stop listening to teachers. An example of this is shown in the book Ordinary Resurrections, in chapter 13 Kozol talks about Elio and how he misbehaved in class and didnt do his lessons. It ended up that Elio had to repeat the first grade (159-160). Even though Elios only in first grade at the time, this is the same with kids in high school. Another good thing about small classroom sizes is that, since there arent as many kids in the room. It will help the kids pay better attention because other classmates wont be bothering them.
Another one would be not having any violence around the kids, mainly when they are in school. From my experience while I was in high school, whenever there was a fight that broke out in the hallways we all would run out to see it and afterwards thats all everyone talked about that day in school so I wasnt able to get any work done. What would be ideal about this would be that if school could do what my high school is doing now. Any kid that is walking around the hallway after the bell has rung and doesnt have a pass gets an automatic detention. I know this works because my sister still is in high school and she has told me that theres a lot less fights breaking out then there were last year. Another thing about violence in schools is that it affects the teaching. If a fight breaks out and all the kids were watching it and they go back to class. All they do is talk about the fight so what happens is that the teacher starts to do the same, well thats what happened at my high school. So I think having as less violence as possible in high school the better the kids are going to be and it will make the learning environment better also.


Religion can be a big part of any students life, Kozol shows us by telling us about a kid named Leonard. He has a very bad home life and no body to talk to at home or get help with homework and suffers from depression. So he spends a good part of his day after school at St. Anns. He talks to Kozol about his problems. Kozol also tells us that Leonard is happier when his at St. Anns. Whenever he gets to stand next to Mother Martha and wear the white robe on Sundays, Kozol says that its the happiest he ever sees Leonard (244-245). Kozol shows us a lot of times though out that book that religion plays a big part in the kids lives in Mott Heaven. He tells us that a lot of the kids come to the church after school to do homework and pray. From my experience, religion is very important; it helps me to believe in myself that I can pass a test or even a class that I might be struggling in.


Another one I think is an ideal learning environment is the kids social life.


If a kid is shy, he or she most likely have a harder time in class if they dont understand the material the teacher is teaching. Now if you are a out going type of person and likes to talk and likes to do group active with different people, you most likely wont have a problem in class, because if you are have trouble understanding what the teacher is teaching you wont have a problem asking a classmate or the teacher for help. From my experience in high school the kids that were was shy or didnt talk in class would fall beyond or fail just because they didnt like talking to people or they dont like talking out load to the class. If all they do is just sit in class and not participate and if they dont understand anything that is going on in the class, and they are to shy or not wanting to ask question they will most likely fall beyond. If you are the type that doesnt mind talking to people and asking question in class to understand what the teacher is teaching the class then chances are that you will do well in the class
One more thing is the resource that the kids need in high school. High school is where kids learn how to use the resource to do essays and project, and if they dont have to most recent and updated resources they wont be doing their papers correctly. Learning how to use the right resource for whatever you are doing is very important so if the kids arent learning that then they will be beyond once they get to college. Learning how to use the resource around them will help them though out their live.


The reason I think that going to high school is important part in a kids life is because high school is the beginning step in their lives. High school prepares kids for the next stop they will have to take, to college. I know from my experience that if you dont go to high school or drop out of high school its going to be even harder. I have a friend that dropped out and he finally realized that he made a big mistake and now his has to take night classes to go to college.

Divorce And Children

It seems that more and more marriages are falling apart everyday. Divorce rates
seen to be climbing astronomically. In so many of these divorces there are
children to be considered. What is best for the child? Who will get custody?
Will the child be scarred for life? Its really hard to say. The overall
effects on our children vary according to the factors involved. I am going to
attempt to discuss a few of the problems that can occur with children of
divorced families and what parents can do to ease the transition. I will limit
this discussion to infantile age thru early elementary aged children. Lets
start with understanding the parents role concerning being together or being
apart. Obviously, two parents can provide children with far more guidance,
sustenance, and protection than one, and are more likely to prevent the kinds of
psychological disturbance that may result from deprivations of these necessities
…When one parent is temporarily absent from the intact home, it is likely that
the other will be available to ratify the childs needs in a loving way. This
is not so readily the situation in the divorced home. ( Gardner, 1977). In this
statement he illustrates the importance of having both parents together. This
can be emphasized further with a statement from Buchanan, Maccoby, and Dornbusch
(1996). Childrens parents are their anchors. Parents provide the structure
for childrens daily lives, and even when parents are not functioning very
well, children depend on them for a sense of security that enables them to cope
with their developmental tasks. When one parent leaves the home, the child
realizes a shattering possibility; parents are not always there. It is not hard
to realize that divorce can have a devastating effect on children. Lets brake
it down by age groups; infants, toddlers, and so on. DeBorg (1997) states that
infants do not understand conflict, but may react to changes in parents
energy level and mood. She goes on to list possible reactions like loss of
appetite; upset stomach – may spit up more; more fretful or anxious. She says
that parents should keep their normal routines, and stay calm in front
of the child. Toddlers understand that a parent has moved away, but
doesnt understand why. I know that my son was very confused. He was only
two when my wife and I separated. He seemed to display allot of anger and
insecurity. DeBorg says that a toddlers reactions could include more crying,
clinging; problems sleeping; regression to infant behaviors; and worry when
parent is out of sight. My son, his name is Cody, definitely fits this
profile. He cried constantly. It seemed that nothing would calm him down. If you
got him to go to sleep, good luck keeping him there. As far as infant behaviors
go, his biggest problems were wanting to be rocked like when he was younger and
trying to go back to the bottle. DeBorg say to allow some return to infantile
behaviors, but set clear limits. Easier said than done I can assure you.

Preschoolers dont understand what separation or divorce means, they
realize one parent is not as active in his or her life (DeBorg, 1997).

Their reactions could include pleasant and unpleasant fantasies; feeling
uncertain about the future; feeling responsible; and they may hold their anger
inside. Deborgs first strategy listed for parents is to encourage the
child to talk. This makes sense if you are concerned with straitening out
these issues of anger and feeling responsible. It seems to be the only way to
really understand your childs problems. Gardner (1977, p. 42) talks of
something called the oedipal phase. He explains that this occurs between
ages three and five. This is the period… when a child develops a strong
possessive attachment to the opposite-sexed parent. Gardner says that at
times the attraction can take on mildly sexual overtones toward the
opposite-sexed parent…, but the sexual desires are generally not for
intercourse, the child being too young to appreciate that act. He explains
that if a boy begins sleeping in Mothers bed thoughout the night, an a
continual basis, the likelihood that oedipal problems will arise is great…

this holds true for a father and daughter when they are the ones who remain
together following the separation(p. 91). Learning of this has raised my
concerns for my son. His mother lets him sleep with her every night, and she
believes nothing is wrong with the arrangement. This is a factor I will deal
with on my own, as soon as I figure out what to do. Continuing on to early
elementary age, childrens understanding becomes more apparent. DeBorg (1997)
says that children begin to understand what divorce is, and understand
that her or his parents wont live together anymore and that they may not love
each other as before. Reactions, as she describes, could include feelings of
deception and a sense of loss. Children have hopes that parents will get back
together, and feel rejected by the parent who left. Children of this
age can have symptoms of illness like loss of appetite, sleep problems,
diarrhea and may complain of headaches or stomach aches. DeBorg does
not list any ways of curving these symptoms of illness, however she does list
some strategies for helping these children adjust. She writes, encourage the
child to talk about how he or she feels; answer all questions about changes…;
and reassure the child. From my standpoint, these ideas hold true regardless
of the situation. You should always encourage your children to talk about there
feelings and always take them seriously. A word of advice: Children can adjust
to divorce. It is years of subsequent fighting between their parents, or an
inappropriate child custody plan that can take a terrible toll (Olsen, 1998).

So if you want to help your children succeed, then help them adjust to your
divorce together; mom and dad. Never let them feel that they cannot have a
relationship with the other parent if at all possible.


Bibliography
Gardner, R. A. (1977). The Parents Book About Divorce. Garden City, NY:
Doubleday & Company, Inc. Buchanan, C. M., Maccoby, E. E., & Dornbusch,
S. M. (1996). Adolescents After Divorce. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press. DeBorg, K. (1997). Focus on Kids: The Effects of Divorce On Children.

http://www.nncc.org/child.dev/effectsdivorce.html Olsen, P. (1998). Child
Custody Savvy. http://www.savvypsych.com/
Psychology

Methods of Intelligence

4 JULY 2002
METHODS OF INTELLIGENCE
The essential role of intelligence is not difficult to understand. It is to provide timely, relevant information to U.S. policymakers, decision makers, and war fighters. Accomplishing this mission involves a continuous cycle of steps for intelligence reporting; tasking (planning and directing), collecting, processing and exploitation, analyzing and producing, and disseminating. These five steps are commonly referred to as the intelligence cycle.
There are many ways of collecting intelligence known as disciplines. The five categories of disciplines are as follows: Human-Source Intelligence (HUMINT), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT), Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT), and Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT). The different disciplines are not very useful if intelligence only comes from one resource, but when information is combined from two or more of these resources, one accurate conclusion can be identified.

The first category of intelligence is human-source intelligence or HUMINT. This is the “cloak and dagger” of the intelligence community. Agents are sent out to gather information from human resources such as disgruntled employees, money-troubled patrons, or any person with something to hide. The principle types of collections that HUMINT discipline is associated with are clandestine source acquisition, overt data collection, debriefing of foreign nationals, and official contacts with foreign governments.
The problem with HUMINT is the sometimes-unreliable source. A potentially serious quality control problem arises from the possibility that an agent has been “doubled”, or that he is secretly working for his supposed target and that the information he is providing to his supposed employer is intended to deceive (Shulsky). This kind of situation is commonly reached when an agent is captured and a decision is reached to cooperate with the captors in order to avoid punishment.
The entity responsible for providing guidance among the United States HUMINT collection resources is the National HUMINT Requirements Tasking Center. All collection activity within the HUMINT discipline is arranged through the National HUMINT Collection Directive (NHCD) and managed by the Defense HUMINT Service, under the direction of the Defense Intelligence Agency’s (DIA) National Military Intelligence Collection Center (NMICC).

The next type of intelligence gathering resource is signals intelligence or SIGINT, which can be subdivided into other categories: Communications intelligence (COMINT), telemetry intelligence (TELINT), electronic intelligence (ELINT), and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence (FISINT). The National Security Agency (NSA) is responsible for the majority of the collecting, processing, and reporting intelligence within the SIGINT discipline and receives guidance from the National SIGINT Committee within the NSA, which advises the Director, NSA, and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) on SIGINT policy issues.
The SIGINT discipline is essentially information obtained from intercepted communications, radars, or data transmissions. One of the ways that communication has been deceived in the past was found in World War II. In order to disguise communications during radio transmissions Native Americans from the same tribe where enlisted as radio operators. The Indians would speak their native language to discuss information about opposing Japanese or German forces making it nearly impossible to translate (AFN Pacific). Other types of SIGINT can be found in radar detection devices that allow an operator to know if his unit is being scanned as well as cryptological devices placed on telephones and computers used for classified information.
Another type of information gathering resource is imagery intelligence or IMINT, which is the use of platforms that are either aerial or ground systems to take electro-optical, radar, or infrared images. The different aerial platforms are classified into two different categories: breathing and non-breathing. These images of raw photographed data may not mean much to the layman, but an imagery interpreter will be able to depict, measure, and analyze information from a single image. Although a picture is worth a thousand words, there may not be enough information available unless there is a trained eye analyzing the information presented. The imagery interpreter can also assume one of the most dangerous jobs of battle damage assessment without having to actually be at ground zero. The analyst can give information about a target’s operational capability after it has been bombarded with the use of imagery taken from a safe distance from enemy fire. Imagery interpreters can also perform beach, bridge, highway, terrain, and helicopter landing zone studies without having to travel to the site location.

The Central Imagery Office (CIO) is responsible for management of all aspects of imagery intelligence to include classified and unclassified. The CIO provides guidelines for the requirements, collection, processing, exploitation, dissemination, archiving, and retrieval for all imagery activities within the government.

Another discipline is the measurement and signature intelligence, or MASINT, which is the collection of technically derived data that describes distinctive characteristics of a specific event, such as a nuclear explosion. This intelligence field encompasses a wide variety of disciplines including nuclear, optical, radio frequency, acoustics, seismic, and materials sciences. MASINT can provide specific information such as weapon identifications, chemical compositions, and natural and man-made material content as well as a potential adversaries ability to employ such weapons (Staff Study). This type of intelligence is very new and little is known about its full capabilities, but it must be recognized and will soon more than likely fall under the SIGINT discipline. The Central MASINT Office, a component of DIA’s NMICC is the authority for all MASINT matters.

The discipline within the intelligence field that collects publicly available information is open-source intelligence or OSINT. This information can be collected from printed, verbal, or electronic resources. Printed information can come in the form of rosters of personnel, city maps, business flyers, etc. Verbal information can be collected during conventions, radio broadcasts, television broadcasts, etc. The major resource for OSINT falls in the electronic category with the world-wide-web.
With the invention of the Internet, the OSINT field has a virtually unlimited amount of unclassified information that is available to everyone and is constantly growing everyday. The problem with the Internet, and the OSINT discipline as well, is that there is an over-abundance of information that can be difficult to sift through and find what is useful and what is not.
The Foreign Broadcast Information Service and the National Air Intelligence Center are the major collectors of OSINT, and the Community Open-Source Program Office in the CIA is responsible to develop, coordinate, and oversee the open-source program.

Once intelligence has been collected and analyzed by the area experts, the information is then reported to an all-source fusion center. At this center all the information from as many different sources as possible is gathered, and a final analysis is made. The different disciplines are not very useful if intelligence only comes from one resource, but when information is combined from multiple resources, one accurate conclusion can be identified.

WORKS CITED
AFN Pacific. Narr. Unknown. Military Strategies. Okinawa,
Japan. nd.


Shulsky, Abram, et al. Silent Warfare. 2nd ed. New York:
Macmilillan Publishing Company, 1993.


Staff Study, House of Representatives. MASINT: Measurement
and Signatures Intelligence. nd. ;http://www.fas.org/
irp/congress/1996_rpt/ic21/ic21007.htm;.

Volcanoes



By Tricia Severson
2nd hour Science
4/30/98
A volcano is a vent, or opening, in the surface of the Earth through which magma and
associated gases and ash erupt. The word also refers to the form or structure, usually
conical, produced by accumulations of erupted material. Volcanoes occur mainly near
plate tectonic boundaries and are especially common around the Pacific basin, called the
Pacific Ring of Fire (see Plate Tectonics).
Humanity has long been awed by this powerful force of nature. The Romans attributed
volcanic events to Vulcan, the god of fire and metalworking. In AD 79 the eruption of
Mount Vesuvius destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Polynesians
believe volcanoes to be ruled by the fire goddess Pele. One of the most spectacular
volcanic eruptions in recorded history occurred in 1883 with the explosion of Krakatoa,
an island in the Sunda Strait near Java (see Krakatoa). A more recent example is the
dramatic 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the Cascade Range in Washington State.
Volcano Formation and Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions may be violent, even catastrophic, or relatively mild. The most
explosive eruptions are essentially blasts of steam that create spectacular displays.

Quieter fissure eruptions occur when molten rock pushes through long cracks in the
Earth’s crust and floods the surrounding landscape. Such repeated outpourings of lava can
fill surrounding valleys and bury low hills, creating thick lava sequences that eventually
become plateaus (see Plateau).
The origin of molten rock, referred to by geologists as magma, is not clearly
understood. About 80 percent of all magma is composed of basalt rock. Geophysical
research suggests that volcanic magma forms near the base of the Earth’s crust and moves
upward to a shallow magma chamber before erupting at the surface. Magmas rise
because they are less dense than the rocks at lower depths, and their heat probably
weakens surrounding rocks. The upward movement of magma may also be due to
expanding gases within the molten rock or to chemical reactions that dissolve rocks
above the magma. Volcanic material moves toward the surface through channelways, or
volcanic conduits, and is extruded through vents at the Earth’s surface. (See also Lava
and Magma.)
Eruptions take different forms depending on the composition of the magma when it
reaches the surface. Sudden eruptions are often associated with low-viscosity (more
fluid) magma where the expanding gases form a froth that becomes a light, glassy rock
called pumice. In eruptions of high-viscosity (thicker) magmas, the gas pressure shatters
the rock into fragments. Pyroclastic rocks, formed by volcanic explosion, are named
according to size: volcanic ash if sand-sized or smaller, volcanic bombs if larger.

Consolidated ash is called tuff. Quieter, more passive eruptions release fluid basalt lava
from dikes or dike swarms (magma intrusions that cut across layers of rock). These
eruptions cover large areas and often produce ropy, or pahoehoe, lava flows. Thicker
basalt lava breaks into chunks or blocks, forming blocky lava flows, called aa.
The products of volcanism may be classified into two groups: lava and pyroclastics.

Lava is the fluid phase of volcanic activity. Pyroclastics (also called tephra) are
various-sized particles of hot debris thrown out of a volcano. Whether lava or
pyroclastics are being ejected, the eruption is normally accompanied by the expulsion of
water and gases, many of which are poisonous. Lava usually forms long, narrow rivers of
molten rock that flow down the slopes of a volcano.
Explosive eruptions tend to be spectacular events best observed from a safe distance.

Earthquakes, high columns of vapors, lightning, and strong whirlwinds often accompany
the explosions. The eruption of Krakatoa unleashed a tsunami, a large seismic sea wave,
that swept the coasts of Java and Sumatra and drowned more than 36,000 people. A
volcano can grow with frightening speed and often affects territory far beyond the area
on which the cone forms. When volcanoes are born in the sea, the eruptions may be more
violent than those on land because the contact between molten rock and seawater
produces steam.
Volcanoes also create craters and calderas. Craters are formed either by the massive
collapse of material during volcanic activity, by unusually violent explosions, or later by
erosion during dormancy. Calderas are large, basin-shaped depressions. Most of them are
formed after a magma chamber drains and no longer supports the overlying cone, which
then collapses inward to create the basin. One of the most famous examples is the
still-active Kilauea caldera in Hawaii.
Types of Volcanoes
Volcanoes are usually classified by shape and size. These are determined by such factors
as the volume and type of volcanic material ejected, the sequence and variety of
eruptions, and the environment. Among the most common types are shield volcanoes,
stratovolcanoes, and cinder cones.
Shield volcanoes have a low, broad profile created by highly fluid basalt flows that
spread over wide areas. The fluid basalt cannot build up a cone with sides much steeper
than 7 degrees. Over thousands of years, however, these cones can reach massive size.

The Hawaiian Islands are composed of shield volcanoes that have built up from the sea
floor to the surface some 3 miles (5 kilometers) above. Peaks such as Mauna Loa and
Mauna Kea rise to more than 13,600 feet (4,145 meters) above sea level. Hawaii is the
largest lava structure in the world, while Mauna Loa, if measured from the sea floor, is
the world’s largest mountain in terms of both height and volume.
Stratovolcanoes are the most common volcanic form. They are composed of alternating
layers of lava and pyroclastic material. When a quiet lava flow ends, it creates a seal of
solidified lava within the conduit of the volcano. Pressure gradually builds up below,
setting the stage for a violent blast of pyroclastic material. These alternating cycles repeat
themselves, giving stratovolcanoes a violent reputation.
A cinder cone is a conical hill of mostly cinder-sized pyroclastics. The profile of the
cone is determined by the angle of repose, that is, the steepest angle at which debris
remains stable and does not slide downhill. Larger cinder fragments, which fall near the
summit, can form slopes exceeding 30 degrees. Finer particles are carried farther from
the vent and form gentle slopes of about 10 degrees at the base of the cone. These
volcanoes tend to be explosive but may also extrude some lava. Cinder cones are
numerous, occur in all sizes, and tend to rise steeply above the surrounding area. Those
occurring on the flanks of larger volcanoes are called parasitic cones.
Volcanic activity typically alternates between short active periods and much longer
dormant periods. An extinct volcano is one that is not erupting and is not likely to erupt
in the future. A dormant volcano, while currently inactive, has erupted within historic
times and is likely to do so in the future. An inactive volcano is one that has not been
known to erupt within historic times. Such classification is arbitrary, however, since
almost any volcano is capable of erupting again.
In the late stages of volcanic activity, magma can heat circulating groundwater,
producing hot springs and geysers (see Geyser and Fumarole). A geyser is a hot-water
fountain that spouts intermittently with great force. One of the best-known examples is
Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park. Fumaroles are vents that emit gas fumes or
steam.
Volcanoes occur along belts of tension, where continental plates diverge, and along
belts of compression, where the plates converge. Styles of eruption and types of lava are
associated with different kinds of plate boundaries. Most lavas that issue from vents in
oceanic divergence zones and from midoceanic volcanoes are basaltic. Where ocean
plates collide, the rock types basalt and andesite predominate. Near the zone where an
ocean plate and continental margin converge, consolidated ash flows are found.
Nearly 1,900 volcanoes are active today or known to have been active in historical
times. Of these, almost 90 percent are situated in the Pacific Ring of Fire. This belt partly
coincides with the young mountain ranges of western North and South America, and the
volcanic island arcs fringing the north and western sides of the Pacific basin. The
Mediterranean-Asian orogenic belt has few volcanoes, except for Indonesia and the
Mediterranean where they are more numerous. Oceanic volcanoes are strung along the
world’s oceanic ridges, while the remaining active volcanoes are associated with the
African rift valleys.
Study of Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanology, a branch of geology, is the study of volcanoes and volcanic activity.

Although volcanoes are difficult to study because of the hazards involved, volcano
observatories have existed for decades.
Scientists observe active volcanoes to obtain information that might help predict the
timing and intensity of eruptions. Sensitive instruments detect changes in temperature,
chemical composition of emissions, Earth movements, magnetic fields, gravity, and other
physical properties of the volcano. Modern networks of seismographs provide
information on the internal structure and activity of volcanoes (see Earthquake). The
intensity, frequency, and location of earthquakes provide important clues to volcanic
activity, particularly impending eruptions. Movements of magma typically produce
numerous tremors, sometimes exceeding 1,000 per day. An almost continuous tremor
generally accompanies a lava outpouring. Tiltmeters (instruments that measure tilting of
the ground) help detect swelling and deflation of the volcano caused by the accumulation
and movement of magma. Researchers also monitor variations in the chemistry and
petrology of the lavas and the chemistry of emitted gases.
Volcanoes erupt in a wide variety of ways. Even a single volcano may go through
several eruption phases in one active period. Eruptions are classified according to the
geochemical composition and viscosity of the lavas, nature of the flows or ash release,
and associated phenomena. Magmatic eruptions are the most common, but the most
violent arise from steam explosions when the fiery magma reaches surface water, ice, or
groundwater.
Pelean eruptions, named after the 1902 eruption of Mount Pele on the Caribbean
island of Martinique, are characterized by incandescent flows of rock and pumice
fragments. The entrapment of high-temperature gases in these “glowing avalanches,”
known by the French term nue ardente, is associated with a particularly violent phase of
eruption.
Eruptions of intermediate force are typified by Plinian eruptions, named after Pliny the
Elder, who witnessed the volcanic destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Plinian
eruptions are characterized by both the extrusion of high-viscosity lava flows and the
violent explosion of released gases that blast huge quantities of ash, cinders, bombs, and
blocks skyward. Volcanic mudflows, landslides, and lahars (flows of volcanic debris)
may also follow, particularly if the eruptions are accompanied by rainstorms.
Less violent Hawaiian and Strombolian-type eruptions are associated with fissures that
often produce a line of fire fountains. These geyserlike fountains of lava may shoot
several hundred feet into the air and form a nearly continuous curtain of fire. The basalt
lava is extremely fluid and flows down the mountain sides in torrents. When these
streams reach the sea, they form pillow lavas, lobes of stacked lava that resemble a pile
of pillows.
Volcanoes provide a wealth of natural resources. Emissions of volcanic rock, gas, and
steam are sources of important industrial materials and chemicals, such as pumice, boric
acid, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. In Iceland most of the homes in Reykjavk are
heated by hot water tapped from volcanic springs. Greenhouses heated in the same way
can provide fresh vegetables and tropical fruits to this subarctic island. Geothermal steam
is exploited as a source of energy for the production of electricity in Italy, New Zealand,
the United States, Mexico, Japan, and Russia. The scientific study of volcanoes provides
useful information on Earth processes.

China’s Population Problem

China’s Population Problem
The Chinese government has taken the enforcement of family planning and
birthrate laws to an extreme by violating the civil rights of its citizens,
which has had bad effects on the morale of its people (Whyte 161). China’s
population has grown to such an enormous size that it has become a problem to
both the people and government. China, the most populous country in the world,
has an estimated population of about one thousand-one hundred-thirty three point
six million (Hsu 1). Ninety-four percent of the population thrives in the
eastern half of China, which composes about forty-three percent of China’s total
area (Hsu 1). The eastern half of China contains its most populous cities like
Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. However these cities have a low fertility rate
due to recent bandwagons of birth control. The average density in the eastern
half of China averages around two-hundred and thirty-six people per square
kilometer, whereas the density in the west half averages around ten point six
people persquare kilometer (Hsu 1). Current enforcement of Chinese laws
prevents migration between provinces without proper authorization, as the
citizens in the west half of China have a desire to live in a more urban life
where jobs can be found easier, and the citizens in the more populous eastern
half have a stronger desire to live in the more rural western China (Hsu 4).


The Chinese have always had a large population (Hsu 1). Even in ancient times
where the population would never fall below sixty million (Hsu 1). Later, in
the eighteenth century the population rose exceedingly and China became the
strongest and most economically wealthy (Hsu 1). By the time the Qing Dynasty
ruled, the fertile people of China had reached a population of three-hundred
million (Hsu 1). The birthrate in China did decline in the nineteen-fifties due
to campaigning by the government on birth control (Hsu 1). However, after the
population decreased the government turned their attention to other matters
while the population slowly crept up again. Once again in the nineteen-
seventies the population became an issue and it received the governments full
attention. In order that the government might resolve this problem, the “Wan Xi
Shao” policy, or the “marry later, give longer spacing between children, and
have fewer children” policy began to be enforced (Hsu 2). This policy proved to
have some effect but it did not stop the fertile people of China, and the
population has steadily risen to the current population (Hsu 2).


The recent laws imposed on the people of China include the “One child per family
law”(Hsu 2). This law began to be enforced in nineteen-seventy-nine, so that
the government might achieve its goal of reducing the rate of natural increase
to five per thousand by nineteen-eighty-five, and to zero by the year two-
thousand(Hsu 2). The immense population had become straining on the economy and
resources (Linden 1). Migration to less populous areas of China became
restricted so that the government might be able to control the population more
effectively and easily (Hsu 4). Currently, the “one child per family” law still
exist, but it has become more flexible, in that it allows a second child but
with a longer interval between the first (Hsu 2). Through the health service
programs across China, birth control pills, inter uterine devices, condoms,
diaphragms , foams, and jellies had been distributed in a matter of time
(C.Q.W.R. 1). The government made life easier for those who chose to obey this
law by offering incentives such as: paid maternity leave, time off for breast
feeding, free child care, free contraceptives, and paid time off for abortions
and sterilization (Ehrlich 205). Other rewards for obeying this law and not
exceeding the limit included better housing and educational opportunities for
their children (Ehrlich 205). Doctors “volunteered” their services to sterilize
couples who had finished childbearing, and doctors also provided free abortions
at local clinics and hospitals (Ehrlich 205). However the government has
encountered resistance in rural areas and this has led to many abuses, and one
of the reasons why the government has performed many coerced abortions and
sterilizations (C.Q.W.R. 1).


The Chinese government has committed brutal and unjustified acts against
offenders of the “one child” policy, and in general the enforcement of these
laws has taken the governments undivided attention (Ehrlich 205). Resistance by
traditional citizens who mainly live in less populous areas, have received
involuntary abortions and sterilizations. China has gone to great lengths to
control population, and it has involved reprogramming citizens to have smaller
families and to actively use family planning (Ehrlich 205). Family planning and
policies limiting the number of children in families has received attention from
many countries and issues like this requires the governments full attention and
prevents them from focusing on more important affairs like scientific
advancements and resolving poverty and homelessness (Linden 2). China’s family
planning policies and children limiting laws can be considered as reasonable and
in the interest of the people of China, but because the government takes the
enforcement of these laws to such an extreme shows that they have little
consideration for the Chinese citizens. Means of controlling population that
infringe upon a human beings civil rights have no place among laws and should
merely be taken as a suggestion by the Chinese citizens, and in no way forced
upon them.


If China’s population received no attention the environment and ecosystem would
not be able to with stand the force of such an impact of an immense population
(Linden 1). Numerous species of animals would be put in danger due to the
destruction of their homes for housing needs, and some even driven to the verge
of extinction (Linden 1). Once lush green forests and jungles teaming with life
would be swarming with microbes, cockroaches, weeds, and rats, all of which
would thrive off of such conditions (Linden 1). The best and most reasonable
way to prevent the destruction of the environment and the overuse natural
resources involves the reduction of propagation by nearly half (Linden 1). The
Earth has encountered many problems over the years with the environment and the
ecosystem, many of which relate proportionally to population size. The
consideration of family planning policies and laws remains feasible to most
governments, however inappropriate the people targeted might deem them. A
governments position on a subject has not always proven to have justice in the
favor of its people, but in the long run proves beneficial most of the time.

History has shown that previous attempts to control population have failed and
recent laws enforced appear to be taken to extremes by the government. However
primitive their ways of accomplishing this have shown to be, it must not be
overlooked that it has proved effective in reducing China’s immense population.


Works Cited
1. “Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report” (C. Q. W. R.), June 5, 1993. 2.

Ehrlich, Paul R. The population explosion, Simon and Schauster, New
York, 1990. 3. Hsu, Mei-Ling, “Population of China: Large is not
beautiful” Focus Spring 1992:
vol. 42, no.1. 4. Linden, Eugene. “Too Many People” Times fall 1992:
vol. 140, issue 27, p. 64. 5. Whyte, Martin King, Urban Life in Contemporary
China, The University of
Chicago press, Chicago, 1984.
History

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