The Workings and Structure of the Heart

Introduction
For homeostasis to remain balanced throughout the body millions of respiring cells need to discard carbon dioxide and waste products and also replenish with oxygen and nutrients. For this transaction to occur a complex transportation network called the cardiovascular system initiates. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, arteries and veins.
The heart is a double pumping organ which is the driving force of the cardiovascular system, although only weighing approximately three hundred grams the heart is powerful enough to beat over seventy times a minute pumping blood around the body. The heart is located on the left hand side of the diaphragm lying within the mediastinum in the thoracic cavity. Resembling a pyramid on an oblique angle the heart is hollow and composed of three layers, myocardium, endocardium and pericardium. Myocardium formulates the majority of the heart; this is composed of specialised cardiac muscle occurring only in the heart. Endocardium is a smooth delicate membrane, which lines the interior surface of the heart chambers and valves, and the pericardium; which is a connective tissue, this acts as a protective barrier, the fibrous pericardium fuses with arteries which pass through it to form attachments which help to anchor the heart to its surrounding structures The interior of the heart is divided into two sides the right and left, nearly mirror image of each other a few differences can be recorded (see conclusion).
Figure 1
As figure 1 shows there is a complex network of arteries and veins which branch into the heart. It is through these arteries and veins that blood is transported throughout the body. The arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to tissues and cells throughout the body whereas the veins carry deoxygenated blood received to the heart.


As the heart is attached only by soft tissue it can change position in the diaphragm while it contracts and relaxes (diastole and systole) as in figure 2 and 3.


Figure 2Figure 3
For a better understanding of the structure and workings of the heart a heart dissection was performed, below are the conclusions gathered from the experiment.


Conclusions
o Distinguish between the dorsal and ventral sides of the heart. (The ventral side is more rounded than the dorsal side, and the thick walled arteries arise from this side).
Note:
The right and left atria (auricles) and right and left ventricles,
Pulmonary artery and aorta arising from right and left ventricles,
Anterior and posterior vena cava opening into right atrium,
Coronary vessels in the heart wall,
Figure 4 shows the ventral side of the heart clearly showing the pulmonary artery and aorta, the left and right atria and ventricles and the coronary vessels of the heart wall.


Figure 4
o Clamp posterior vena cava, then run water through anterior vena cava, from the water runs through the pulmonary artery, this is the route of the pulmonary circulation which receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation and transported to the lungs to be oxygenated.
Now run water through the pulmonary vein, which vessel does the water emerge?
The water runs through the aorta, this is the route of the systemic circulation, the systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood away from the heart to oxygenise respiring cells throughout the body.


Figure 5
Figure 5 shows the systemic circulation in red and the pulmonary circulation in blue.


o Expose the left ventricle by a longitudinal cut through ventral wall of the ventricle, note your findings. Through the cut in the left ventricle wall the following observations were recorded. (see figure 3)
The left ventricular walls were visible, consisting of thick myocardium (cardiac muscle); the reason for the thickness of the left ventricle is because the left ventricle is responsible for the pumping of blood at high hydrostatic pressure throughout the systemic arterial system.


The bicuspid valve, this valve is used to prevent backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the right atrium.


Chordae tendinae, used to anchor the flaps of the bicuspid valve to the papillary muscle to prevent the valve turning inside out due to pressure.


Papillary muscle, this is part of the myocardium of the ventricle and contains irregular shaped columns called trabeculane carnae.


o Turn the heart upside down and run water into the ventricle through the slit you have cut, note your findings.
The water ran through the aorta, as the left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta to be transferred via the systemic circulation.


Figure 6 shows the interior of the heart.
Figure 6
o now turn the heart the right way up, run water through into the cut end of the aorta, note your findings
The water appeared through the trabeculare carnae (irregular shaped columns in the papillary muscle) as a shower.


o Cut open the left atrium and aorta by continuing your ventricular cut upwards, note your findings. Through the extended cut in the left ventricle the following were visible.
Left atrium (auricle) this is the chamber which lies superior to the left ventricle, smaller than the right atrium (auricle) this houses the pulmonary veins which bring oxygenated blood from the lungs.


The aortic valve (semi-lunar) this prevents backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.


The pulmonary vein which returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to be pumped around the body in the systemic circulation.
o Expose the interior of the right ventricle by a longitudinal slit through ventral wall, note your findings. The cut in the right ventricle exposed: (see figure 3)
The right ventricle wall was visible consisting of thinner myocardium (cardiac muscle) than the left ventricle this is due to less hydrostatic pressure required to push blood into the pulmonary artery, this is known as the pulmonary circulation.


Tricuspid valve this is to prevent backflow of blood into the right atrium from the right ventricle.


Chordinae tendinae used to anchor the flaps of the tricuspid valve to the papillary muscle this is to prevent the valve been turned inside out by pressure.


Papillary muscle part of the myocardium and contain fewer trabeculare carnae than the left ventricle.


The right ventricle has a larger funnel shaped area of smooth wall known as the conus arteriosus or infunibulum.


o Slit open the right atrium and pulmonary artery by continuing your ventricular slit upwards, note your findings. Through the extended slit in the right ventricle clearly visible was:
The right atrium, this is larger than the left atrium the two great veins (superior and inferior) vena cava deposit deoxygenated blood from around the body into the right atria.


The pulmonary valve, this prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle.


Coronary sinus which returns blood from the cardiac veins to the heart.


o Note the opening of the coronary vein on the left hand side of the atrium; it is possible you may see a small oval depression this is the fossa ovalis, what do you suppose this is?
The fossa ovalis is situated in the interatial septum (dividing wall of atria). During the stage of foetal development the blood flow is different from a newborn. The blood passes from the right atrium directly into the left atrium to be pumped around the body, this is made possible by a connecting tube called the foramen ovale, when a newborn baby inhales its first breath of air the pressure closes the foramen ovale and leaves behind the fossa ovalis, on some occasions a gap may be left this is referred to as a hole in the heart.


Figure 7 shows the depression of the fossa ovalis situated in the right atrium
Figure 7
o Do you expect the foetal heart to differ from the adult heart? Why?
Yes the foetal heart differs from the adult heart.


The foetus although fully formed at twelve weeks is reliant on its mother until birth; the remaining twenty eight weeks are spent with maturation of the foetuss tissues and organs. The foetuss heart forms in the embryonic stage, beginning to beat at around week eight of gestation; although the heart is fully functional at this stage the lungs which play an essential part in the oxygenisation of blood in the cardiovascular system are not functional until birth. As the blood still needs to reoxygenise respiring cells a temporary substitute is the placenta, often referred to as the foetal lung it is responsible for filtering and supplying the foetus with oxygen and nutrients received from the maternal blood. For this process to take place the route the blood takes through the body needs to be diverted away from the lungs, as described above the foramen ovale passes blood through the interracial septum from the right atria to the left atria, this enables blood to bypass the right ventricle which intern stops the blood being pumped up the pulmonary artery. There is also a bypass system which connects the pulmonary trunk to the aorta; this called the ductus arteriosous which again enables blood to bypass the lungs. The ductus arteriosous and the foramen ovale close at birth with the first breath of the infant, this results in the two circulations of the heart (systemic and pulmonary) working alongside each other to bring homeostasis to the body.

Communication And Race

The most critical aspects of media performance with regards to race and ethnicity are issues that relate to the quality of its representation of the lives of people of color. Accuracy and diversity are aspects of media performance that will allow for a careful evaluation of how it represents people of color. Evaluating media performance is important because of the utilization and reliance on the mass media for much of society’s reflexive monitoring and evaluation of reality. The performance of mass media is important in regards to race and ethnicity because the mass media are the primary source of indirect or mediated experiences that reinforce racial attitudes and beliefs that are integrated into cognitive structures (Gandy, 1998). Thus, mass media can be viewed as places where reality is constructed and racism may be reproduced.
Accuracy
Accuracy is an important aspect of media performance to consider in assessing the quality of its representation of the lives of people of color because of its assumed consequences of developing self-image and personal identity and its reflection of social reality that informs social policy (Gandy 1998). Shan and Thorton (1994) state that previous research of minority groups has shown that minorities are sometimes depicted as being violent, primitive, and politically unsophisticated. Furthermore, they postulate that certain types of behaviors among minorities may be understood by whites as pathological or deviant because of how the news media represent them. This representation is inaccurate because it ignores historical context and structural explanations for social trends. In addition, Shan and Thorton state that newsmagazines reproduce racism by perpetuating a racial hierarchy carried out by mainly whites and consumed by mainly whites that positioned blacks at the bottom.
Entman (1990) found that local news stimulated the production of modern racism. Violent crimes committed by blacks was the largest category of local news. Of the eight times in which blacks were subjects of lead stories, six described violent crimes. In addition, blacks were shown as being more dangerous than whites. Entman states that accused blacks were usually illustrated by glowering mug shots or by footage of them being led around in handcuffs, their arms held by uniformed white policemen.

Salwen and Soruco (1997) state that images of Mexicans in the press reflect racial stereotypes. The researchers point out examples in US press where Mexicans were labeled as wetbacks and associated with causing destruction by introducing one of the world’s most destructive insect pest. Gandy (1998) states that blacks are often portrayed as violent criminals. If they are portrayed in human-interest stories, these stories rely upon negative stereotypes. Like Entman and Gandy finding that minorities (blacks) experience inaccurate portrayals of being violent, Salwen and Soruco also report that Hispanics were framed in crime stories more frequently.
Astroff (1989) conclude that mass media tends to reproduce or participate in the reproduction of inaccurate representations, stereotypes, of Latinos. US Latinos were transformed into Spanish Gold through the redefinition of (not the elimination of) traditional stereotypes. These stereotypes of Latinos were reinterpreted for the use of explanations of consumer behavior yet there was not any significant change, moving to a more accurate depiction, in the representation of Latinos in mainstream media.
Diversity
The concept of diversity is a multidimensional one. The FCC sought to promote diversity under two headings: one of maximizing consumer choice; the other of serving the public interest by ensuring an appropriate range of service from broadcasting and fairness in giving access and attention to minority groups. Diversity of program content, accessible to all segments of the audience, is necessary to insure quality representation of the lives of people of color.
One of the goals of the media should be to represent or reflect the prevailing differences of culture, opinion, and social conditions of the population as a whole. The degree of correspondence between the diversity of the society and the diversity of media content is the key to assessing media performance. Diversity must be at the media content level and at the media system level and must promote racial proportionality and representation.
Entman (1990) demonstrated that blacks were misrepresented in local news coverage. So-called bad news was often thought more newsworthy than good news and ethnic minority members were differentially more likely to identified in negative contexts. Salwen and Soruco (1997) report that, as of 1990, Hispanics did not receive proportional coverage in the news even though they accounted for 9 per cent of the US population. Also, statistics show that blacks have 2 per cent of roles in magazine content, and are often depicted in lower status occupations or criminal roles. Gandy (1998) state that the news coverage of race in the US is generally limited to the coverage of crimes involving violence and that minority groups are quoted less often and less extensively in US press. These studies and findings demonstrate how minorities’ images as being violent criminals are perpetuated and how negative images of minorities are the current themes in mass media.

Accepting that the representation of the lives of people of color is not diverse because minorities are often viewed as criminals and in stereotypical contexts, it is no surprise that the media system level is also not diverse. Minority ownership of commercial broadcast stations account for only 3 per cent. Black managers in newspapers account for only 6 per cent (Hispanic only 3 per cent). And black managers in motion pictures account for less than 5 per cent (Hispanics less than 6 per cent). These statistics are depressing considering that there is solid evidence of a positive relationship between minority ownership and minority diversity in the workplace (Gandy, 1998).
Obstacles
There is evidence that the media operate under conditions of considerable pressure and constraint (Astroff, 1989; Brooks, 1995; Rodriguez, 1996). The media are often at the receiving end of a number of sources of power influences. These influences may range from traditions of past performance to pressures of competition. A strong awareness of, and sensitivity to, external pressures and demands is reported in many accounts of the media at work (Rodriguez, 1996; Astroff, 1989). These accounts make it clear that others often shape media performance. Rodriguez analyzed the nightly national newscast of the largest Spanish language television network in the US, Noticiero Univision, as an interaction between demands of the commercial enterprise that can enable media to meet performance goals. He concludes that professional and cultural demands can be integrated into the commercial profit motive, resulting in an audience-centered, objective, ethnic minority national newscast (p76). But Astroff’s (1989) findings differ from what Rodriguez concluded about Noticiero Univision. Astroff found that existing stereotypes of marginalized groups constrain and shape market recognition of minorities, accurate portrayal, and diversity of characterization.
Because media’s product is a public rather than a private good and is exposed to immediate public assessment, the quality of the media’s product should be subject to much more scrutiny than other consumer products. The media are the primary source of indirect or mediated experiences that shape, reinforce, or eliminate racial attitudes and beliefs. But, the mass media is a business and thus is under business constraints with regard to performance. Commercial media have to be as efficient in their use of

Assumption of Risk: Who is to Blame For Our Action

sAssumption of Risk: Who is to Blame For Our Actions
The doctrine of “assumption of risk” clearly defines the responsibility
of all voluntary actions taken on by individuals, independent of the inherent
risk or danger involved with such actions. Are we only to assume responsibility
for the positive outcomes of our actions, without also accepting the negative
outcomes as well? Most individuals only claim responsibility in cases in which
they are fully responsible for their actions. Living within a country which
houses a large amount of private enterprise, we often find ourselves relying on
outside help. In many occasions we, the individual seeking assistance, hold the
power to choose which avenue of help will be taken. In these cases in which we
have the choice, should we not also be held responsible for the outcomes of our
decisions, especially in cases in which we have been pre-warned about any
inherent risks or dangers? For example, When we take it upon ourselves to drive
on a private road, smoke cigarettes, work for a mining company, or fly on a
discount airline at our own volition, do we tacitly consent to take
responsibility for any outcome these actions may hold? The “assumption of risk”
doctrine seems to ignore the fundamental obligation of entities to ensure their
natural goals. The distinguishing factor in deciding responsibility in
faultless cases which call on the “assumption of risk” doctrine is the control
held by individuals after the situation has begun. In accordance, companies
such as discount airlines and cigarette companies must take on the
responsibility of completing their duties, while individuals who chose to work
in a mine or drive on a private road must accept the responsibility of their
actions to do so.

All airlines hold the responsibility of transporting their customers
from a point of origin to a previously designated destination. The person who
agrees to buy a discount airline ticket, which warns to “fly at your own risk,”
is entitled to receive the minimum service of transportation provided by the
airline. The individual traveler should assume no other benefits other than
transportation. The airline company claims this act of transportation to be its
goal of services rendered. Independent of difficulties which may arise in
completing this goal, the airline may not alter the basic duty which it is
contractually obligated to perform. The airline tacitly consented to perform
this basic duty the moment they began transporting individuals for an accepted
payment. Once an individual has boarded the airplane they render all control
over their safety to the accepting airline which holds the minimum
responsibility of returning the individual back to a state of safety once their
duty is complete. The mere nature of airplane transportation forces the
individual to render total control over themselves to the airline. This
transfer of control holds the airline responsible for any action which may occur
due to the obvious lack of responsibility in the hands of the individual. Once
the plane has closed the cabin they withhold all control of an individual over
themselves, and must grant the service promised. The individual may demand the
right to existence and hold the company liable once they hold the power to
dictate all aspects of the situation.

One problem which arises within the situation is that of something
happening which the airline holds no control over. Any difficulties which arise
due to the daily routine of the airplane fall under the responsibility of the
airline. Even occurrences which are deemed unavoidable fall under the
responsibility of the airline because they hold total responsibility of their
clients once the cabin is closed. Due to the complete control the airline holds
on the situation it may be assumed that the doctrine of “assumption of risk”
applies solely to the airline. In creating a situation in which the individual
must give up his/her right to self-substinance the airline holds full
responsibility for any actions taken which may effect the safety of its
passengers. Anytime the airline engages in profit making acts, such as cutting
costs, they increase the risk upon themselves in return for extra monetary
benefits.

Some may argue that some responsibility falls on the consumer due to the
warning which the airline provided prior to the purchase of the tickets. This
argument revolves around the assumption that the individual becomes responsible
due to their decision to buy a discounted ticket over the full price. Having
been previously warned about the risk involved, the individual is expected to
relieve the airline of responsibility for any mishaps which may occur. This
idea of responsibility may hold true if, and only if, the participant holds some
control over their well-being once inside the cabin of the airplane. There is
no controversy over the fact that the individual willingly accepted the
discounted rate and received a warning, but the airline still holds the
responsibility of earning its payment by completing the minimal requirement of
transportation. The prior warning only holds precedence over the individuals
ability to choose an airline which may either claim responsibility for numerous
actions, such as transportation, food, and entertainment, or act as the discount
airline and only claim responsibility for the transportation. The warning holds
no validity once the individual has lost control over their well being.

In continuing with the theory that the provider of a service holds the
minimum obligation to produce their product; the situation which arises in the
case of cigarette companies tends to raise several questions. If it is correct
that they provide a good which is legal under present law, how can they be held
responsible in any way? In following with the statement above, the cigarette
company holds a minimum obligation to the individual to produce a “safe”
cigarette. The meaning of safe in this context is meant to imply that the
cigarette will meet the safety requirements set by the government so that
individuals are not killed by a single cigarette. This act of producing “safe”
cigarettes for individuals covers the minimum obligation of the company to the
individual. In this case, any additional concerns or problems which the user
may have as a result of the product becomes the responsibility of the cigarette
addict. The cigarette company seemingly performs more than the minimum
obligation by also providing a product which fills the crave of addiction.

Continued use of this addictive product may lead to detrimental health and lung
disease. Cigarette companies attempt to protect themselves from such issues by
warning users of the inherent dangers and therefore eliminating their
responsibility for the result. After all, the individual must only notice the
risk and discontinue the use of cigarettes to reduce the risk of illness.

Therefore, it seems that the company holds no problems since they provide the
product and clearly state the risks of use. In this case it becomes the
individual’s responsibility to accept the risk and suffer the consequences.

A large problem arises in the addictive nature of the cigarette to seize
control over the actions of the individual user. Although the product
acknowledges its addictive quality, the addiction still continues to seize
complete control over the situation of cigarette smoking. The user becomes
chemically dependent on the product and becomes unable to avoid the risks
associated. As in the airplane case, the cigarette company gains control over
the individual and is therefore forced to share responsibility for their actions.

By outwardly admitting the problem at hand, the cigarette company must handle
the consequences. It seems logical that the company could restrict blame solely
to the user, due to the self-inflictive nature of the problem. The problem lies
in the fact that as the cigarette company admits to the addictive nature of
their product, they emphasize the fact that they have seized control of the
situation. Taking control of the situation forces the company to take
responsibility for the outcome produced. Cigarettes are intended to be
addictive in order to increase sales. Thus, if the company shares in the awards
of the addiction, they should consequently share in the damages as well.

A case which differs, due the control of the individual over their
actions, is that of the mining industry. The only problem for the company is
that of the moral dilemma accepted by the company’s executives. When we look at
the case from a distance it seems to be similar to that of the cigarette
industry, but the difference lies in the non-addictive nature of mining.

Although the company acknowledges the dangers of working in the mines, it is the
decision of the workers to accept the risk or find less hazardous job. The
individual holds the power to work in the mine or not. Unlike smoking, the mine
holds no addictive qualities which force the workers to stay. The worker
assumes full responsibility for his/her actions due to the choice to work in a
hazardous area. Since the company never gains control over the worker, the
worker stays in full control of the situation given the apparent risks involved.


The only instance in which the mining company gains some power over the
individual is in the case of monetary concerns. If the individual can only
obtain work at the mine and relies upon the income produced, it seems clear that
the company then holds some power over the individual. Although, this power is
limited by the mind set of the individual to determine the actual importance of
monetary gains. Since the mine holds no addictive quality which forces the
individual to work, the worker holds a free mind to decide what qualities of
life are most important. This freedom to decide releases the company from
responsibility of any problems which may arise as a result of the mine work, and
places all burden on the individual.

Some may argue that the mining company holds some responsibility over
the well-being of its employees. These beliefs support the idea that the
company should provide the greatest amount of safety precautions for their
workers. This can be witnessed through the use of safety equipment, medical aid,
and protective gear. Since the company has already warned about the risks, it
becomes the burden of the individual to purchase these items for themselves.

The company only holds the obligations to inform the workers of such available
equipment. If the workers feel this is unfair they may quit working and
possibly force employers to engage in such safety precautions. The
responsibility of providing payment for work is the only act which must be taken
on by the employer after they have given the warnings about the dangers of
mining. The rest of the responsibility lies in the hands of the miners who hold
the power to decide where they work.

The final case regarding responsibility of actions lies on a private
road which warns individuals of falling rocks. The sign posted at the beginning
of the road clearly states any dangers and makes the reader aware of the
apparent risks. The fundamental obligation of the road is similar to that of
the airplane in that it must provide a means for transportation from point A to
point B. However, the road differs from the plane in that the person driving is
in control of the situation at all times, and never gives up control over their
actions. The speed of travel, length of stay on the road, and the decision to
travel on the road are all decisions made by the individual and have a direct
effect on the safety of the individual. In this case the driver becomes
responsible for his actions on the road. The owner of the road met the
requirements set upon him by providing means of transport and warning of any
danger; all other responsibility lies in the able hands of the individual
driving the automobile.

The responsibility of any given action remains in the hands of those in
control of the action at any given time. As seen in the airplane and cigarette
examples, proper warning does not warrant lack of responsibility if the
individual holds no control over the outcome of the action. The mining company
and private road examples show how responsibility lies in the hands of the
individual as long as control over the situation is also controlled by the
individual. It is clear to see that responsibility for any given action remains
in the hands of those who hold control over the situation.


Philosophy

Circuit Training

From reducing risk of heart attack to simply
providing more energy, weight training plays an
important role in one’s life. One very popular method
of weight training is to increase mobility and build
strength and stamina. This method is known as circuit
training.


Circuit training has been around for decades and
offers a wide variety of applications and benefits.

This workout is performed both mentally and
physically. The weight training participant performs
one set of an exercise then immediately performs a
set of another exercise in succession without rest;
one right after another. Exercise can be sequenced in
a variety of combinations, which isolate single
muscles, a group of muscles, or total body training.


Since muscles can only contract for long periods of
time when sufficient amounts of oxygen are available,
mental focus during circuit training is directed
towards the heart and lungs, as opposed just the
muscles during conventional training. The
cardiovascular and respiratory systems feed our
working muscles with oxygen filled blood that is
eventually fueled by body fat.


During conventional training the focus isn’t on the
heart and lungs because the cardio/respiratory
system rests between exercises, allowing the ATP to
LA cycle to be the energy supplier. (This cycle must
be depleted in order for the body to burn fat). By
performing circuit training, you don’t give your heart
or lungs a chance to relax, which keeps the ATP to
LA cycle depleted. In addition to increasing heart and
lung conditioning, enhancing your ability to use
oxygen, ad burning fat, impressive muscular shape
and strength gains will result from doing any
circuit-training workout.


Research studies consistently show that leans body
mass increases with a course of circuit training. A
1-3.2 kg gain in lean body mass can be expected with
a consequent decrease in relative fat mass of 1-3%,
total weight remaining unchanged. This is a major
benefit of circuit training, especially for those who
want to get in shape and tone up their muscles. With
traditional aerobic training, a decrease in relative fat
mass has led to a decrease in total weight with little
change in lean body mass. The resistance work
involved in the circuits encourages muscle-mass
development, and thus any fat loss is replaced equally
by muscle gain. This makes it easier to maintain the
lower body fat or reduce body fat even further
because the increase in lean body mass pushes up
basal metabolic rate and overall calorie expenditure.

These body-composition changes would support the
use of circuit weight training in a health and fitness
setting where toning up, but not losing weight, were
the major goals.


Circuit training is a great form of exercise, will help
almost anyone improve their health and offers lots of
benefits.

Aeneas as Fated Hero

Essay # 3
Virgil’s The Aeneid is a story of true heroism in the face of war. A
hero often proves himself through war. Many of the characters in the
Aeneid throw themselves into warfare enthusiastically for the glory and
honor of their names. Aeneas, however, has a sense of responsibility
toward his people and their destiny rather than a wish for his name to be
honored after his death, which makes him more of a modern epic hero, unlike
the earlier Greek heroes such as Homers Odysseus. The duty-bound Aeneas is
determined to follow his fate wherever it leads even if he must suffer
unbearable losses and receive no reward or glory on Earth. His ability to
accept his destined path despite his unhappiness in doing so is the
defining attribute of Aeneas’s heroism.

Aeneas was destined, even before his own birth, to lay the foundations
in Italy for the glory of the Roman Empire. The direction and destination
of Aeneas’s journey are predetermined, and his various sufferings and
glories in battle and at sea over the course of the story merely postpone
this unchangeable destiny. As the son of Venus, the goddess of beauty and
love, he enjoys a special divine protection which, at certain points
throughout his voyage, helps guide him to his destiny. Although Aeneas is
fortunate enough to have a goddess as a mother, even the workings of the
gods cannot tamper with fate. There are some instances on this voyage in
which a few of the gods try to interfere with Aeneass life in order to
advance their own personal interests. However, none of these gods attempts
to manipulate Aeneas has any
effect on the overall outcome of events. For example, in Book IV Juno
plans a marriage between Dido and Aeneas in hopes that Carthage will
prosper from the union. Juno exclaims, Dido consumed with passion to her
core. Why not then, rule this people side by side with equal authority?
…Now Venus knew this talk was all pretence, all to divert the future
power from Italy to Libya. (99) Even though Junos plot for the union of
Aeneas and Dido was successfully carried out, and Aeneas bore a deep love
for Dido, he would not steer away from his destiny. As soon as Mercury
came to him to remind him to leave Dido, he did so, ignoring his hearts
strongest desires knowing that Dido would suffer greatly.

While other powerful characters in the epic (especially those opposed
to Aeneas’s founding of Rome in Italy) try to fight against fate, Aeneas
stays true to his calling. Turnus and Juno both resist destiny every step
of the way until the very end in Book XII in which they finally accept
their inability to control destiny, allowing fate to triumph. Even Dido
denies fate when she attempts to lure Aeneas into staying and building his
city in her homeland. Aeneas is stronger than these figures because he is
so pius and bound by his duty to Troy and to the wishes of fate.

Another aspect of Aeneas’s graceful heroism is his compassion for the
sufferings of others, even as he is determined to always put his duty
first. He constantly delivers encouraging speeches to his fellow Trojans
during times of great suffering in order to keep their spirits high. Also,
in Book V, Aeneas shows sympathy for the weak as he allows the crippled and
unwilling to stay behind. He also is compassionate towards the souls of
the underworld when he visits his father, Anchises in Book VI. He has
feels especially for the unburied dead, whose sufferings he witnesses. He
carries this compassion with him throughout his battles, and later tries to
make
sure that all the dead are buried properly, including enemies.

Aeneas places a particularly high value on family. This is certainly
evident near the end of Book II as he is journeying back home. Aeneas
carries his frail father upon his back, and takes his sons hand to guide
them. When Creusus, his wife, falls behind, he goes back in an attempt to
look for her. He values his divine mother equally. He respects her
greatly, and obeys every word of her advise. Aeneas’s love for his family
both aids him and distracts him during his long journey. He suffers at the
loss of his wife and his father, and questions the will of the gods. He
begins to lose faith in the importance of his duty, but the love for his
son and his obedience toward his mother encourage him to continue along his
path. This value of family, and loyalty to his duty in the face of grief
and loss add to Aeneas’s heroic qualities.

Aeneas’s faith that his destiny would result in the founding of a
great and powerful political empire is one of the major reasons for his
strong loyalty to his duty. Aeneas travels for years to many foreign
lands, fighting countless battles in an attempt to start a city. He has
little knowledge of where he is for a large part of the journey, and he has
even less knowledge of where he is supposed to be going. He tries to
settle his people in lands which turn out to be the wrong places.He has
no place to call home. He loses family members, friends, and fellow
Trojans to death or abandonment as a result of loss of hope and faith in
this journey, or because they are simply to weak to go on. To most men,
this voyage would seem pointless, even destructive. Yet Aeneas has
complete faith in his declared fate. He understands that he must follow
his destiny no matter how hopeless it seems to be. He does not find
happiness or peace of mind in doing his duty. Instead he struggles with
it, thinking at times that he may give up. But his piety urges him on.


Amazingly, Aeneas is able to act nobly and with dignity every step of
the way up until his final battle with Turnus in Book XII. At this point
he is exhausted and full of wrath. He at first decides to spare Turnus,
but changes his mind when he thinks of the way in which Pallas was slain by
Turnus. This is the first act of vengeance displayed by Aeneas, and quite
a different way to end the story of an epic hero. Virgil does this for a
reason, however. Through this epic poem in its entirety, Virgil portrays
the human condition. A dignified and heroic being follows his destiny at
all times, doing what is right not for himself but for the good of his
people. This being faces many triumphs and defeats throughout his
lifetime. He experiences love, friendship, and happiness, but also suffers
grief, loss, and pain. There are many times throughout life when he may
question the value of his life and his work. A dignified hero, however,
will push through all the way until his destiny is met, fighting and
struggling to the very end. It is only human, that at the end of such a
struggle (which in no way benefits himself), he displays rage and hatred.

Such a hero may never witness glory in his lifetime, but as Virgil has
proven, his name will be praised for centuries, even millenniums to come.

Crucible

Justice Systems In The Puritan Societies
Justice systems have changed greatly over the years. In the Puritan justice system, much has been improved. In 1692, in the town of Salem, many people lose their lives or are punished unfairly due to their justice system. Justice to Puritans really is not justice at all; it is a quick fix to a complicated problem. In Arthur Millers The Crucible, the Puritan justice system is poorly illustrated due to the lack of evidence in trials, church influence in government, and in the setting.

With the witch trials in Salem, the lack of evidence has a large effect on many peoples lives. Someone can accuse another of a crime, and in almost no time at all, there will be a trial in the town court. Not only those who are personally affiliated with the crime are affected, everyone in the town is touched also. When Putnam states, She cannot bear to hear the Lords name thats a sure sign of witchcraft, he jumps to conclusions about the girls being witches. Simply because he made this accusation, talk was stirred up in town. The townsfolk become highly agitated over this situation, and the scenario is blown completely out of proportion. Soon after this happens, trials dates are set.

The church has a great deal of influence over the government in The Crucible. Sins and crimes are very closely connected; whereas, if one is committed, the other is likewise. Since the authority of the church, such as reverends are looked at as high and mighty these sinless people are also often the heads of, or have a lot of say in the towns government. At one point in the book, Reverend Hale declares: in my ignorance I find it hard to draw a clear opinion of them that come accused before the courtGod forbid such a one be changed, she Rebecca Nurse is mentioned somewhat He is saying Rebecca Nurses name was mentioned in court today, as if she involved with witch craft also. Reverend Hale is looked at as holy among the townsfolk, along with he plays a role in the towns court system. The towns religion and law are much alike, and very intertwined, which is believed to be best for this group of people.

The setting in The Crucible helps to enhance the theme. The plot of this story makes the time, place, and general environment seem almost too perfect to be true. The witch trials take place in the spring of 1692, in Salem, Massachusetts. At this time, the ways of the Puritan justice system are completely acceptable, whereas public hangings and executions do not seem out of the ordinary. When Arthur Miller writes:
they Puritans carried about an air of innate resistance, even of persecution So now they and their church found it necessary to deny any other sect its freedom, lest their New Jerusalem be defiled and corrupted by wrong ways and deceitful ideas They believed, in short, that they held in their steady hands the candle that would light the world
He is remarking about the way of life and beliefs of Puritans. He says they will not let their new world be polluted with sin and crime, and the world will imitate their actions, depending on the way their society is ruled. The people of this time and era think their justice system is acceptable, and throughout the many scenes in the book, nothing is thought of as prodigious.

Lack of evidence in trials, church influence in government, and the setting all compute up to an ineffective justice system in the Puritan society. It is unjust and unfair for the elders of this fellowship to change as many of the lives as they do with the justice system they have.

The Odessey

The Odessey is a tale that has changed literature and storytelling. In this tale Odysseus is a Soldier from the battle of Troy trying to get home to his island of Ithaca, where he is king. His wife and son must wait ten years while he is trying to make his way home. In Odysseus’s absence wooer’s, or better known as suitors, learn of his absence and travel to Ithaca to win his wife’s hand in marriage. These men come every day feasting on Odysseus’s food and wine, and give his servant’s orders. His son Telemachus, does his best to keep the suitors from ruining his fathers house but he is only a boy, and doesn’t receive the respect of an adult. Telemachus then has a visit from the god Athena, whom Odysseus is friends with, who advises him to travel to find out about his father. In his travels he hears that Odysseus may still be alive. Meanwhile Odysseus goes through a series of adventures and hardships that prove his wisdom. It is interesting in contrast of the Iliad, even though Achilles was much stronger and a better warrior, Odysseus was portrayed as a greater hero due to his wisdom. He uses this wisdom to escape from the Cyclops.
On the Cyclops’s island Odysseus and his men are trapped and eaten as food by a giant with only one eye. Odysseus commands his men to take an olive tree and carve a large stake from it. Then Odysseus gives the Cyclops all of their wine in order to get him drunk. After the Cyclops falls asleep they stab the steak into his one large eye, thus blinding him. Now with the Cyclops blind Odysseus and his men cling to the bottom of sheep to avoid the Cyclops and escape. Even though the cyclops checks everything leaving his cave he doesn’t find the men holding to the bottom of the sheep.

This tale coincides with the times in Greece. This was a time that art and Philosophy were extremely important and respected by the people. Odysseus was a new type of hero that didn’t win by overpowering his opponents, but by using his mind to outwit them. Manners also seemed to play an important role to Odysseus, as he was learned to be polite and generous to strangers and in the end punished those who weren’t.
Odysseus, like most of his fellow soldiers, is a rather arrogant greedy person at the beginning of the poem, and brings much sorrow on himself by his actions. Yet the gods are no better than he is and their punishment of Odysseus and his crew has more to do with the impulses of the Olympians than the sins of the mortals. Athena herself would not help Odysseus while he was sailing, for she did not want to go against her brother, Poseidon’s wishes. Poseidon was upset that he had blinded the Cyclops since that was his son. As the god of the sea he made it as hard as possible for Odysseus to make it home. Poseidon, however, disregards the fact that his son was using Odysseus and his men as food, and would naturally do anything to escape.


Book Reports

The Tempest

The Tempest was written in the early Stuart period in England when masques were becoming exceedingly popular, and were often performed at weddings to honor marriages. The Tempest is heavily influenced by elements of the masque, and can be performed with the same purposes as one, although it is far too rich to be classified simply into that genre of plays. In masques the use of spectacle was extensive. The Tempest reflects this in many ways. The very first scene, Act I scene i, is that of a ship in action, and requires elaborate special effects to convey a sense of realism. The banquet scene in Act III scene iii requires a “quaint device” to make it vanish, and also makes extensive use of costume, dance and music, as the spirits enter in the form of shapeless creatures and Ariel is the form of a harpy. The masque within the play in Act IV requires elaborate costumes for the goddesses and, ideally, machinery for Juno to descend as deus ex machina with. It also involves great amounts of song and dance. The entire play makes extensive use of music, with Ariel’s songs and Prospero’s charms as well as the “sweet airs” of the island itself. Being non-human, Caliban, Ariel and the spirits require elaborate costume to make them appear so, and the court party members are decked in their finest court apparel, having just been at Claribel’s wedding, so that Miranda is taken aback by the “brave new world / That hath such creatures in’t” on seeing them. The elements of pastoral comedy in The Tempest are also linked to those of the masque. A natural man, Caliban, exists. So do a pair of noble young lovers, Ferdinand and Miranda, who are brought together in the pastoral setting of an island, unaffected by the corruptive influences of civilisation, making Miranda an innocent and undeceitful young woman. She has had no time for “vainer hours”, as other princesses would have, leading to vanity, but has been educated by Prospero, showing she is innocent rather than ignorant. She is uncoquettish and direct in her advances to Ferdinand in Act III scene ii, and yet is filial, worrying about disobeying her father in what she feels is right. It is her virtue and innate nobility that make Ferdinand mistake her, on their first encounter, as “most sure the goddess of this island”. Ferdinand is also virtuous, having the chivalry to bear logs for Prospero as punishment simply because he has been defeated and having the ability to let “the pure white virgin snow upon my heart / Abate the ardour of my liver.” The chastity of the two lovers points toward the need for reason to rule passion for a harmonious relationship. This is reinforced again by the masque, in which the unruly Vesus and Cupid are omitted, and instead include Ceres, Juno and Iris, goddesses of the harvest, reflecting man’s harmony with nature; marriage, reflecting the importance of marriage vows; and the rainbow, reflecting the harmony of nature. The presence of the goddesses themselves in the masque reflects the element of divine intervention in the masque. In masques, it was common for characters from Grco-Roman mythology to be featured, blessing the couple. Divine intervention is also manifested in Ariel, who can only do good, as seen by the fact that he could not work for Sycorax. He is subordinated to Prospero, as well as all the other spirits, weaving in the concept of the supernatural. Ariel also alludes to mythology in his attirements as a seanymph and harpy. However, it would be wrong to classify The Tempest as a masque, as although it contains many elements of the masque, it features a structured plot with an exploration of controversial ideas and themes, such as that of nature versus nurture in Caliban and Antonio, and that of disruption of social hierarchy. Masques tended to rely more on spectacle and moral than on plot; the plot was often weak or non-existent. Through this, we can see that Shakespeare incorporated elements of the masque into that of his conventional plays, producing a play that can be well-regarded in both respects. The Tempest contains certain antimasque elements, such as the conspiracies for murder. Antonio and Sebastian prove that even with all the benefits of noble birth and civilised education, evil men can be produced. This is against traditional masque ideas of nobility. Antonio’s act of usurping Prospero, and their intention to murder Alonso and usurp his throne, give the play tragic elements as well, as they value their personal benefits over those of society. The mock court party also has antimasque qualities, as the rough humour of their folly in attempting to be rulers tickles us in a base way. However, their intent to murder Prospero also presents a dark side of the play, and Caliban is a base, dull, uncivilised brute rather than the innocent and noble natural nice man of Spenser. The fact that he can appreciate the music while many of the people from civilisation cannot points to the fact that he does have a degree of the purity which is destroyed by civilisation, but otherwise, we are little inclined to admire him. The struggle of Prospero to assert his reason over his passion, planning for the future rather than succumbing to his temptations for revenge, are also against the idea of the masque. Prospero, as the central character, has little to do with the elements of the masque at all, as the main concern of the plot is his education of the people on the island and his own education as a result of this. Thus, it would be impossible to claim that The Tempest is a masque, but possible to claim it has much to owe the masque. It is a masque to the limited extent that it contains most of the elements of the masque, but this is transcended by the fact that it contains much more that is not, making it a better and more profound play.
In The Tempest, it would seem that no two characters could be further apart than Prospero, the “right duke of Milan”, and Caliban, the “salvage and deformed slave.” They represent two different extremes on the social spectrum: that of the natural ruler, and the naturally ruled. Their positions on the social hierarchy are largely due to the fact that Caliban responds almost wholly to passions, feelings of pleasure — his senses, while Prospero is ruled more by his intellect and self-discipline — his mind. However, the fight that Prospero has against his own natural tendency to ignore the discipline of his intellect, and give in to pleasures such as vanity and self-indulgence, cannot be ignored. Caliban was born of a witch; Prospero is a magician. However, the types of magic practised by Sycorax and Prospero differ greatly: Sycorax, in many respects a traditional witch, worked within Nature and as a part of it. She worked with devils and the lowest orders of spirits. Prospero, on the other hand, exercises his magic by means of strict discipline and study, rising above the natural order by means of his greater knowledge, and actually coercing spirits of a fairly high rank, such as Ariel, to do his bidding and control other spirits for him. In the Arts which both represent, Prospero certainly reflects the world of the mind. And Sycorax does not? However, in the use of his Art, Prospero reveals himself as not wholly disciplined. okay Prospero enjoys using the power of his Art, as he tells us in his monologue just before his forgiveness of the court party — “graves at my command … op’d … By my so potent Art.” He has also shown that he enjoys using it to show off, as he did during the masque he provided for Ferdinand and Miranda, which he indulged in even when Caliban’s plot and the court party both urgently required his attention. Although we are not given details of Caliban’s birth, it seems likely that a creature as subhuman in appearance as Caliban was not born of a human union. It has been postulated that, to quote Prospero, he was “got by the devil himself upon thy wicked dam”, from a union between Sycorax and an incubus (an extremely attractive male apparition with intention to tempt). Caliban was therefore a creature born from passion, the offspring of an unholy pleasure. Prospero was not only of noble birth; he was also born to be the ruler of the city-state of Milan. Nobility, in Elizabethan times, carried with it heavy implications: it was expected that Prospero would be intellectually superior, and that he would exercise as great discipline over himself as he was expected to exercise over others, in his role of leadership. From their ancestry, Prospero is likely to be more ruled by his intellect, and Caliban by his love of pleasure. In the history of each character before the opening of The Tempest, there is a further contrast. Caliban’s original love for Prospero and Miranda, and his later misdemeanour and subsequent hatred for them, illustrate his fundamental reliance on his senses. Caliban loved Prospero and Miranda because they “made much of me”; and his response to this was purely sensual in his recollections: “Thou strok’st me, … wouldst give me / Water with berries in’t”. What Caliban responded to, more than anything else, was the sensation of pleasure that being loved and petted gave him. The action that caused Caliban to be removed from this position and punished was his attempt to rape Miranda, another example of how Caliban seeks pleasure. (Prospero’s position on sexual relations is quite opposite — he tells Ferdinand repeatedly not to take advantage of his daughter, and hammers the message home with the masque.) True but why? Make the full contrast clear. Prospero, on the other hand, enjoyed his original position as duke of Milan largely because he was able to study to his heart’s content. This seems to indicate a particular reliance on the powers of the mind — quite opposite to Caliban’s fault — but in actual fact, Prospero’s neglect of his duties and self-indulgence in pushing the matters of the state all to Antonio must be censured, and laid at the door of his lack of self-discipline. Prospero did these things because he enjoyed them so much — and like Caliban, he was punished. Which is to say he did not fulfill his responsibilities. Be more direct. However, it must be noted that Prospero was able to learn from his mistake, disciplining himself into the study of magic only so far as it would restore himself, and Milan, to a state of rightful leadership. The decision to give up his magic at the end of the play can be attributed only to intellectual discipline; Prospero’s understanding that for the good of his people and himself, he must give up that which gives him pleasure. It is not quite so one dimensional. During The Tempest itself, Prospero and Caliban have two very different purposes. Prospero intends to resolve the injury that was done to Miranda and himself, bloodlessly, by the use of his Art. Caliban’s dearest wish is to depose Prospero by killing him and, rather than resuming rule of the island himself, submit to the rule of Stephano. Prospero’s purpose does indeed include passion — he wishes to take revenge on his “false” brother, and wants the dukedom returned to himself and Miranda. However, Prospero clearly manages to conquer his personal vendetta against Antonio, as evidenced by his forgiveness of him at the end, and his decision not to ruin Antonio by giving away his plot to kill Alonso. Besides, his personal desire to have his dukedom back is acceptable, because part of this desire is a wish to see the dukedom back in the hands of a ruler who cares for the people, not given to a ruler like Antonio, whose main interest is always himself. Prospero may be thinking in terms of self, but as long as he also keeps this lofty purpose in mind, we may say that the world of the mind has more power over him. good Caliban’s purpose in attaching himself to Stephano and plotting to kill Prospero is almost wholly passionate. The reason that Caliban believes Stephano to be a worthy ruler, indeed, a god, is that Stephano is the custodian of liquor, a substance that appeals to his senses. His favourable response to Stephano is like his previous response to Prospero — that someone who makes him feel good must be good. Likewise, his attempt at achieving revenge on Prospero is largely in retribution for the punishment Prospero has visited upon his senses. well said However, though Caliban’s desire for revenge is certainly not cerebral, his passions in it are not entirely sensual either. The crafty manner in which he persuades Stephano to aid him in his plan, by mentioning Prospero’s riches and Miranda’s beauty, shows the presence of some mental ability; as does his attempted tact in trying to keep Stephano’s mind upon “bloody thoughts”. Furthermore, one of his grievances against Prospero is that he stole the island that was, by birthright, Caliban’s, and imprisoned Caliban upon it. This is part of the little evidence we have that Caliban operates using more than his senses and passions. However, Caliban’s mind is subject to his senses, much as Prospero’s passions are subject to his mind. Caliban’s underlying motives are still passionate. His indignation at having his inheritance usurped loses its weight when we realise that, of his own free will, he will let Stephano rule — showing himself to be naturally ruled, not ruler. At the end of the play, when he recognises that his choice of Stephano as a ruler was foolish, it is not mental reasoning that has led him to this conclusion, but the evidence of his senses and experience. Caliban has mind enough to function as part of society, but training him to become part of that society cannot be abstract, like Prospero’s failed attempt at educating him with Miranda — Caliban’s education must be practical and hammered home with his own senses. Neither Prospero nor Caliban cannot be said to be wholly mind or sensual passion, but Caliban does rely largely on his senses, and by the end of the play, Prospero’s mind has achieved a great extent of control over his passions.
text passage: Act I, Sc ii, lines 79-116. From “Being once perfected how to grant suits” to “To most ignoble stooping”
Paying close attention to tone & imagery, comment on the presentation of Prospero and important ideas in the play raised here.
We are presented with the highly emotional and angst-filled account of past times in Milan narrated by the main protagonist of The Tempest, Prospero. The turbulence in his tale reminds us of the equally disturbing tempest in the previous scene with its general mood of disorder and destruction. Although there are no physical indication of violence as in the last scene, Prospero’s report is coloured with such images. It is here, in Act 1 Scene 2 that we learn that Prospero’s “art” had conjured up the “tempestuous” storm. Miranda’s “piteous heart” demands a salvation for the “poor souls” onboard the ship but her father, the great magician, Prospero promises that, “there’s no harm done”. He proclaims, “tis’ time” and sets out to explain his motive for raising The Tempest that is the driving force of the entire play. As he speaks of the past, Prospero is no doubt reliving every single detail “in the dark backward and absym of time”. He seems to have vengeance on his mind right now. Old wounds are cruelly re-opened and he re-experiences the bitterness of betrayal by is “false brother” and the pain of what had happened “twelve year since”. At the same time, he is also stirring up lost memories in Miranda’s “remembrance”. We see Shakespeare’s magic at work as well while he deftly weaves the plot into his audience’s mind. Every time Prospero calls Miranda to attention, Shakespeare speaks through the lips of his creation to his audience, “Thou attend’st not?” Taking on the voice of father, magician and “prince of power”, the bard leads us straight into the crux of The Tempest of Prospero’s voice. The usurped Duke of Milan speaks of the usurper, Antonio most vividly, using myriad images. We picture Antonio’s brilliance in politics as Prospero tells of how his brother “being once perfected how to grant suits, how to deny them, who t’ advance and which to trash for over-topping” supplanted him. He presents us with a hunting image as he acknowledges Antonio’s skill & compliments him. Prospero uses a number of images in his speech to let us see Antonio as a political animal. He shows us how “having both the key of the officer and office” Antonio gained supporters and got rid of opposers. This double image aptly portrayed how he not only secured the authority entrusted to him; he also had the ability to assert that power to his own means — “set all hearts i’th’ state to what tune pleas’d his ear”. At the same time, we notice that the play is one that rings of music, this is only one instance where music is mentioned. It is a recurring motif. He maneuvers his way into nature when he informs Miranda (and the audience) of “the ivy which hid my princely trunk and suck’d my vendure out on’t”. We see in our minds’ eye the devious Antonio who sucked the power out of his brother’s welcoming hands and so, his life, leaving only a dry shell. Through the use of such imagery, Shakespeare unfolds the passionate tale of usurpation before the “wondrous” Miranda and us, the audience. The wise Prospero speaks of how he had laid himself wide open to harm in “being transported and rapt in secret studies”. “Neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated to closeness and the bettering of his mind” he entrusted Milan into the hands of his treacherous brother and in doing so, “awak’d an evil nature” in his false brother. Not contented with his position, Antonio “new created the creatures that were mine, chang’d ’em or else new form’d ’em” and “confederates wi’th King of Naples” to bend Milan “to most ignoble stooping”. It is obvious that Prospero was not conscious of what Antonio was doing and so, we, the sympathetic listeners feel for him although we know that he is partly at fault for his downfall. Prospero’s anger and feelings of vengeance is understandable but we know that “there’s no harm done”. At the same time, as we listen to the usurped fling charge after charge at the amoral usurper like the sea waves beating relentlessly at the “yellow sands”, Shakespeare questions the Prospero’s usurpation of the “creatures” of the island — Caliban and Ariel. We find out later that the powerful mage subjects the “most delicate monster”, Caliban to “most ignoble stooping” and even the “fine apparition”, Ariel is not spared from the magic of Prospero who has him at his beck and call. They cry for liberty but do they receive it from the usurped “master”? This is another of the important ideas raised in the play. Miranda listens attentively to her father as he relives how he had placed his trust mistakenly on Antonio, “like a good parent” and how it “beget of him a falsehood in its contrary”. “He needs will be absolute Milan.” This convoluted image reminds us of how the unknowing Caliban had placed his trust and “loved thee and showed thee all the qualities o’ th’ isle.” The situation of Prospero “twelve year since” mirrors that of the “abhorred slave”, Caliban. Meanwhile, it also presents Antonio and Prospero as complex political creatures surviving in the “realism” of politics. The usurped did not refrain from usurping others in a different place and time. Here, we see the men as truly brothers because they are alike in their usurpation. The only difference lies in Prospero’s benevolence in his decision towards reconciliation. We are given enough to be sure that Antonio will never consider the very idea because he “made a sinner of his own memory”. The man created and shaped his own reality to suit his means and this is another recurring motif in the play. We have seen how the people are unable to see through the illusion of the “tempest” and sometimes, they just do not understand their own reality because they do not want to see it. Prospero has made use of that weakness to “recover” his dukedom as he brings the plotters, Antonio, Sebastian and Alonso to the island for a lesson. We will meet the king of Naples who despairs of ever finding his beloved son, Ferdinand after The Tempest and refuses to entertain the hope of seeing him again but we know he does in the end. Power, “all prerogative” had gone into the plotters’ heads and this veils the actual reality to become another reality in the mind. We encounter another motif in the play, that of fathers. We know that although the fathers (Prospero and Antonio) are enemies, they will forget their differences in the union of their child (Ferdinand and Miranda) eventually. This tale that “would cure deafness” is the stepping stone of the entire play and we are presented with a multi-faceted Prospero — the magician who usurps, the wronged who was usurped, the avenger, the father, the master, the duke. Can we really define him? Shakespeare leaves that intriguing thought in our minds as we take leave of this account full of “imagistic” qualities and themes.
The Tempest, written in 1611, was one of William Shakespeare’s last plays. It has a combination of superb characters, interesting settings, and a good plot line—all held together by the running theme of magic, and its ever-present importance. A closer examination of the magic in The Tempest, and the public’s view of magic at the time, will give insight as to Shakespeare’s choice of magic as a theme, and why it has made the play so successful and timeless.
Magic presented itself to Shakespeare as a controversial topic, as it had been the persecution of those believed to perform “black magic,” (witches) that had been at the forefront of societal concerns since 1050. However, after 500 years of witch-hunts, a turning point occurred in 1584, at the publication of Reginald Scot’s The Discouerie of Witchcrafte (The Discovery of Witchcraft). This book was the first major book to denounce witch-hunts and their ringleaders, and unquestionable the first book in English to actually hypothesize about the methods of these so-called witches. It contained one chapter of approximately twenty pages describing what we might view as unsophisticated, old-time magic tricks.
One would assume that it was this text, and texts succeeding this (The Art of Juggling, written by Samuel Ridd in 1610 also presented a few how-to’s of magic) were probably not only what suggested the idea of using magic as a them to Shakespeare, but in addition, provided methods as to how the magic in the play might be accomplished.
Despite the fact that in retrospective analysis it is fairly clear that witches were nothing more that magicians with a slightly different presentation, audiences were not always aware of –and those that were, were rarely convinced by—the two aforementioned texts. Witches were still persecuted and witch-hunts did not actually stop until the end of the seventeenth century. Therefore, Shakespeare’s use of magic was controversial, compounded by the fact that Prospero was presented in a largely good light—a move probably made as a political statement, as it is known that Shakespeare’s plays were sometimes written to include political suggestions to King James. However, when Prospero relinquished his powers at the end of the play, those that did believe in the witch-hunts were satisfied. Everyone was happy.
After considering the contention that the masque scene was added for the purposes of compliment to Elizabeth and Frederick’s marriage, one could conclude that Shakespeare learned more about magic after he wrote The Tempest. The reasoning follows. One could only assume that Shakespeare would have tried to make the magic in the play as fooling and magical as possible. Although there were two magic effects in the play, one of them –the spirit music—would not have fooled even the most unsophisticated and nave audiences. Even before the era of Harry Houdini, or even the wandering street magicians of the 1700’s, audiences were not fooled by music being played offstage. It is the other effect, that of the banquet disappearance that, well executed, would have fooled Shakespeare’s audiences, and would even have a shot of passing muster today.
However, this banquet sequence was in the masque scene, theoretically added two years after the original writing of the play. The question that begs to be answered therefore, is why didn’t Shakespeare fund some other way of including a more sophisticated magic effect into the play? The most logical answer would be that he learned more about magic and witch techniques after he wrote the play. Maybe at first he was unable to grasp the explanations in the Scot text, or maybe he didn’t even read it before the original writing—possibly it was just called to his attention, and he was unable to lay his hands on a copy until after he wrote the play
Whether or not Shakespeare ever read the Scot text in its entirety, or whether or not the banquet disappearance was added before or after the original writing, neither is relevant to magic’s central importance to the play. Obviously, magic could grab audiences of Shakespeare’s time. As it happens, magic had been grabbing audiences since 2500 BC (according to a depiction of a magician on the Beni Hassan tomb in Egypt) and magic continues to grab audiences today. It caught Shakespeare’s eye, and has made the play timeless, and theatrically entertaining.
Bibliography:

The Criminalization of Knowingly Transmitting AIDS

Table of Contents
Brief history of AIDS and the criminalization of knowingly
transmitting it…………………………………3
Interviews concerning the issue……………………….4
Reasons for the criminalization of knowingly transmitting
AIDS…………………………………………..5
Reasons against the criminalization of knowingly
transmitting AIDS……………………………….7
My position and conclusion……………………………8
Brief History of AIDS and the Criminalization
of Knowingly Transmitting It
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The virus was discoverd independently in
France in 1983 and in the United States in 1984. In the United States, it
was initially identified in 1981. In 1986, a second virus, now called
HIV-2, was also discovered in Africa. HIV-2 also causes AIDS.


AIDS is transmitted in three ways: From sexual contact without
protection, from the mixing of ones blood with infected blood, and from an
infected pregnant woman to her fetus. Infection can occur from blood
transfusions of infected blood, or sharing ‘dirty’ needles. (Needles
already used, in this case, by a HIV positive person.)
The criminalization of intentionally spreading AIDS has been a big
issue recently, and still remains so. As of September, 1991, legislation
criminalizing AIDS transmission has been passed in 24 states. Among these
states are California, Idaho, Ohio, Missouri, Michigan, and South Carolina.

Under these current laws, it is a crime to knowingly transmit the virus
through sex, sharing needles, donating infected blood, organs, or skin
tissue.


The first person to go to court under these laws in Michigan was
Jeffrey Hanlon. Hanlon was a gay man who infected another man from
Michigan while he was in New York. The American Civil Liberties Union, who
agreed to take the case, agrued that the AIDS disclosure law is
unconstitutional. Privacy of those with AIDS is what they were worried
about. Opponents argued that “they’re those with AIDS killing people.

It’s like rape.” The maximum sentence Hanlon could have recieved was four
years in prison and a $2000 fine.


In addition, under the current New York State law, which dates back
well before June, 1987, the knowing transmission of a venerial disease is a
felony. However, at that time, and currently, AIDS was not classified as a
venerial disease.


Interviews Concerning the Issue
Most people believe that the willful transmission of AIDS to others it
virtually murder. I have interviewed **name** and **name**. Both of them
feel that intentionally passing AIDS on to another person is murder. The
recipient of the virus will, in almost every case, die rather quickly of an
AIDS related disease.


**name** feels that “if someone knowingly transmits AIDS to another
person, it’s like committing murder. He or she should be punished to the
full extent of the law.”
In addition to personal interviews, I have found the opinions of
Governor Cuomo and former President Ronald Reagan.


On June 1, 1987, Cuomo revealed that state lawmakers would consider
making the transmission of AIDS a crime. He was quoted at the time as
saying:
“If you know you have AIDS and you pass it on to someone who is not
aware, that should be regarded as a very serious offense. I’m not talking
about sins and morality; I’m talking about a sin against the community, a
crime. We should look into that.” However, nothing was proposed at the
time.


Former President Ronald Reagan called for “routine” AIDS testing of
prisoners, marriage license applicants, immigrants, and possibly some
hospital patients. His purpose was only to identify carriers of the
disease; no comment concerning the criminalization of the transmission of
AIDS was made.


Reasons for the Criminalization of
Knowingly Transmitting AIDS
There are not many reasons for the criminalization of knowingly
transmitting AIDS. However, they are very convincing arguments.


The first and one of the most convincing arguments is because it will
help stop the propogation of the virus. Ideally, if people know that it is
a crime to transmit the virus, then they will not. The only way that AIDS
will remain an epidemic is if it is continually spread. This is because
those with AIDS will in most cases die rather quickly of an AIDS related
disease. If they do not spread it, then the number of people with the
virus will decline steadily without fail.


Another reason is that someone who is intentionally transmitting the
disease is doing it for their own satisfaction and/or to hurt others. Such
is the case with a drug pusher. Many magazine articles have made reference
to the analogy “a drug pusher is the same as an AIDS pusher.” Their
argument is that if drug pushers are treated as if they commit criminal
acts, then so should the supposed ‘AIDS’ pushers.


The Constitutional argument involoved is also a moral one. By
transmitting the virus willingly one is usurping on others’ rights to life
and happiness. It is also seen as wrong by the public. In effect, it is
murder in the second or third degree. If it is done intentionally, it is
murder in the first degree. Obviously this should be illegal and those who
break the proposed laws should be prosecuted as if they committed a crime.


Another reason to criminalize the transmission of AIDS is because the
money from fines incurred may be put towards research and development of
cures, as well as education and prevention programs. This will help stop
the problem and also speed up the process of finding a cure or immunization
for AIDS.


Reasons Against the Criminalization of
Knowingly Transmitting AIDS
There are many more reasons against the criminalization of willingly
transmitting AIDS to others. However, these are based not on morals but on
facts and practicality.


Criminalizing AIDS would divert millions of dollars to legal fees that
could be better spent on AIDS programs such as prevention, education, and
research and development in terms of finding a cure. “Criminalization is a
short cut taken when not enough energy is given to prevention.” Instead of
helping erradicate the epidemic, criminalization would instill more fear
among the people living with HIV. “It would create a witch hunt
atmosphere,” stated William Ramirz, an attorney for a HIV positive client.

Criminalizing AIDS transmission would open doors for people to knowingly
accuse others they know that have it just to get rid of them.


The law would also be practically impossible to enforce. In some
cases, intent would have to be proven. However, it is usually impossible
to prove intent since it is not possible to go “inside” the minds of others
to know what they were thinking in their moment of passion, whether it be
intercourse or drug use.


Even the United States Health Department opposes criminalization. They
fear that it would scare people from reporting that they have AIDS. This
is because those that do report it may be accused of committing a crime
sometime in the future.


My Position and Conclusion
I have mixed feelings on whether or not the transmission of AIDS should
be a criminal act. I feel that it is morally wrong, and in effect, those
who do it are committing murder. There is definitely a valid argument
there. However, due to the validity of the arguments against the
criminalization of passing AIDS on to others, I am partial to both sides.

I agree that it would divert millions of dollars that could be put to
better use in research and other programs. I also agree that it would be
legally and scientifically impossible to prove intent.


I feel that because of these conflicting ideas that I believe, the best
way to resolve the issue would be to make transmitting the virus a criminal
act, but not subject to jail time. Instead of wasting the taxpayers money
on giving free medical care and room and board to inmates, it should be put
towards finding a cure for AIDS. Instead of a jail term, those who
transmit the disease should be fined very heavily so as to discourage them
from repeating the offense. The money accrued from the fine should then be
used for research and other related programs, including helping those that
are infected.


All in all, AIDS is an epidemic that is a part of the nineties. It is
scary, but it must be dealt with. If the proper precautions are taken,
then eventually it will be taken care of in the right way. However, there
will unfortunately always be those that have malice towards society and
insist upon spreading their pain and suffering.

Jazz

Jazz
Jazz is a type of music developed by black Americans about 1900
and possessing an identifiable history and describable
stylistic evolution. It is rooted in the mingled musical traditions of
American blacks. More black musicians saw jazz for the first time a
profession. Since its beginnings jazz has branched out into so many
styles that no single description fits all of them with total accuracy.

Performers of jazz improvise within the conventions of their chosen
style. Improvisation gave jazz a personalized, individualized, and
distinct feel. Most jazz is based on the principle that an infinite
number of melodies can fit the cord progressively of any cord.

The twenties were a crucial period in the history of music.

Revolutions, whether in arts or matter of state, create a new
world only by sacrificing the old. By the late twenties, improvisation
had expanded to the extent of improvisation we ordinarily expect from
jazz today. It was the roaring twenties that a group of new tonalities
entered the mainstream, fixing the sound and the forms of our popular
music for the next thirty years. Louie Armstrong closed the book on the
dynastic tradition in New Orleans jazz.


The first true virtuoso soloist of jazz, Louie Armstrong was a dazzling
improviser, technically, emotionally, and intellectually. Armstrong,
often called the “father of jazz,” always spoke with deference,
bordering on awe, of his musical roots, and with especial devotion of
his mentor Joe Oliver. He changed the format of jazz by bringing the
soloist to the forefront, and in his recording groups, the Hot Five and
the Hot seven, demonstrated that jazz improvisation could go far beyond
simply ornamenting the melody. Armstrong was one of the first jazz
musicians to refine a rhythmic conception that abandoned the stiffness
of ragtime, employed swing light-note patterns, and he used a technique
called “rhythmic displacement.” Rhythmic displacement was sometimes
staggering the placement of an entire phrase, as though he were playing
behind the beat. He created new melodies based on the chords of the
initial tune. He also set standards for all later jazz singers, not
only by the way he altered the words and melodies of songs but also by
improvising without words like an instrument (scat singing)
(Arnold12). Armstrong was a great musical architect. He brought a
superb sense of drama to jazz solo conception. During a period when
most improvisers were satisfied simply to embellish or paraphrase a
tune, Armstrong himself was a master at both. Armstrong^s command of
the trumpet was arguable greater than that of any preceding jazz
trumpeter who recorded.

In actuality, the revolution initiated by Armstrong took place
in fits and starts, and with little fanfare at the time. After
Armstrong^s departure from the King Oliver Creole Band, over a year
would transpire before he would record as a leader. And even when
those famous recordings were planned -the classic “Hot Fives”- the
record company considered enlisting a better known leader to front the
band. Most accounts stress that Armstrong^s talents may have been
neglected by the general public, but were amply recognized by the
musical community – ” his playing was revered by countless jazz
musicians,” runs a typical commentary – but even this claim is
suspect. Fletcher Henderson, Armstrong^s first major employer after
Oliver, made the trumpeter accept a cut in pay to join his band. Many
accounts suggest that Henderson, in fact , preferred the playing of
cornetist Joe Smith, And that Armstrong was hired only because Smith
was unavailable. Smith lacked Armstrong^s rhythmic drive, yet his warm
sound and ease of execution could hardly be faulted and may have been
better receive by the average dancehall patron. Henderson was not even
enthusiastic about Armstrong^s singing, an attitude that deeply
frustrated the new band member. Years later Armstrong would later
exclaim: ” Fletcher didn^t dig me like Joe Oliver. He had a million
dollar talent in his band and he never thought to let me sing.”
During the 1930s a new style of jazz emerged. It became the
most popular kind of jazz in the twentieth century. This style
began during the late 1920s and continued to the 1940s. Most jazz from
the 1930s and early 1940s is called “swing music,” and this time in
history is now known as “the swing era.” Big bands in the swing era
were made up of ten or more musicians whose instruments were grouped
into three categories called “sections:” rhythm, brass, and drums. The
brass section included trumpets and trombones. The saxophone section
was separated from the brass section because they originated from
instruments made of wood. In a big band the sax section contained from
three to five musicians. The size of the trumpet section varied from
two to five musicians, two or three being the standard.

Unlike the early jazz era, in the swing era hits that were
jazz-oriented contained only a few solo improvisations, often
only one. Swing music contained less collective improvisation and more
solo improvisation, and the amount of improvisation in most swing era
hits was small. The construction of improvised solos in most hits were
melodically conservative.

The onset of the Great Depression had a chilling effect on the jazz
world, as it did the whole entertainment industry. The ambiance of
jazz culture were demystified in the process. During this period, the
growing popularity of talking movies led many theaters to halt the
elaborate live shows that had previously been a staple of popular
entertainment in most cities, further reducing paying jobs for
musicians. Although the development of the 1930s affected most
musicians adversely, a handful of performers benefited considerably
from the more stratified structure of the entertainment world. The
creation of a truly nationwide mass medium in the form of radio
catapulted a few jazz players to a level of celebrity that would have
been unheard of only a few years before.

Benny Goodman sent this apparatus into motion with a
vengeance. In the process, he ignited not only his own amazing
career, but sent off a craze for “swing music” that would last over a
decade. As a soloist Goodman defined the essence of the jazz clarinet
as no other performer, before or since; as a bandleader, he established
standards of technical perfection that were the envy of his peers,
while his influence in gaining widespread popularity for swing music
was unsurpassed. A decade later he reformed his ensemble to tackle the
nascent sounds of bop music (Gioia 135).

The new styles , which emerged after 1940 were classified as
modern jazz. Bebop is classified as modern jazz. Modern jazz
did not burst upon the jazz scene suddenly. It developed gradually
through the work of swing era musicians. Rather than being a reaction
against swing styles, modern jazz developed smoothly from swing
styles. Bop differed from swing in a number of performance aspects and
stylistic aspects. Melodies and harmonies were more complex in bop.

Bop tunes and cord progressions projected a more unresolved quality.

Drummers played their time keeping rhythms primarily on suspected
cymbal, rather than snare drum, high-hat, or bass drum.

Chick Corea grew and matured as an artist. He joined the ranks
of Herbie Hancock, Bill Evans, and McCoy Tyner as the Most
prominent and most imitated pianist in jazz. His style originated
with aspects from the approaches of bud Powell, Horace Silver, Bill
Evans and McCoy Tyner and the classical pieces of twentieth-century
composers Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok. Latin-American music also
inspired Corea^s style. Early in his career, Corea had played in
several bands that featured Latin-American music. Corea^s crisp,
percussive touch enhances the Latin feeling. It is also consistent
with his bright, very spirited style of comping. Like Tyner, Corea
voiced chords in fourths. Voicing in fourths means that chords are
made up of notes four steps away from each other. Chick Corea joined
Miles Davis^ band in 1968, and played electric piano on the landmark In
a silent way, album and the influential “Bitches Brew” session. His
own trio recording with Miroslav Vitous and Roy Haynes, “Now He sings,
Now He sobs,” became a staple in the record collection of modern jazz
lovers during the late sixties. Corea was a prominent composer during
the 1960s and 1970s. Corea wrote pieces that made good use of preset
bass lines in accompaniment, particularly those with a Latin-American
flavor. In 1985, Chick Corea formed the Elektric Band, which became
known for its use of synthesizers. The band^s debut was with Chick
Corea Eleckric Band, on GRP Records.