Language Essay

Introduction
To awaken from the dream means recognizing the illusory nature of this constricted self concept and perception of the body and mind, not as a means as of gasping at the ephemeral pleasures of the world or as a prison enclosing the self, but as an instrument for learning and communicating in various languages.


Before the Move
Two months before moving to New York, my friend William, thought he would be kind enough to warn me about the vast culture of the, “Big Apple.” William begins by telling me that I would not be able to survive the cultural diversity and I would not be able to get a good paying job or housing because of my ethnicity. Well, was he very wrong. Since I commuted to and from New York three times, a week I decided to put in a transfer from the company I was employed with to work in their satellite office in New York. When speaking with Cindy, one of the customer service representatives already living and working in New York, I mentioned to her that I was relocating to the New York office but did not have a place to live. Immediately, Cindy who I did not meet at the time
offered me full living quarters with all the amenities for a charge of $445.00 a month. Gleefully, I accepted without even looking at the place.


Moving day
I had two oversized suitcases and my brother at my side, who kept telling me to, “You can make it.” Because I was somewhat familiar with my surroundings, it was no problem for me to jump on the “E” train from Manhattan to Queens, New York. It was not until my brother Jerry and I got to Jamaica Queens that William’s words replayed in my mind. “You will not be able to survive the cultural diversity.” There were so many people from different cultural background gathered in one place ranging from: Jamaican, Guyanese, Trinidadians, Indians, Hispanics, Caucasians, Blacks and Mexicans. They were shopping, walking, talking, waiting for the bus and catching the dollar vans, going to their different destinations.

After I stood there for a moment (relieving myself of the shock), while almost getting knocked down, I called Cindy on my cell phone to let her know I had arrived at the arranged pick-up spot. Prior to that day, when speaking with Cindy, I never knew she masked her Trinidadian accent. I heard her loud in clear, when she said, “Chile I’ll be dere and what cha’ look like.” I told her I was black, with golden blond wavy hair, tall, medium built, wearing blue jeans, brown penny loafers and an oxford shirt.

Veil of Illusion
When Cindy drove by four times in her red pathfinder looking for me, I laughed. I had to wave my company backpack so that she would be able to find me. She jumped out of her truck, ran over to me, hugging and touching my face as if she could not believe I was black. Quite naturally, I had to grab her hand to let her know, “I am live and in living color.” Cindy blurted out, “I just knew you were white and no one at the company would
give me a description of how you look, and they just told me wait and see.” I was curious to know why Cindy responded to me they way she did. Therefore, I asked Cindy, “What eluded her to think that I was not black.” Sure enough, she told me, it was the way I spoke and how I pronounced and annunciated my words. It was at that moment when I began to realize the misconception people have when it comes to language and communication.
A month after I settled in apartment at Cindy’s house, I went to go and meet William at the “Puerto Rican Day Parade.” I saw a few of my co-workers and they began speaking Spanish to me, “Como su el fin de samana?” Buena, habla manana por la manana en trabajo (How is your weekend, Good, speak with you tomorrow at work). William had this incredulous look of surprise on his face, because he never new that I spoke Spanish. Since when did not verbally express his surprise, I told him that I learned to speak Spanish when I was taking voice lesson. In addition, I refuse to limit my learning abilities to not understanding others.


Conclusion
The potential alternatives is that through teaching and learning situations, each one learns that giving a message and receiving a message is the same. The demands that is drawn between the cultural roles, the minds, the bodies, the needs, the interest and all the differences people think that separate us from one another weaken, grow dim and disappear when we embrace cultural diversity and language.

political communication

Political Communication
Politics and the media have long been intimately involved with each other, with media strongly setting an agenda in which politics is very important. (Harris 1999,p.167) “Our perceived reality of the real world is largely a product of the media.” (Harris 1999,p.186) It is not known which is the bigger influence but there are definitely two sides to the story. Many studies have attempted to draw definative conclusions, but each yields different answers. Many say that the media has more of an impact on politics than does politics on the media. “The two have always been natural adversaries.” “Skewering each other in print and in conversation, but generally enjoying each other’s company. (Forum)
It is the role of the mass media to keep the general public informed and up to date with current news and events in their community, state, country, and around the world. In politics the media can either build or damage a political figure by changing the public’s opinion. Many people depend heavily on television as their source of information where they see or hear about political issues, events, and policies. Because television is the single most powerful medium of global communication and nightly newscasts are the most frequently watched source of information for the public. (Forum) The mass media is everywhere we turn, from television sets, to airwaves, to print, and even the Internet.
In the media’s role, are they actually giving us the right message or is it a rumor, which you often see in tabloids in which it is created just to sell? 75% of the public believes that the top priority of the media is to find and report important information on public issues. Approximately 18% say that it is to give readers and viewers what they ask for. Less than 6% say that it should be for profit. (Forum) The Forum Magazine (September 1994) also discussed a survey done by Kees, a former executive editor of The Fresno Bee, and former chief of staff of the Republican National Committee. The survey results found many accusations were made about the media. They were more interested in sensationalism than issue, they were political insider’s who can’t report fairly, they didn’t understand the real issues facing the country, they underestimate the public’s taste, and they conspire to disgrace politicians. On the other hand the survey also accused the politicians of wrongful doings. It was stated that they waste taxpayers money on perks, listen to consultants and not the public, listen to the public only when running for office, gain support by promising jobs, and become corrupt. In this situation both have been affected.
“The media frames many issues, which is the central organizing idea for making sense of relevant events, and suggesting what is at issue. News and information have no basic value unless implanted in a meaningful context, which organizes and provides it with logic. It shapes the way the public understands the cause and the solutions to political problems.” (London)
The Media also sets the agenda. Many believe that this works against the democratic process. They determine what people believe to be important issues. When the media focuses on a problem, the public’s opinions on that problem then become altered. This is also true for the president. The president reacts by responding to changes in attention to the media. The media has a strong influence on the policy agenda of public officials. The public’s familiarity with political matters is closely related to the amount and extent of their attention to certain issues received in the mass media. (Edwards 1999, p.328) From this one can say that the media does in fact have the winning hand. “They may not be successful in telling us what to think, but they are successful in telling us what to think about.” (London) Television coverage can affect many attitudes of the public on the importance of certain issues so it should be quite important to public officials to put those on their agenda. A prime example is in the “War on terror” and the media’s view on how the president is dealing with it.

The president is also said to be the agenda setter. “No other single actor can focus attention as clearly, or change the motivations of such a great number of others, as the president.” (Edwards 1999, p.327) Yet others believe that it is the way in which his overall agenda is presented to the public and that is done by the media. There is still argument for both sides but leaning more towards the media.
Presidential elections, campaigns, and policies have always been important in the media and to the public. The media creates a political world that is the basis of the public’s knowledge and the later behavior, such as voting for the president or any public official. The themes and issues that are repeated in the media become important to viewers. Those that are highlighted become especially influential when it comes to choosing a candidate. The media affects evaluations of presidents. Presidential approval is strongly influenced by how the media portrays the candidate to the public. For example, during the Gulf War, George Bush received bad publicity based on his performance with the war even though his prior economic performance was exceptional. (Edwards 1999, p329) The values in which people used to evaluate him on were influenced by what the media had to say. Particular televised political advertising, televised candidate events. And news articles also affect the preferences and opinions of the voters. Televised networks covered a lot about his campaign which possibly aided his election. This just goes to show that the media were wrong in conveying an appropriate understanding of the issues involved.
Campaign information affects voters’ issue preferences, candidate evaluations, and the likelihood of voting. Exposure, reception, and acceptance all play a role in this gathering of campaign information and in the voter perception. Exposure involves one physical proximity to a message. Reception involves actually getting or taking in a message. Lastly acceptance involves allowing the information contained within the message to influence one’s preference, opinion, or attitude. (Shaw 1999,p.347) The more campaign ads seen and the amount of campaigning covered also has a greater effect on the voter turnout and the information gathered about the candidates and the issues. For example, in the election for the New York mayor.The media brought up the fact that Bloomberg spent 69 million dollars on his campaign. Many people questioned if he should have been allowed that amount of money. Campaigns are used to prime the voter’s perceptions of politics and their candidate preferences. “To a considerable degree the art of politics in a democracy is the art of determining which issue dimensions are of major interest to the public or can be made salient in order to win public support.” (London )
Many times the media often bring up the worst in a public official or candidate as seen by that of Gary Condit . They cover low salient issues that are irrelevant to everyday life and also overplay or cover the issue too much. Another example is with the Texas Governor, George W. Bush. The main issue on the media’s mind was the rumor of his past cocaine use. They should have been covering his views on Social Security, HealthCare Reform, Russia , and the Middle-east. The media should be filling in to the public’s knowledge the political issues at stake and who is likely to be the next president of the United States of America. (Kalb 1999)
Coverage of a political event or campaign also plays a significant role in the eye of the public and also to the candidate. “Candidates who do well will receive more attention from the news mediaactive candidates will receive more coverage. The greater the activity by a candidate, the more likely the candidate will receive more coverage.” (Haynes 1998,p.420) News coverage and their input to the public’s information on presidential campaigns are very critical in determining the outcome of the election.
Elections are influenced by two factors. The first being the strength and political skills of the incumbent and the second being the interpretation of the incumbent’s performance by the mass media, particularly television. A study was taken during the 1996 presidential election race between Bill Clinton and Bob Dole. Clinton regained positive news coverage by the major television newscasts by battling with Dole over Medicare and the United States budget. This event was covered live by the media and displayed to the public in an encouraging manner in favor of Bill Clinton which in turn strengthened Clinton’s political image in the eye of the voters. Many news stories came about depicting Clinton as the strong incumbent and it proved successful with an easy victory over Dole in the 1996 election. (Dover 1998,p.47) As seen here the mass media coverage does structure voters ‘ opinions about their political leaders.
Many domestic and foreign policy issues are affected by the media in which are brought to the politicians. These domestic issues consist of education, healthcare, poverty, and crime. The foreign policy issues at hand are the Russian relations, terrorism, and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Crime and terrorism has a high interest value among humans. “Sensitive to contextual cues when they reason about national affairs. Their explanations of issues like terrorism or poverty are critically dependent upon the particular reference points furnished in media presentations.” (Iyengar 1987,p.828) It is an important issue among the media because all people are concerned with there safety. It will be put on the agenda because there are strong incentives for the media and for the politicians, which are to gain mass appeal and to facing the public in elections. (Edwards 1999,p.341)
There have also been an increasing number of women running for public office and gender has now become a common ground for the news media about certain voters, candidates, leaders, and issues. The question is whether or not the media advances or holds back women’s participation in politics. Many news stories about politics tend to be presented in masculine terms, but there is good news, women receive about the same amount of news coverage as men in comparable positions. Over the years the number of women in the mass media has increased. There are many more women journalists, which has resulted in expanded coverage of women’s issues and women as public officials. By publicizing and raising certain issues, this has helped women candidates gain credibility and support among voters. (Pippa 19-41)
The Media Dependency Theory is very important to think about when it comes to political communication. The three main aspect of the theory are the Social system, Media system, and the Audience. The three lead up to and produce the last aspect which is the Effect or what the final product. The social system, which is the government, has goals that have to be met and they are publicity and support. There resources are public funds and legislation. The media system, which is television, newspaper, radio, etc., also has goals which are to make money through the public. Their resources consist of gathering information and dispersing it to the public. The audience is the public like you and me. Our goals are to acquire news, entertainment, and education. Our resources are money and notes. All of these are dependent upon one another through each of their goals and resources. They all affect one another, but some more than others. Each one needs the other in order to create the Effect.
Due to our democratic government and free speech the media can basically due almost anything they want as long as it abides by the FCC. The FCC is the government’s approach to regulate the media. They censor what is broadcast on television and over the radio. Under the president and the senate, five commissioners are appointed to the job. The amount that can be regulated is minimal.
In Summary, the media has a huge and particular impact on society and politics. The media does much to set the policy agenda and influence how the public and those in political office understand it. Politicians not only use the media to influence us viewers, but are themselves influenced by it. The media affects our every day ways of thinking, our intentions, and our norms. What they see as important, we do also. Therefore in my opinion, the news media sets the agenda for what is important.

References
Dover, E. (1998). The presidential election of 1996: Clinton’s incumbency and television. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Edwards, G. (1999, June). Who influences whom? The president , congress, and the media. American Political Science Review. 93. 327-342.

Harris, R. (1999). A cognitive psychology of mass communication. Makwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Haynes, A. & Murray, S. (1998, October). Why do the media cover certain candidates more than others. American Political Science Quarterly. 26. 420-438.

Iyengar, S. (1987, September). Television news and citizen’s explanations of national issues. American Poltical Science Review. p.828.
London, S. (1999). How the media frames political issues.
Pippa, N. (1996) Women, media, and politics. Oxford University.

Shaw, D. (1999, June). The effect of tv ads and candidate appearances on statewide presidential votes, 1988-96). American Political Science Review. 93. 345-361.

The love-hate relationship between politicians and the news media. (1994, September). The Forum Magazine.

Turning of the Tides

“How dare you accuse me of such a thing? Why, I can’t even think of doing anything so horrid let alone act upon such thoughts!”
I knew she was lying. She had this trademark way of stuttering on the ends of her sentences when she lied as if she were reviewing in her mind what had just been said to make sure she was being consistent. I caught it though. I catch it every time.

I eased into my questioning: “Then where were you last night?”
“You know damn well I was with Kathy the entire evening. She came to the house. We drove off together. You even waved to us from the living room window while we pulled out of the driveway! Or have you forgotten about that already? Simple memories such as these should not be so hard to recall. Do you know what it’s like for me to try and argue with someone who has to have events not 24 hours old repeated constantly?”
That was another thing she did whenever she lied. She attempted to shift the blame. But she wasn’t satisfied with just shifting it; she had to twist it and rearrange it until the blame was situated on me for something that had absolutely nothing to do with the initial argument. It was as if she thought she could confuse me into believing the whole thing was my fault. As if I would suddenly feel guilty for her trivial, self proclaimed plight. However, oftentimes this plan of hers would actually work. That was probably why she was still using it now. The only reason I would ever concede to such a weak tactic, though, was to put an end to the relentless banter that would otherwise run endlessly into the night without resolve. But this time the severity of the situation would not be compromised.
I moved onto my next question: “Then refresh my memory once again, if you would. Why is it that when I called Kathy’s last night you weren’t there?”
“But I was there. Kathy told you I had just stepped into the washroom for a minute.”
“Then why weren’t you there when I called ten minutes later?”
“No one was there! When I was finished in the washroom Kathy rushed me out the door to eat at some new restaurant she’d been dying to take me too all month. “
“Really? What was the name of this new restaurant?”
“What is with you tonight? I feel as though I am under interrogation by my own husband! A woman should not have to feel threatened in her own home. I thought we trusted one another, and here you are violating our trust with all of these far-fetched accusations!”
Ah, she speaks of trust! So often has the issue of trust served as a red light in many of our arguments. As a man dedicated to uphold the vows he spoke of on the day of his wedding I was never one to push a conversation any further when she spoke of trust. But I am more prepared for this argument than she could ever imagine. She has desecrated our martial creed and I believe I am entitled to forgo our covenant of trust just this once.

So I continue: “I am violating our trust? The future of our marriage is on the line here and you expect me to stop questioning simply because you mention that word? My trust in you is somewhat lacking at the moment and the only way to redeem my trust is to answer my questions. Surely I deserve some answers.”
“I just don’t see how you can question the integrity of our marriage based on two phone calls you made last night where you couldn’t get a hold of me! There have been many times where you have called me before and were unable to reach me. You never questioned me then. Why now?”
“Think of it as the straw that broke the camels back. There have been many more incidents concerning your absence where I have thought about it; where I have pondered the horrible reality that might be. But it wasn’t until last night that I’ve found myself to be more certain than ever.”
“Listen, last night Kathy and I went to ‘Pacey’s’ on Twelfth Street across from the Starlight Room. Kathy had some exotic dish that I couldn’t even begin to pronounce. I wasn’t all that hungry and ordered only a salad. We both drank from a bottle of Chardonnay but naturally Kathy didn’t drink much because she was driving. At around eight thirty we left and she dropped me off here. Satisfied?”
“Well now that you have had the time to think about it, I’m sure what you’ve told me is true.”
“You are absolutely incorrigible tonight. How do you expect to have a mature conversation about this when you start using snide remarks like that? I don’t need to hear of this any longer. It’s absurd and I’m tired. I am going to bed and I expect to hear no more of this by morning.”
A last ditch effort on her part. She felt the tensions rising and could handle it no longer. She always found some way to set her foot down in the end or sneak in a final word, leaving me the loser of every argument and her the victor. But this time it was I who had my foot raised like a gavel, poised to drop at any moment and cast its judgement. I would not let her get away with this.

I called, revealing the hand I held all this time: “Joseph spoke to me yesterday.”
“You haven’t spoken to your brother in over a year.”
“What do you think he said? He felt guilty as hell for what he had done. So he came clean. He called me after you left his place last night. I wasn’t surprised in the least”
She said nothing. She didn’t have to. Instead, an odd expression crossed her face, one that I had never seen on her in the fourteen years that I had known her. It was puzzling at first, almost paradoxical. Then it hit me, in a satisfying wave of realization. Somewhere in the back of my mind echoed a word that connected the expression on her face with the now painstakingly obvious feeling inside of her. Defeat.


Bibliography:
None

The Supernatural In Macbeth

In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, specific scenes focus the readers’ attention to the suspense and involvement of the supernatural. The use of witches, apparitions and ghosts provide important elements in making the play interesting. Examining certain scenes of the play, it can be determined that as supernatural occurrences develop, Macbeth reflects a darker self-image. Macbeth experiences his first strange encounter of the supernatural when he meets the three witches in act one, scene one. After learning of his prophecies to become king, Macbeth states, “Glamis, and Thane of Cawdor: The greatest is behind (still to come).” (1.3.117-118). Shakespeare uses foreshadowing, a literary technique, to suggest to his readers the character Macbeth will suffer a personality change. Macbeth also implies his first notions of plotting an evil scheme by this comment. After the prophecies of the witches revealed the fate of Macbeth, the quest of the throne will be his next victory. “The witches reveal a fate for Macbeth and imply that a part of what will come to him must come, but they reveal no fate of evil-doing for him and never, even by suggestion, bind him to evil doing. “, states literary critic Willard Furnham. Furnham declares the only power the witches obtain over Macbeth is the power of insinuation. By offering to Macbeth the idea of power, the witches push Macbeth to the next level of greed and evil that did not exist prior to the encounter. The murder of King Duncan initiates Macbeth’s second encounter with the supernatural when he witnesses a floating dagger. As Macbeth awaits the signal to make his way up the stairs, he sees the floating dagger and proclaims, ” Come, let me clutch thee. I have thee not, fatal vision, sensible (able to be felt) to feeling as to sight, or art thou but a dagger of the mind, a false creation, proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain?” (2.2.33-38). This apparition confuses and frightens Macbeth. He can not comprehend how he can see something and not be able to touch it. “Thou leads me the way I was going; and such an instrument I was to use. And on thy blade and hilt, drops of blood which was not so before. There’s no such thing. It is bloody business which takes shape.” (2.2.43-49) Here, Macbeth begins to question whether his mind is playing tricks on him. The situation seems quite coincidental considering he is minutes from murdering a man with a similar weapon. He states the apparition takes place due to the bloody business about to occur. The dagger symbolizes the point of no return for Macbeth. If he chooses the path in which the dagger leads, there will be no turning back. Macbeth fears Banquo due to his prophecy to father kings, so Macbeth proceeds to plot the murder of his once friend, which spurs yet another brush with the supernatural. Macbeth attends a banquet at which he witnesses the ghost of his dead friend. (3.4.37-145) The fortunes of the three witches sparked Macbeth’s desire to murder Banquo and caused him to dig himself into a deeper hole. Macbeth’s guilt and fear combined drive him to darker and more evil actions in an attempt to cover his past misdeeds. “What man dare, I dare. Approach though like the rugged Russian bear, the armed rhinoceros, or th’ Hyrcan tiger; Take any shape but that (Banquo) and my firm nerves shall never tremble.” (3.4.100-104) Macbeth feels frightened at the sight of the bloody ghost haunting him and is angered that the ghost revealed it self to him. His guilt causes him to proclaim he could take on a rhino, tiger or any other wild animal, but not Banquo’s ghost. After his encounter with the ghost, Macbeth proceeds to visit the witches one last time to insure his security. After this last visit, Macbeth becomes overconfident and a tyrant, which cause his downfall. The use of supernatural in Macbeth, provides the suspenseful nature of his work. Without the witches, apparitions and the ghost, Macbeth could not have reached his downfall. The use of supernatural in Macbeth caused Macbeth to become a darker and more evil person with each paranormal encounter. BibliographyFarnham,Willard. “The Witches.” 20th Century Interpretations of Macbeth Ed. Terence Hawkes. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1982 p.61-62

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight D. Eisenhower was born on October 14,1890 in Denison Texas. His parents were David Jacob Eisenhower and Ida Stover Eisenhower. He had two older brothers Arthur and Edgar and three youger ones Roy,Earl and Milton. Predictions made
in his highschool year book saw Dwight as becoming a history professor and strangly enough his older brother Edgar becoming President of the UnitedStates.


Many happenings in Dwight’s life show leadership ability. In 1941 Eisenhower was appointed by the army to plan the stradegy for the Third Army in war games in Louisianna. He brilliantly defeated the “enemy force”. This performance earned him a
promotion to general in September 1941. The U.S. enterred World War 2 in December of 1941. After Japans attack on Pearl Habor General George C Marshall ,Army Chief of Staff, brought Eisenhower to Washington D.C. to serve in the Army’s war plans
division. He was then named commanding general of the U.S. forces in the European Theatre of Operations. In July of 1942 Eisenhower became lieutenant general. Also named commander of allied forces to invade North Africa. The invasion resulted
in the recapturing of the reigon from german and italian forces. Eisenhower became a four star general in February 1943. In all these campaigns he worked to create unnity between all the foreign commanders. Many americans viewd this to be a very difficult job.


Eisenhower said ” Good leadership was not a matter of issuing orders but it was a matter of enforcing obedience instead”. With Eisenhower having all the experience in leadership, many americans thought Eisenhower would make a great president. During the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower he was faced with many difficult tasks or
decisions. When Dwight D. Eisenhower was running for office he had promised that he would travel personally to Korea to astablish a truce. In the middle of the year 1953 he full filled this promise. In 1954 Eisenhower sent protection to South Vietnam in 1954
in an effort to prevent its take over by Communist-run North Vietnam. He also launched a major federal public works program that established the national interstate highway system and the Saint Lawrence Sea Way.


In the year 1956 he was forced to deal with his first domestic crisis, the violent reaction to the court ordered racial segregation in Little Rock,Arkansas. Nationalizing the Arkansas National Guard and sending in additional troops quickly restored peace. In 1961 Eisenhower cut off diplomatic relations with Cuba in response to the Cuban Revolution of 1959. These are just a few difficult decisions that Eisenhower had to make during his presidency. The american public had faith in their president to make the right decison. Eisenhower had full suport from the american public.


Donated By:Wade Hamilton

The Negative Effects of Nuclear Energy

In 1950, the first commercial nuclear power
plants were constructed. The public was promised
a non-polluting and resourceful type of energy, but
how safe was, and is, nuclear energy? Although
there are less than 500 licensed nuclear power
plants in the world, many nuclear accidents have
already been endangering civilian lives. More
serious accidents are not just likely, but inevitable
(Fairchild 29). Nuclear energy may appear to be
the ideal source of energy for the future: however,
there are many negative effects of nuclear energy
that can lead to very dangerous situations.


Energy has always been among the basic human
concerns, along with food and shelter. It takes
part in all activities, from walking to the operation
of even the most complicated equipment. Mankind
has been faced with the challenge of meeting its
energy needs without risking human health and the
environment.
The many types of energy are mechanical, thermal,
chemical, electrical, radiant, and atomic (Microsoft
Encarta). In 1987, oil supplied 32% of the energy
worldwide. Coal was next in line with 26%, then
natural gas with 17%, biomass 15%, and nuclear
energy with only 4% (Galperin 19). With the main
sources of our energy running low, nations look to
new sources to provide our society with power.

Nuclear energy, the newest type of energy, was
researched to see if it would be the most
promising type of energy for the future.
Surprisingly, nuclear energy was discovered by
accident. In 1896, the French scientist, Antoine
Henri Becquerel, conducted an experiment with
uranium salts and found that these salts gave off
their own light when exposed to sunlight. Marie
and Pierre Curie were fascinated by the
possibilities of Becquerel’s rays. The Curies
discovered exactly what the rays were and then
named the phenomenon radioactivity (Halacy 6).
During World War II, many scientists from around
the world came to the United States to work on
nuclear reactors and weapons. With much
success, they continued after World War II and
concentrated more on nuclear energy. The
scientists instantly saw that nuclear energy would
be a great source of power because of the amount
of power it released. Splitting an amount of
uranium equal to one penny would produce as
much energy as seven and a half tons of coal
(Lilienthal 85).
A nuclear power plant is where energy is formed
when nuclear fission or fusion takes place. So far,
however, only the power of fission has been
controlled and used for energy. There are many
parts of the nuclear power plant, including the
reactor, generator, control room, cooling systems,
and the electrical, air, and water lines. The heart of
the nuclear power plant is its reactor core, which
contains a few hundred fuel assemblies. The
reactor core is encased in a pressured steel tank
with walls several inches thick. In most reactors,
this vessel is enclosed in a containment structure.

This is a steel-reinforced concrete dome that is
about three feet thick and serves as the outermost
barrier between the plant and the environment
around it. This helps prevent radiation from
escaping the plant (Galperin 42).
There are many different types of nuclear reactors,
but all the power plants in the United States and
more than three-quarters of those worldwide are
light-water reactors. There are two types of
light-water reactors, which are boiling-water and
pressurized-water reactors. Both types use
ordinary water as coolant and require enriched
uranium (Microsoft Encarta).
In boiling-water reactors, cooling water surrounds
fuel assemblies. The heat of nuclear fission makes
the water boil and the steam produced is carried
away from the core to the turbines. Once its work
is done, the steam is condensed to water and it
returns to the reactor (Galperin 44).
The pressurized-water reactor is more commonly
used than the boiling-water reactor. This reactor
seals the cooling water in a closed loop and adds
a heat-exchange system. Water in the reactor core
gets hot, but it does not turn to steam. The hot
water is piped through a steam generator and
converts a secondary water supply into steam to
power the turbine. The two water supplies do not
mix (Galperin 45).
A gas-cooled reactor is similar to a
pressurized-water reactor. The only main
difference is that helium or carbon dioxide gas
replaces the water in the primary loop. These
reactors cost more to operate and to build, but are
more energy efficient (Galperin 46).
The last main type of reactor is a breeder-reactor.

This is very different then other reactors because it
produces more fissionable material then it
consumes. A breeder reactor fuels with a
combination of plutonium and uranium. A breeder
reactor would be extremely useful if uranium was
scarce. It takes about 10 to 60 years to use up the
fuel from just one cycle (Galperin 46).
Radiation is very strong in the nuclear waste of
power plants. Nuclear waste exists in several
forms. One form is called high-level waste, and the
other is called low-level waste. High-level waste is
mostly from the used fuel rods and other materials
exposed to as much radiation as they are.

High-level wastes can let out very large amounts
of radiation for thousands of years. There is no
place to store this waste that is safe, and it will
always be radioactive. But for now, they are
stored in the ground. Other proposed storing
solutions are sending it to space, burying it in the
core of the earth, burying it in the ocean, or
burying it under the Antarctic ice. Even these ideas
have the potential of severely damaging the earth.

An example of low-level waste is the waste left in
the reactor water. This waste is less radioactive,
but is still very dangerous (Galperin 65).


Two engineers in Connecticut have, not too long
ago, caught the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) in a dangerous game of disobeying the
rules. The NRC has been regularly disobeying
safety rules to let plants keep the cost down and
stay open to operate (Microsoft Encarta). Two
senior engineers started questioning after one of
them had checked the specifications of the cooling
system in a power plant.
After eighteen months of operation, a nuclear
power plant is temporarily shut down. They have
to get rid of the used fuel rods and replace them
with new ones. The old rods are very hot and
radioactive. Places to store the old fuel rods are
rather limited, especially since the federal
government has never designated an official
storage place for this high-level waste. So where
do you used fuel rods go?
Used fuel rods are kept at a fuel pool at the plant
until they can find a storage place for them. Fuel
pools were created to keep the fuel rods for short
periods of time. The fuel pool is not supposed to
be filled to capacity. This is only to be a last
resort. In the fuel pool, a cooling system cools the
used, hot, radioactive fuel rods. The more fuel
rods that are stored, the more heat. This, in turn,
causes more danger. If the cooling system fails, the
pool could boil, turning the plant into a lethal sauna
filled with radioactive steam (Microsoft Encarta).


George Galatis, an employee at Millstone-1
Nuclear Facility, had been checking specifications
and realized that the reports of safety in the fuel
pool had not been kept. He did some checking of
his own on this, and discovered that the plant had
been putting almost three times as many fuel rods
in the fuel pool as they were supposed to. He
wanted to report this to the NRC right away, but
he knew that some nuclear facilities, like this one,
was known to harass and even fire employees
who raised safety concerns. Therefore, he teamed
up with another employee at the plant, George
Betancourt, and brought the issue up to the
supervisors of the plant. They completely denied
the problem. Galatis and Betancourt then took the
problem to the NRC themselves and found that
the NRC had been ignoring the problem for over a
decade.
Nuclear facility scandals have not just been
happening recently. They have been going on since
the very beginning of nuclear energy. The nuclear
accident of Chelyabinsk-40 is one of the
earliest-known disasters. The Chelyabinsk-40
reactor was located near the Ural Mountains in the
city of Kyshtym, Russia. A tank holding
radioactive gases exploded, contaminating land
thousands of miles around the plant. Until 1988,
Russia officials dared to admit that this event even
took place. Many things are still unknown about
this disaster. What we do know, however, is that
the region around the reactor is sealed, and more
than 30 towns in the area around it have
disappeared from the Soviet map (Galperin 74).


In a town several miles north of Liverpool,
England, there was the nuclear repossessing plant
called Windscale. In 1957, the plant graphite
moderator overheated. The temperature indicators
did not recognize the problem in time, so a large
amount of radiation escaped, contaminating two
hundred miles of countryside. This accident is said
to have caused birth defects, cancer, and leukemia
in many people who were near the site (Schneider
4).
In 1975, at Brown’s Ferry Nuclear Plant in
Decatur, Alabama, there was another nuclear
accident. A maintenance worker was checking air
leaks with a candle. This was against regulations
and caused the plant to catch on fire. A meltdown
was luckily prevented, but a worse disaster
certainly could have happened (Galperin 75).


The worst nuclear accident in the United States
occurred in 1979 at Three Mile Island. This
reactor was located in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Many of these reactors had poor safety records
and an NRC inspector suggested that they be
evaluated. Despite this inspector’s suggestion,
nothing was done. During the cleaning of a sector
of the plant, one pump failed which caused the
temperatures to rise in the cooling circuit. The
safety devices had turned on and started to work
properly. However, after they cooled the circuit,
the safety devices never turned off. They
eventually used all the coolant and the
temperatures began to rise. A meltdown began
and citizens started evacuating. It is uncertain how
much radiation escaped into the air from it. The
plant then had to be cleaned up and sealed off.

Part of this process is still going on, and the
estimated cost upon completion is around two
billion dollars (Stephens 174).
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Russia was the
worst accident in nuclear history. It took three
days of meltdown for the nuclear plant officials to
even realize there was a problem. The problem
was discovered when technicians in countries
bordering Russia noticed high radiation levels and
decided it was coming from Chernobyl.

Explosions were shooting radiation into the air
because Chernobyl was not built with a
containment structure. The radiation was carried
great distances by the air currents. The radiation
that escaped into the atmosphere was more
radioactive than the atomic bombs dropped on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Fires also raged
throughout the complex, which made it hard to
control the situation. It was stated that five million
people were exposed to the radioactive fallout in
Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Predictions were
made that 40,000 cases of cancer are going to be
linked directly to the Chernobyl accident (Galperin
82).
Chernobyl and other accidents help create a
growing resistance to nuclear energy. This is
because radiation sickness and other harmful
effects from over-exposure to radiation have
occurred. Every person in the world is exposed to
radiation. It comes from things such as potassium
in food, radon gases, and uranium decay. The
amount of radiation one is exposed to depends on
location, eating habits, as well as many other
things. Yet, too much radiation exposure is
definitely fatal.
How can nuclear power plants be trusted when
they are more concerned with saving money, then
protecting lives? They are violating safety
standards and the government is just watching
them do it. There are probably many other
violations that are taking place to let the plants
continue to operate and compete as a source of
power. If the NRC suddenly decided to enforce
all of its rules, then a majority of nuclear power
plants would have to be shut down. What do you
believe holds more importance: saving money, or
saving lives?
Nuclear energy displays both the brilliance of man
and the devastating destruction that mankind can
cause. The potential of nuclear energy has caused
great excitement. However, the destruction of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as the many
nuclear power plant accidents and the many
dangers of radioactivity, have given the world
reason to pause and consider the dangerous
possibilities of nuclear disaster.

Airport Security

PROBLEMS IN AIRPORT SECURITY
The crash of TWA Flight 800 combined with increased terrorism in airports
had led to more rigid security measures. Anyone who has flown recently has
discovered that at most airports when you want to get your boarding pass,
you must show a picture identification. This same procedure is followed when
checking your baggage outside the terminal building.


Considering the bombing of the World Towers, the Federal Building in
Oklahoma City, and the bomb found in Atlanta Americans need to take security
for all public places more seriously. This is especially true at airports
where the security measures taken in other countries, such as Britain and
Israel, are far more rigid and effective. Given the alarmingly increased
numbers of terrorist attacks in the world, it is only prudent to institute
and comply with rigid security standards at all airports no matter where
they are located. Unfortunately, this is not the case.


Most of the security devices being used in airports today are the same as
those used in the 1970s when the major concern was hijackings, not terrorist
bombings. These machines can detect metal but they cannot detect the
sophisticated explosive materials used in today’s world. Even more
frightening is the fact that most of the luggage and mail checked for
domestic flights is not even X-rayed (Fischetti 38).


Flagrant violations at many airports even in the United States have been
discovered during “spot-checks” of security measures. This paper will
discuss some of the problems found, the major problem areas, why terrorists
choose their targets and the various technological devices that could
dramatically improve security at all airports.


The airline that has the best reputation for security is El Al, the Israeli
national airline. Isaac Yeffet who was director of security for El Al for
six years was a member of a team that conducted a review of major airports
in the world in the late 1980s. The team found flagrant abuses and
violations of basic security measures in nearly every airport they visited
including the loading of uninspected baggage that had not even been x-rayed
(Barnes 135). The report was so well known, it is amazing that some of the
same violations found more than a decade ago still exist today.


Why Terrorists Select Specific Locations
Terrorist acts are typically a response to a specific political or military
act (Barnes 132). In recent years, terrorists have attacked on the
anniversaries of the death of a leader who supported their cause (Searle,
et.al. 2). They look for the weakest spots that will also create the most
fear (Barnes 132). Airports and airplanes are a prime target due to the
large numbers of people who are placed in jeopardy by their threats or the
large numbers who will dies as a result of a bombing. Airports, in many
cases, are easy targets for a variety of reasons: they are often
understaffed; security personnel do not receive adequate and ongoing
training; machines used to detect possible materials are out of date;
security measures that are in place are not followed (Searle, et.al. 2). It
is surprisingly easy to gain access to restricted areas in many airports in
the world, including areas that lead directly to the tarmac where planes are
parked.


Security Problems
Airports where significant problems with security can be found are not
limited to countries where internal strife has been present for years nor
are they limited to Asian or Arabian countries although the incidence is far
greater in these countries. For instance, there are periodic hijackings and
bomb threats on the route between Beijing and Taiwan, China; the security
measures and adherence to them vacillates between good and poor. But other
countries do not implement appropriate security measures at all; Athens,
Greece is one of those (Strecker 161).


Dulles International Airport is a major hub in the world. Dignitaries from
all over the world fly in and out of this airport located only 25 miles from
downtown Washington, D.C. In November 1997, a spot check of Dulles revealed
several problems were observed:
In the baggage claim area a door marked “”WARNING, No Trespassing,
Restricted Area” was left open for more than an hour with not security
guard present. These kinds of restricted areas are adjacent to the tarmac
where planes are packed and baggage containers are loaded into the planes.

Anyone could have walked through and planted an exploding device.


When the screening one person’s carry-on bag indicated a hand search should
be conducted, the person at the security check point began to unzip the bag
but when the person asked why the hand search was being conducted, the
screener quickly rezipped the bag and let the person move on without
examining the contents of the bag.


_The reporter doing the study passed through the carry-on baggage
checkpoints five times without holding a ticket or being asked for his
ticket. The FAA leaves this option up to the individual airlines and
airports but Denver, San Francisco and New York do not allow unticketed
persons beyond the security points.


AT one of the airline ticket counters that was being renovated, an area that
leads directly to the departure gate was left unguarded. A cordon of
construction tape was the only barrier to the area (Stoller 12).


Another reporter recently successfully walked past security guards at
Newark’s airport. Newark Airport is a hub for New York City and it is the
13th busiest airport in the United States. The reporter was able to enter
various baggage areas through unlocked doors and the only guard he saw was
asleep. He was able to walk onto the tarmac and right to a parked plane. He
was never stopped or asked what he was doing there (Fay 1).


Another flagrant violation observed concerned another passenger. The
security machine went off when he passed through it; he took off his jacket,
handed it to the security officer and then walked through without the bells
going off. The security officer then handed the passenger his jacket without
having the pockets emptied for investigation (Fay 2).


The reporter also observed luggage that was scheduled for different
international flights neither X-rayed nor hand-searched by any airport
personnel. In fact, he found the machines were there in the baggage rooms
but they were just not being used (Fay 1).


Checking checked baggage in the United States is not taken very seriously.

IN an investigation, Lane discovered that the federal government has spent
more than $200 million in developing technology to detect bombs since the
late 1970s but it has not implemented baggage screening machines that are
capable of detecting plastic-explosive bombs like the one that took down Pan
Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland eight years ago (6). More alarming is
the fact that baggage checked in the U.S. on domestic flights is seldom
screened at all (Fishetti 38; Lane 6) and on international flights, many
airlines use only conventional X-ray machines which are incapable of
detecting small amounts of plastic explosives (6).


The most serious problem airports face is connecting luggage to passengers.

The most glaring lack in airport security in the United States is screening
luggage. There are machines, however, that can do both but they are costly.


Security Devices Available
There are numerous hi-tech security devices available. For instance, STI has
developed an integrated security and safety system they call FotoTag. The
system allows operations and security personnel to track the movements of
visitors, passengers, employees, vendors and baggage from check-in to
boarding and more. The system requires a LAN in order to work. FotoTag uses
the latest technology to integrate digital images and bar codes. Passengers
are digitally photographed when they check in and is given a security status
while their bags and boarding passes are being assigned with corresponding
bar codes. The passenger and his or her bags can then be verified at any
security station at the airport. The same system is used to verify any other
baggage, cargo and even employees (STI 3).


The best X-ray machine available for screening bags is the CTX-5000 which is
a computer-tomography machine. It takes cross-sectional slices and combines
them into three-dimensional images. The process is fairly slow because two
machines have to operate in parallel fashion to scan the bags thus the
screeners are able to process only about 450 bags an hour. The cost is $1
million per machine. O’Hare airport in Chicago has two of the 50 machines
that are currently in use (Fischetti 43).


Although some companies are in the process of developing similar machines
that will cost about half that price, they are still very expensive and this
is the dilemma. Who is going to pay the price?
Conclusion
Airport security is a major concern across the world. Some airports are
safer than others, of course, but it would seem that here in the United
States several areas are not attended to as carefully as they should be.

Baggage screening is one of those areas. The technology exists but it is
costly and one question that is often asked is: is it worth it to spend that
amount of money. Perhaps, the officials asking this question should pose it
to the survivors of victims. There can be no doubt about their answer —
yes, it is worth it.


Works Cited
Barnes, Edward. “The Next Bomb: ‘No Airport In The U.S. Is Safe'” LIFE,
(1989): March 1, pp. 132 – 138.


Fay, Jim. “Terrorism.” Computer Sentry, URL:
http://www.infowar.com/class_3/class3_5.html-ssi
Fischetti, Mark. “Defusing Airline Terrorism.” Technology Review, Vol. 100,
pp. 38 – 47.


Lane, Earl “Drive For Perfect Security Device Blocks Other Avenues.”
Newsday, (1996): December 19, pp. 6 – 8.


Searle, Clay, Kempshall, Dick and Hughes, Jim. “Profile System.” PLES
Professional Law Enforcement, (1997): URL: http://www.ples.com/index.html
STI “Breezecom Chosen For Revolutionary Airport Security System.” Software
Technology Profile, (1996): November, pp. 1 – 3.


Stoller, Gary. “Security Gets Better; Still Has Flaws.” USA Today (1997):
November 18, p. 12.


Strecker, Erica, “Cross-Strait Air Piracy: Its Impact On ROC-PRC Relations.”
(1994): An American Review, (1994): Vol. 21, pp. 148 – 171.


reening luggage. There are machines, however, that can do both but they are
costly.

Separation as a theme in robert frost’s poet

ryThe creation of borders and boundaries has been around since the beginning of civilization. The division of property and possessions among individuals establishes a sense of self-worth. The erection of fences and walls keeps property separate. Walls also serve as a means of separating worlds. Modern society demands the creation, and maintenance of these boundaries. In his poems, The Tuft of Flowers, and Mending Wall, Robert Frost explores the role that walls play in our lives. He examines how the lives of men are both separated, and drawn together by walls.
In The Tuft of Flowers, Frost shows how men work alone. In contrast, Frost then shows how men can work together through their separation. Frost describes how a simple, uncut tuft of wild flowers can unite two separate people. The appreciation of natures beauty has an effect on the mower, leading him away from cutting the flowers. The man that follows the mower feels a special kinship to him because he also likes the flowers. The beauty of a simple patch of flowers brings the narrator to realize that although he may work by himself, he is part of something bigger; the human race.
Frost also demonstrates how men never exist alone when surrounded by nature. In The Tuft of Flowers, the speaker thinks he works alone. Then frost writes, But as I said it, swift there passed me by on noiseless wing a wildred butterfly (18). The Butterfly becomes the speakers morning companion, and its flight leads the speaker to the flowers. He serves to help lead the man
to realize that life and beauty unite all things. Frost writes, The butterfly and I had lit upon, Nevertheless a message from the dawn (19). By directing the man to the flowers, the butterfly becomes an important character in this poem.


Mending Wall takes up where the theme of The Tuft of Flowers leaves off. In Mending Wall, two neighbors repair the wall that divides their property. The speaker realizes that questioning the existing wall is senseless, but he likes to view the task of repairing the wall playfully. Frost writes, Oh, just another kind of out-door game (28). As if playing a game, the speaker tends to his side of the field, and his neighbor to the opposing side. Frost writes, Spring is the mischief in me (28). By this, the speaker knows that the acceptance of the wall is a way of life, and that his questions against the wall will produce no substantial answers. Wallace writes, Frost knows as well how radical and difficult it is to take in another, and yet maintain a sense of ones own and the others distinctness (227). The statement encompasses the entire theme of Mending Wall.


The poems central moment occurs when the narrators tone shifts from playful to dark. This is apparent when Frost writes, I see him there bringing a stone grasped firmly by the top in each hand, like and old-stone savage armed. He moves in darkness as it seems to me, not of woods only and of shade of trees (29). At this point, the speaker sees the distance between himself and his neighbor. He also sees darkness in the neighbors acceptance of the simple phrase, Good fences make good neighbors. The neighbor hides behind the repetition of this phrase. The speaker also hides, but behind his teasing questions. Patricia Wallace writes, He realizes that it seems to him the neighbor is surrounded and enclosed by something like darkness, a darkness perceptible to the speaker who must know his own separateness more full (227). The wall separates the two men, but brings them together in time of repair.


A wall serves as a reminder of the unique individuality of each person. It can also serve as a challenge to climb. A wall can be a driving force to overcome the individual world and to peer over to the world of another. Robert Frost explores the role that walls play in life. He describes the individual world that each man exists in, but shows how these worlds are parallel. The task of life unites all living things. In these poems, The Tuft of Flowers, and Mending Wall, Frost helps ease the lifes harsh complexities through simple verse.

Maus

Maus is one of the most famous of recent graphic novels. Winner of the prestigious Pulitzer prize for literature, it’s the harrowing true story of a Jewish holocaust survivor, retold to his son decades later.


The story has two main threads. The first is the true story of Holocaust survivor Vladek Spiegelman’s experiences as a young Jewish man during the horrors leading up to and including his confinement in Auschwitz. The second intertwining story is about Vladek as an old man, recounting his history to his son Art, the author of the book, and the complicated relationship between the two of them. It’s a difficult process for both father and son, as Vladek tries to make sense of his twighlight years, indelibly marked by his experiences and a slave to the processes he had to resort to in order to make it through. On this level, it’s also about Art, as he comes to terms with what his father went through, while still finding the more irritating aspects of his father’s personality difficult to live with.


Maus uses anthropomorphic characters, using different species of animal to represent the different characters’ race or nationality – Jews are mice, Germans are cats, Americans are dogs and the Polish are pigs. This doesn’t always quite work, though Spiegleman is acutely aware of this as he struggles with whether or not to make his French wife, converted to Judaism before they got married, into a mouse or some other species. Please don’t instantly dismiss this as childish nonsense though – it owes more to Animal Farm than Mickey Mouse.


It’s a sad tale, as although Vladek survives the Holocaust, the shadow of the great swathe of humanity that was butchered by the Nazi killing factories hangs over the entire book. It is also haunted by the ghosts of Vladek’s first wife Anja and their son Richieu; the former surviving Auchwitz but eventually committing suicide, the latter not making it out of Poland.


This book, originally a two volume work is now available in an excellent ‘complete’ edition in the UK, which binds both chilling volumes into one and is an excellent way for new readers to get hold of this classic work of literature. Readers in other countries have to buy a boxed set to get both volumes together, but it’s well worth it for this truly unique experience, unrepeatable in any other medium, and certain to go down in history as an extraordinary piece of work.

Franz Boas On Fashion Deviation

Franz Boas on Fashion Deviation
Franz Boas believes that, any action that differs from those performed by us habitually strikes us immediately as ridiculous or objectionable (Jacobus, 606). This is true, particularly when it comes to deviations from the implied dress code of society. Boas uses examples such as: formal dress worn in casual places, and out of style clothes from past centuries worn today. When we see this, we automatically think the person wearing these things is outlandish.
Culture in San Antonio, Texas is very diverse and there are many different opinions of what is acceptable to wear and what is unacceptable. In some communities, people are dressed in exceedingly baggy pants and t-shirts. In other areas the dress is more traditional: nice pants, shirts and classy dresses. In each region, if someone strays from these guidelines, they are immediately thought to be abnormal.
Dress isnt an indication of sanity, but people often treat it like it is. They label those who dress differently as weird and treat them crudely, unjustifiably. In most cases, when someone strays from the normal code of dress, the person is simply trying to express him/herself. They feel the need to be independent and individual, so they do something different from what everyone else conforms to. They like and accept who they are, and they show it through their clothing. They arent trying to make a scene, or cause a stir, they do it for themselves.

In some cases, however, the non-conformists are trying to arouse reactions from those around them. They are seeking attention, and by wearing unusual clothing they usually get it. Your eye is naturally drawn to something out of the ordinary. If in a sea of people dressed in black there is a man wearing bright orange, who is your attention focused upon? The orange guy, of course! These days, there are more and more orange guys out there. People want to be noticed, so they do something like wear eccentric clothing to get recognition. It has almost become fashionable to be unfashionably dressed.

Reactions to unique dress vary from person to person, depending upon what he is used to. For someone who grew up in the past, in a pleasant town where all the boys dress in nice slacks and collared shirts, seeing a young boy walk across the street wearing baggy jeans and a wrinkled t-shirt is uncanny. They automatically stereotype that boy as being unkempt and disobedient because they have always been taught that the traditional way to dress is the right way to dress. Those living in a big city, where there are all different kinds of people, are used to seeing people dressed in dissimilar ways. There would hardly be a reaction to the sight of the same unkempt boy in such a society.

Boas showed that each culture is distinct, and culture is based upon tradition. Today, changes in our culture are rapid, endless, and sometimes traumatic (Jacobus, 600). Cultures are becoming unstable, and peoples views are becoming more unconventional. People are drifting from their traditional culture and are feeling more freedom. One of the ways they take advantage of this newfound freedom, is by deviating from the normal code of dress. Deviations from the norm are often strongly resented, and judgment is placed upon people simply because of what they are wearing.

Although some people view those who are individualistic to be bizarre, the opinion of the general public is becoming more receptive. People are becoming more accepting and willing to look past appearances and see the person inside.


Social Issues Essays