Brave New World Essay

Only if a person (s) has an IQ of 80 and above, has an income above $12,000 a year, has no serious emotional problems, and is able to care for a child should she or he be allowed to have children. Having met these requirements a child license should be issued. This insures that the person having the child is perfectly capable and financially able to provide for him.

In society today licenses are handed out left and right. Little boys with puppies have to make sure their dads take them to get dog licenses. Young teenage girls are restricted till they’re 17 until they can get their license and scramble for the keys to their parents’ car. A couple wanting to spend the rest of their lives together must first acquire a marriage license before doing so. Doctor’s and dentist’s have to get a license to practice their profession. Even as we look out into the water and up in the sky, all those people must get a license before taking out their boat or plane. Still yet the list of licenses one must acquire continues. This insures, for the most part, that a person is capable of doing whatever task he or she wishes to.
Why then should not a license be given to people who wish to have children? To care for a child, especially a young infant, takes extreme caution and care. One must be perfectly capable of insuring that a child’s health is not at risk. Today babies are being born all over the place. Kids are having kids. Newborns are being dumped in garbage cans and thrown down waste disposals. Yet the world keeps spinning and everyone continues going about his or her own business. Now is the time for change. With a license requirement, fewer people would be allowed to continue having children. A child will not be deprived of having the bear essentials such as enough food, good clothes, a secure shelter, and a loving parent.
As psychologist Jerry Bergman stated, “If you can prevent reproduction, you can prevent those who are least qualified from having children.” This way young teenagers wouldn’t be coming home with a newborn. People with mental disorders wouldn’t be able to have children for the mere welfare of the child. Also, anyone with very low intelligence quotients would not be faced with the task of raising children. The idea here is not to be selfish and just because you want a child you can automatically have one. It is to think of the well being of the child and the environment a child will be growing up in.

There is also an extreme seriousness that comes along with raising children. One must keep in mind the thought required to have children. One a person becomes a parent, he or she never stops. It is an experience that lasts a lifetime. Parenting involves intelligence to a certain degree. Parents are where a child learns most of their life information. If a parent can not provide such, what good does that do the child? A stable home and financial environment are also important. A child should be able to be cared for properly and never be lacking in the basic essentials. A stable parent is also necessary. A mother or father needs to be free of emotional problems before caring for a child. This helps make sure that a depressed parent won’t become reclusive just as their newborn starts to cry. The idea here is to avoid any forms of neglect that might arouse from any problems. The ability to care for a child is very important. Many people could have high IQ’s, lots of money, no emotional problems and still not be able to adequately care for children. This is where training centers and parenting groups come in. This way a parent knows how to care for a child properly physically and emotionally.
Thus, a license to have children should be mandatory. Providing for children in today’s society is not an easy task. To insure that the future of America is in good hands, only capable people should be allowed to have children. Otherwise, children all over will continue being neglected, ill cared for, and deprived of a nurturing environment. Let the selfishness stop, and start thinking of the young child that is about to come into the world without a choice. Let that child enjoy his right to live.

THE hawhtorne file

Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne, created many short stories which involved strange, or even stranger, supernatural events and behavior. Many of Hawthornes stories were written on the basis of his life occurrences and what he believed and also what he wanted his readers to believe. Also, almost every single one of Hawthornes characters in each of his short stories are faced with a choice in which they most choose between either doing something in which that is right, or doing something of which that is wrong, and there are consequences that follow either decision. Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his romantic short story The Hollow of the Three Hills illustrates his view through the main character, that life is short, and you need to do the right things while you have the time.Hawthornes life, what he did, and what happened to him, greatly influenced his writings, in fact, that is the only basis in which he wrote upon. When he graduated from Bowdoin College in 1825, he was determined to become a writer of fiction. Composition was the only subject in school he had shown interest in and actually excelled in. His wife, Sophia Peabody was the most important person who was in his life. He had the happiest years spending most of his life with her in Concord, New Hampshire. For Hawthorne, Sophia was his salvation, his only link to human companionship. As in the story The Hollow of the Three Hills, life and death are circumstances in which Hawthorne particularly likes to write about. Many other occurrences also influenced his writings, such as historical and legendary pasts, and his own life at Brook Farm, where he once lived. He would also often write about people who go through real life situations, but he likes to put a twist on them. Another thing that inspired him to write was what he could not see, rather than what he could see. He thought that writing on things that he could see, everyone one else could see as well, but if he wrote on things that he could not see, most likely no one else could see those things either, which would, in turn, make his stories more interesting to read about. Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts in 1804. During this time was the age of Puritanism, which was also an idea that he often wrote upon. Biographers view Hawthornes preoccupation with Puritanism as an outgrowth of his background. He also wrote about supernatural events. As in the story The Hollow of the Three Hills, supernatural events occurred. An example of this would be when an anonymous young character seeked advice from a much older anonymous character. The older character gave her the advice she needed through fortune telling and spells. After the younger character got the advice she seeked, shedied instantly in the lap of the older character. Hawthorne frequently uses characters which have mesmeric powers. Mr. Hawthornes distinctive trait is invention, creation, imagination, and originality. These traits are the prime example of Romanticism. He also wrote about the positives and the negatives of romance, and the affects in has on common people.Hawthorne, not only through his short story The Hollow of the Three Hills, but in other short stories that he has written, explains or rather tries to tell his readers that life is short, and you need to do the right things while you have the time. Because if you do not do the right things while you have time, you will most likely regret the choices that you have made, or did not make. Some of Hawthornes life experiences influenced his writing. Hawthorne liked solitude, he often roamed forests and lakes by himself. Troubled about money and saddened by the death of his mother, inspired him to write The Scarlet Letter. The Marble Faun was written by the influence of Romes historical and legendary past, its artistic treasures, and the blended grandeur and squalor of life. Recurring thematic patterns occur in Hawthornes work, this shows Hawthornes emphasis on the events on the human heart rather than on the events themselves.

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4, 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts, the descendent of a long line of Puritan ancestors, including John Hathorne, a presiding magistrate in the Salem witch trials. After his father was lost at sea when he was only four, his mother became overly protective and pushed him toward more isolated pursuits. Hawthorne’s childhood left him overly shy and bookish, and molded his life as a writer. Hawthorne turned to writing after his graduation from Bowdoin College. His first novel, Fanshawe, was unsuccessful and Hawthorne himself disavowed it as amateurish. However, he wrote several successful short stories, including “My Kinsman, Major Molyneaux,” “Roger Malvin’s Burial” and “Young Goodman Brown.” However, insufficient earnings as a writer forced Hawthorne to enter a career as a Boston Custom House measurer in 1839. However, after three years Hawthorne was dismissed from his job with the Salem Custom House. By 1842, however, his writing amassed Hawthorne a sufficient income for him to marry Sophia Peabody and move to The Manse in Concord, which was at that time the center of the Transcendental movement. Hawthorne returned to Salem in 1845, where he was appointed surveyor of the Boston Custom House by President James Polk, but was dismissed from this post when Zachary Taylor became president. Hawthorne then devoted himself to his most famous novel, The Scarlet Letter. He zealously worked on the novel with a determination he had not known before. His intense suffering infused the novel with imaginative energy, leading him to describe it as the “hell-fired story.” On February 3, 1850, Hawthorne read the final pages to his wife. He wrote, “It broke her heart and sent her to bed with a grievous headache, which I look upon as a triumphant success.” The Scarlet Letter was an immediate success and allowed Hawthorne to devote himself to his writing. He left Salem for a temporary residence in Lenox, a small town the Berkshires, where he completed the romance The House of the Seven Gables in 1851. While in Lenox, Hawthorne became acquainted with Herman Melville and became a major proponent of Melville’s work, but their friendship became strained. Hawthorne’s subsequent novels, The Blithedale Romance, based on his years of communal living at Brook Farm, and the romance The Marble Faun, were both considered disappointments. Hawthorne supported himself through another political post, the consulship in Liverpool, which he was given for writing a campaign biography for Franklin Pierce. Hawthorne passed away on May 19, 1864 in Plymouth, New Hampshire after a long period of illness in which he suffered severe bouts of dementia.. Emerson described his life with the words “painful solitude.” Hawthorne maintained a strong friendship with Franklin Pierce, but otherwise had few intimates and little engagement with any sort of social life. His works remain notable for their treatment of guilt and the complexities of moral choices.

In “Rappaccini’s Daughter”, Nathaniel Hawthorne examines the combination of good and evil in people through the relationships of the story’s main characters. The lovely and yet poisonous Beatrice, the daughter of the scientist Rappaccini, is the central figure of the story, while her neighbor Giovanni becomes the observer, participant, and interpreter of the strange events that transpire within the garden next door. It is Giovanni’s inability to understand these events that eventually leads to Beatrice’s death. Giovanni sees things that are either all good or all bad. While he is quick to judge Beatrice, he is unable to examine his own motives and thoughts. During the story, Hawthorne gives the reader many clues of Giovanni’s selfish and fickle nature. In the end, Beatrice dies because of Giovanni and his own poisonous nature. The moral of the story is that every persons character is both good and evil in nature. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses Giovanni and Beatrice to explore the impossibility of totally separating good and evil from the human character. At the beginning of the story, a young man named Giovanni Guasconti is introduced to the readers as a typical homesick student from Southern Italy. He is at once attracted to the beautiful garden next door belonging to the mysterious scientist, Dr. Rappaccini. Not only is he fascinated by the scientist and his garden, but he is instantly enchanted by Rappaccini’s beautiful daughter, Beatrice. The second time Giovanni sees Beatrice from his window overlooking the garden, he notices several unusual things. First, he believes that he sees a lizard die suddenly at Beatrice’s feet. Then a swarm of insects appear to die from her breath, and finally, the flowers that he gives to her seem to wither from her touch. However, Hawthorne is careful to never fully confirm what Giovanni sees. Hawthorne frequently uses words like “imagine”, “seemed”, or “appeared to ” to cast a doubt upon the validity of what Giovanni thinks he sees. Even Giovanni himself rationalizes the situation and convinces himself that what he thought he saw did not happen. This is because in Giovanni’s mind, it is impossible to separate the physical from the spiritual. For him, if Beatrice’s body is poisonous, then so is her spirit. Giovanni is unable to see the possibilities for good and bad to be simultaneously within someone. This problem is at the heart of this story and is what ultimately causes Beatrice’s death. Since Giovanni allows himself to disbelieve what he had seen earlier in the garden, he is able to fall for Beatrice. Giovanni is drawn to Beatrice not because of the “glamor” of science, but an interest in the unknown. He knows that all is not right in Rappaccini’s garden and he is fascinated with the mystery. As Giovanni and Beatrice get to know each other, they develop a strong bond. However, for Giovanni this is not true love. Hawthorne provides the reader with clues that question the integrity of Giovanni. For example, Hawthorne writes, “Guasconti had not a deep heart or at all events, its depths are not sounded now-but he had a quick fancy, and an ardent southern temperament, which rose every instant to higher fever-pitch” (Hawthorne 614). Not only is Giovanni passionate in his lust for Beatrice, but he also idealizes her as an angel. While he finds her to be “maiden-like”, he also considers her “worthy to be worshipped” (Hawthorne 619). Occasionally, Giovanni’s doubts come forth, “And at such times, he was startled at the horrible suspicions that rose, monster-like, out of the caverns of his heart, and stared him in the face; his love grew thin and faint as the morning-mist; his doubts alone had substance” (Hawthorne 620). But always, Giovanni is able to squash these doubts and he convinces himself of Beatrice’s purity. He is able to do this because otherwise he could not be with her. Giovanni does not see the possibility that there can be both good and evil within someone. For him, he thinks that someone is either all good or all bad. Even after Dr. Baglioni’s revelation about Beatrice, Giovanni tries not to see the possibilities of Beatrice being poisonous. It is only when he realizes that now he too is poisonous that he truly allows himself to believe. Because of this, he becomes insanely angry, as if he is the only one wronged, and ventures forth to confront Beatrice. The woman that he before worshipped, he now calls “Accursed one!” (Hawthorne 624). Now, he is repulsed by Beatrice and loathes her. Giovanni hurts Beatrice deeply with his accusations and stinging words. However, through Baglioni’s antidote he sees a possible way to cure them both. Beatrice takes the potion, urging Giovanni to wait and see what happens to her. At this point Beatrice dies because the poison in her body is too strong and the antidote causes her death. As she dies she says to Giovanni, “Thy words of hatred are like lead within my heart-but they, too, will fall away as I ascend. Oh, was there not, from the first, more poison in thy nature than in mine” (Hawthorne 626). Giovanni is a normal, but selfish student who is drawn into the Rappaccinis’ lives. He is unable to separate Beatrice’s good and sweet spirit from her poisonous body. He does not comprehend the possibility of an intermixture of good and evil within people. Once he finds out that she is indeed poisonous, he hates her. However, it is Giovanni in the end that is poisonous with his cruel words and the potion that he gives to Beatrice. In fact, although inadvertently, it is Giovanni who kills Beatrice by trying to change her nature with his antidote. The short story’s title, “Rappaccini’s Daughter” immediately tells the reader that the focus of the story is upon Beatrice even though she is not introduced to the reader for a couple pages. The first introduction to Beatrice teaches the reader that she is very beautiful and she is the caretaker to the poisonous plants in her father’s garden. As Giovanni learns, she knows little of the outside world for she has been raised almost exclusively within the garden. She appears to Giovanni, as well as to the reader, to be a gentle and innocent young woman. She even admits to Giovanni that the poisonous flowers in her father’s garden “shock and offend her, when they meet her eye” (Hawthorne 617). She honestly tells Giovanni about her poisonous nature when he confronts her; however, she seems to be truly unaware of her presence’s poisonous affect on Giovanni. She is also astonished by Giovanni’s hurtful confrontation. Beatrice tells Giovanni, “though my body be nourished with poison, my spirit is God’s creature, and craves love as its daily food” (Hawthorne 625). If she is evil, it is only because she was made that way. Her heart is pure. So in the end, the beautiful and innocent Beatrice is betrayed by the man she loved, Giovanni. For Giovanni betrays Beatrice because he thought she was evil, and truly Beatrice is the one who demonstrates to have true love. Beatrice proves to be very human, but with a poisonous body and a loving soul. At the beginning of the story, Giovanni is a normal person. However, he is inadvertently tempted by the beauty and sweetness of Beatrice and becomes poisonous. His own dark side is awakened by the encounter with the Rappaccinis and no one is left unscathed. Like all people, he is not completely good or bad, but a combination of the two. Some people are mostly good, some are mostly bad, but no one is only good or evil. Young Goodman Brown and Giovanni in “Rappaccini’s Daughter portray now characters in a story can be manipulated by the forces of good and evil. Examining the character theme of these two short stories, comparsions of the characters of Giovanni and Young Goodman Brown are closely aligned with the destiny of each bing similar and tragic. They both mus choose between good and evil. Both Giovanni and Young Goodman Brwon overcome evil, but only after….. Young Goodman Brown and Giovanni are both soliciting or being solicited by the devil. Young Goodman Brown goes into a dark, dreary forest searching for the devil. Young Goodman Brown’s enconnter was with a devilish man with a walking stick. “But the only thing about him that could be fixed upon as remarkable was his staff, which bore the likeness of a great black snake, so curiously wroutht that it might almsot be seen to twist and wriggle itself like a living serpent”. Giovanni’s encounter was not obvious. Giovanni was being solicited by the devil through a beautiful woman in a garden surrounded by evil plants.
Word Count: 180

Aids

IINTRODUCTION
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), specific group of diseases or conditions that result from suppression of the immune system, related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A person infected with HIV gradually loses immune function along with certain immune cells called CD4 T-lymphocytes or CD4 T-cells, causing the infected person to become vulnerable to pneumonia, fungus infections, and other common ailments. With the loss of immune function, a clinical syndrome (a group of various illnesses that together characterize a disease) develops over time and eventually results in death due to opportunistic infections (infections by organisms that do not normally cause disease except in people whose immune systems have been greatly weakened) or cancers.


In the early 1980s deaths by opportunistic infections, previously observed mainly in organ transplant recipients receiving therapy to suppress their immune responses, were recognized in otherwise healthy homosexual men. In 1983 French cancer specialist Luc Montagnier and scientists at the Pasteur Institute in Paris isolated what appeared to be a new human retrovirusa special type of virus that reproduces differently from other virusesfrom the lymph node of a man at risk for AIDS (see Lymphatic System). Nearly simultaneously, scientists working in the laboratory of American research scientist Robert Gallo at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, and a group headed by American virologist Jay Levy at the University of California at San Francisco isolated a retrovirus from people with AIDS and from individuals having contact with people with AIDS. All three groups of scientists isolated what is now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS.


Infection with HIV does not necessarily mean that a person has AIDS, although people who are HIV-positive are often mistakenly said to have AIDS. In fact, a person can remain HIV-positive for more than ten years without developing any of the clinical illnesses that define and constitute a diagnosis of AIDS. In 1997 an estimated 30.6 million people worldwide were living with HIV or AIDS29.5 million adults and 1.1 million children. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 1981, when the first AIDS cases were reported, and the end of 1997, more than 12.9 million adults and children had developed AIDS. In this same period there were 11.7 million deaths worldwide from AIDS or HIV. About 430,000 of these deaths occurred in the United States.

IICLINICAL PROGRESSION OF AIDS
The progression from the point of HIV infection to the clinical diseases that define AIDS may take six to ten years or more. This progression can be monitored using surrogate markers (laboratory data that correspond to the various stages of disease progression) or clinical endpoints (illnesses associated with more advanced disease). Surrogate markers for the various stages of HIV infection include the declining number of CD4 T-cells, the major type of white blood cell lost because of HIV infection. In general, the lower the infected persons CD4 T-cell count, the weaker the persons immune system and the more advanced the disease state. In 1996 it became evident that the actual amount of HIV in a persons bloodthe so-called viral burdencould be used to predict the progression to AIDS, regardless of a persons CD4 T-cell count. With advancing technology, viral burden determinations are quickly becoming a standard means of patient testing.

An infected persons immune response to the virusthat is, the persons ability to produce antibodies against HIVcan also be used to determine the progression of AIDS; however, this surrogate marker is less precise during more advanced stages of AIDS because of the overall loss of immune function.

Within one to three weeks after infection with HIV, most people experience nonspecific flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, skin rash, tender lymph nodes, and a vague feeling of discomfort. These symptoms last about one to two weeks. During this phase, known as the acute retroviral syndrome phase, HIV reproduces to very high concentrations in the blood, mutates (changes its genetic nature) frequently, circulates through the blood, and establishes infections throughout the body, especially in the lymphoid organs. The infected persons CD4 T-cell count falls briefly but then returns to near normal levels as the persons immune system responds to the infection. Individuals are thought to be highly infectious during this phase.
Following the acute retroviral syndrome phase, infected individuals enter a prolonged asymptomatic phasea symptom-free phase that can last ten years or more. Persons with HIV remain in good health during this period, with levels of CD4 T-cells ranging from low to normal (500 to 750 cells per cubic mm of blood). Nevertheless, HIV continues to replicate during the asymptomatic phase, causing progressive destruction of the immune system.
Eventually, the immune system weakens to the point that the person enters the early symptomatic phase. This phase can last from a few months to several years and is characterized by rapidly falling levels of CD4 T-cells (500 to 200 cells per cubic mm of blood) and opportunistic infections that are not life threatening.
Following the early symptomatic phase, the infected person experiences the extensive immune destruction and serious illness that characterize the late symptomatic phase. This phase can also last from a few months to years, and the affected individual may have CD4 T-cell levels below 200 per cubic mm of blood along with certain opportunistic infections that define AIDS. A wasting syndrome of progressive weight loss and debilitating fatigue occurs in a large proportion of people in this stage. The immune system is in a state of severe failure. The person eventually enters the advanced AIDS phase, in which CD4 T-cell numbers are below 50 per cubic mm of blood. Death due to severe life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers usually occurs within one to two years.

IIIOPPORTUNISTIC ILLNESSES
Death from AIDS is generally due not to HIV infection itself, but to opportunistic infections that occur when the immune system can no longer protect the body against agents normally found in the environment. The appearance of any one of more than 25 different opportunistic infections, called AIDS-defining illnesses, along with a CD4 T-cell count of less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood provides the clinical diagnosis of AIDS in HIV-infected individuals.
The most common opportunistic infection seen in AIDS is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), which is caused by a fungus that normally exists in the airways of all people. Bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis are also commonly associated with AIDS. In the late symptomatic phase of AIDS, bacterial infection by Mycobacterium avium can cause fever, weight loss, anemia, and diarrhea. Additional bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract commonly cause diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia (loss of appetite), and fever. Also, during advanced AIDS, diseases caused by protozoal parasites, especially toxoplasmosis of the nervous system, are common.
In addition to PCP, people with AIDS often develop other fungal infections. Thrush, an infection of the mouth by the fungus Candida albicans, is common in the early symptomatic phase of AIDS. Other infectious fungi include species of the genus Cryptococcus, a major cause of meningitis in up to 13 percent of people with AIDS. Also, infection by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum affects up to 10 percent of people with AIDS, causing general weight loss, fever, and respiratory complications or severe central nervous system complications if the infection reaches the brain.
Viral opportunistic infections, especially with members of the herpes virus family, are common in people with AIDS. One herpes family member, cytomegalovirus (CMV), infects the retina of the eye and can result in blindness. Another herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), may result in a cancerous transformation of blood cells. Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are also common and result in progressive sores around the mouth and anus.
Many people with AIDS develop cancers, the most common types being B-cell lymphoma and Kaposis sarcoma (KS). Kaposis sarcomaa cancer of blood vessels that results in purple lesions on the skin that can spread to internal organs and cause deathoccurs mainly in homosexual and bisexual men. Although the cause of KS is unknown, a link between KS and a new type of herpes virus was discovered in 1994.

IVHUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
The causative agent of AIDS is HIV, a human retrovirus. Researchers have known since 1984 that HIV enters human cells by binding with a receptor protein known as CD4, located on human immune-cell surfaces. HIV carries on its surface a viral protein known as gp120, which specifically recognizes and binds to the CD4 protein molecules on the outer surface of human immune cells. However, in 1984 researchers found that CD4 by itself was not sufficient for HIV infection to take place. Some other unknown factor, found only in human cells, was also required. After much research, in 1996 scientists discovered that HIV must also bind to chemokine receptors, small proteins also found on the surface of human immune cells, to enter the cells. The first chemokine receptor linked to HIV entry was CXCR4 (originally called fusin), which is bound by HIV strains that dominate during the latter stages of the disease. Researchers then determined that another chemokine receptor, CCR5, bound HIV strains that dominate in the early stages of the disease. Researchers are continuously discovering more chemokine receptors.
Any human cell that has the correct binding molecules on its surface is a potential target for HIV infection. However, it is the specific class of human white blood cells called CD4 T-cells that are most affected by HIV because these cells have high concentrations of the CD4 molecule on their outer surfaces. HIV replication in CD4 T-cells can kill the cells directly; however, the cells also may be killed or rendered dysfunctional by indirect means without ever having been infected with HIV. CD4 T-cells are critical in the normal immune system because they help other types of immune cells respond to invading organisms. As CD4 T-cells are specifically killed during HIV infection, no help is available for immune responses. General immune system failure results, permitting the opportunistic infections and cancers that characterize clinical AIDS.
Although it is generally agreed that HIV is the virus that causes AIDS and that HIV replication can directly kill CD4 T-cells, the large variation among individuals in the amount of time between infection with HIV and a diagnosis of AIDS has led to speculation that other cofactorsthat is, factors acting along with HIVmay influence the course of disease. The exact nature of these cofactors is uncertainit is believed that they may include genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors or other diseases. However, it is clear that HIV must be present for the development of AIDS.

VMODES OF TRANSMISSION
HIV is spread through the exchange of body fluids, primarily semen, blood, and blood products. It is most commonly spread by sexual contact with an infected person. The virus is present in the sexual secretions of infected men and women and gains access to the bloodstream of the uninfected person by way of small abrasions that may occur as a consequence of sexual intercourse.


HIV is also spread by any sharing of needles or syringes that results in direct exposure to the blood of an infected individual. This method of exposure occurs most commonly among people abusing intravenous (IV) drugs (drugs injected into the veins).
HIV transmission through blood transfusions or use of blood-clotting factors is now extremely rare because of extensive screening of the blood supply; it is estimated that undetected HIV is present in fewer than 1 in 450,000 to 600,000 units of blood.
HIV can be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby, either before or during childbirth, or through breast-feeding. Although only about 25 to 35 percent of babies born to HIV-infected mothers worldwide actually become infected, this mode of transmission accounts for 90 percent of all cases of AIDS in children. In addition, even uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers have an incidence of heart problems 12 times that of children in the general population.
In the health care setting, workers have been infected with HIV after being stuck with needles containing HIV-infected blood or, less frequently, after infected blood contacts the workers open cut or splashes into a mucous membrane (for example, the eyes or the inside of the nose). There has been only one demonstrated instance of patients being infected by a health-care worker; this involved HIV transmission from an infected dentist to six patients. In general, infected health-care workers pose no risk to their patients. There is also no risk of contracting HIV infection while donating blood.
The routes of HIV transmission are well known, but unfounded fear continues concerning the potential for transmission by other means, such as casual contact in a household, school, workplace, or food-service setting. No scientific evidence to support any of these fears has been found. HIV does not survive well when exposed to the environment. Drying of HIV-infected human blood or other body fluids reduces the theoretical risk of environmental transmission to essentially zero. Additionally, HIV is unable to reproduce outside its living host; therefore, it does not spread or maintain infectiousness outside its host.
No cases of HIV transmission through the air, by casual contact, or even by kissing an infected individual have been documented. Researchers have recently identified a protein in saliva, known as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), that prevents HIV from infecting white blood cells. However, practices that increase the likelihood of contact with the blood of an infected individual, such as open-mouth kissing or sharing toothbrushes or razors, should be avoided. There is also no known risk of HIV transmission to coworkers, clients, or consumers from contact in food-service establishments.

Studies have shown no evidence of HIV transmission through insectseven in areas where there are many cases of AIDS and large populations of insects such as mosquitoes. HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect and does not reproduce. Thus, even if the virus enters a mosquito or another sucking or biting insect, the insect does not become infected and cannot transmit HIV to the next human it feeds on or bites.

VIOCCURRENCE The nature of the AIDS epidemic is constantly evolving. In the United States, HIV infection was initially concentrated in the homosexual communitywhere widespread transmission occurred because of high-risk sexual behaviorand in people with hemophilia and other individuals receiving blood products. HIV infection then became established among people who abuse intravenous (IV) drugs and was spread by heterosexual contact (sexual relations between partners of the opposite sex) into all groups of society, especially through prostitution and other forms of high-risk sexual practices. Currently, male homosexual interactions (sexual relations between men) account for about 49 percent of AIDS cases, and practices involving IV drug abuse account for about 26 percent. The heterosexual spread of AIDS in the United States, especially from infected males to previously uninfected females, is increasing rapidly and now accounts for 9 percent of transmissions.
Of the more than 641,000 AIDS cases reported in the United States between 1981 and 1997, about 45 percent have been in Caucasians, 35 percent in blacks, 18 percent in Hispanics, and 1 percent in Asians. Adult males make up about 84 percent of these cases and adult females 15 percent. Children account for the remaining 1 percent of AIDS cases. Women and children constitute one of the fastest-growing groups of people with AIDS. Through December 1997, 54 documented cases and 132 possible cases of occupational transmission of AIDS/HIV infection had been reported in health-care workers. In 1994 and 1995 AIDS was the leading cause of death among Americans aged 25 to 44 years, the leading cause of death for American men of the same age group, and the third leading cause of death among American women in that same age group.

On a global scale, the AIDS epidemic is rapidly expanding. Of the estimated 30.6 million people worldwide living with HIV or AIDS in 1997, about 68 percent were living in sub-Saharan Africa, 22 percent in southern and eastern Asia and the Pacific, 4 percent in Latin America, 5 percent in North America and the Caribbean, and 2 percent in Europe and Central Asia. In Asia and Africa, most people contract the disease through heterosexual contact.
The major strain of HIV in the United States, Europe, and central Africa is known as HIV-1. In western Africa, AIDS is also caused by HIV-2, a strain of HIV closely related to HIV-1. Other distantly related strains of HIV-1 have been identified in various areas of the world. Although some of these strains cannot be detected with current blood-screening methods, there is little risk of these viruses spreading to the United States because of their geographic isolation. Even in the case of HIV-2, spread outside Africa is rare. Only 64 cases of HIV-2 have been documented in the United States, and transmission in these cases was linked directly to western Africa.

VIIDETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS
Although AIDS has been tracked since 1981, the identification of HIV as the causative agent was not made until 1983. In 1985 the first blood test for HIV, developed by the research group led by Robert Gallo, was approved for use in blood banks. This test can detect whether a persons blood contains antibodies against HIV, an indication of exposure to the virus. However, for about four to eight weeks after exposure to HIV, an individual will continue to test negative for HIV infection because the immune system has not had enough time to make antibodies against HIV. In 1996 an additional blood test was approved for use in blood banks. This test can detect HIV antigensproteins produced by the virus itself. The test can thus identify HIV even before the donors immune system has had a chance to make antibodies. An estimated 50 million blood samples are tested each year in the United States by blood banks, plasma centers, reference laboratories, private clinics, and health departments. Due to the major differences in the protein components of HIV-1 and HIV-2, separate tests were developed to detect these two related viruses. As new strains of HIV are identified from around the world, they will need to be evaluated for detection by these tests.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, has established an authoritative definition for the diagnosis of AIDS: In an HIV-positive individual, the CD4 T-cell count must be below 200 cells per cubic mm of blood, or there must be the clinical appearance of an initial AIDS-defining opportunistic infection, such as PCP (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia), oral candidiasis (thrush), pulmonary tuberculosis, or invasive cervical carcinoma (cancer of the cervix in women).

VIIITREATMENT Antiviral drugs that attack HIV exploit vulnerable spots in the viral replication cycle. One target is the process of reverse transcriptionthat is, the conversion of the viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)that HIV must undergo to be infectious. Reverse transcription is a process unique to retroviruses and is performed by the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT). One class of anti-HIV drugs, known as nucleosides, are all RT inhibitors. Five nucleosides are currently licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT), didanosine (Videx, ddI), zalcitabine (Hivid, ddC), stavudine (Zerit, d4T), and lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC). These drugs work as DNA-chain terminators. Because the drug appears to be a normal nucleotide base (the building block of DNA), the RT enzyme mistakenly inserts the drug into the growing viral DNA chain. Once the drug is inserted, no additional DNA bases can be added, and therefore viral DNA synthesis is terminated.
Although the nucleosides are more likely to interact with the viral RT enzyme, they also can be incorporated by the enzyme responsible for normal cellular DNA synthesis in the person receiving the drug, leading to toxicity (poisoning) and side effects. Such drug incorporation is usually observed in rapidly dividing cell types, such as the cells of the bone marrow, spongy tissue filling the cavities within bones.
A second problem is the emergence of drug-resistant forms of HIV in people receiving these drugs. Studies on early treatment of HIV infection with AZT have presented contradictory results as to whether such early treatment prolongs life. Because HIV replicates rapidly and mutates frequently during the earliest period of infection, an HIV-infected person carries many different strains of HIV, some of which may be drug-resistant. The limited variety of HIV in the early stage is thought to make it more susceptible to AZT and related drugs.
Although RT inhibitors were never considered a cure for HIV infection, it was hoped that they would slow the progression of AIDS, and AZT has been shown effective in reducing HIV transmission from pregnant women to their babies. However, the clinical benefit of RT inhibitors when used alone has been largely disappointing; they have extended the lives of people with AIDS by only about six months. When taken in conjunction with other RT inhibitors, however, they have been more effective. For example, AZT combined with lamivudine prevents the AIDS virus from developing resistance to AZT even though the virus quickly develops resistance to lamivudine. The combination also has been shown to boost CD4 T-cell counts and to lower levels of HIV in the blood. In November 1995 the FDA approved the combined use of AZT and lamivudine for early treatment of AIDS.

RT inhibitors are also effective when used with a new class of anti-HIV drugs known as protease inhibitors, approved by the FDA in December 1995. Protease inhibitors work by crippling a key viral enzyme called protease, which is vital to the reproduction of HIV in the later stages of its replication cycle.After HIV replicatesthat is, makes copies of its own protein componentsthese proteins must be cut to specific sizes before they can assemble into a mature virus. Protease is responsible for trimming the new HIV proteins to their required dimensions. When protease is blockedor inhibitedthe proteins are not cut andthe defective HIV cannot infect new cells. The first protease inhibitor drug, saquinavir (Invirase), was approved for use in combination with nucleoside drugs such as AZT. In March 1996 two additional drugs, ritonavir (Norvir) and indinavir (Crivaxin), were rapidly approved for use alone or in combination with nucleosides. A fourth drug, nelfinavir (Viracept), was approved by the FDA in March 1997 for both adult and child use. Ritonavir, formerly allowed for adult use only, was also approved for adult and child use.

Preliminary results from four American and European studies indicate that these drugs cause dramatic increases in the number of CD4 T-cells and decreases in the amount of virus in the blood. These results are about two to three times more powerful than those seen with the nucleoside drugs. Researchers cautioned that new studies show also that HIV can quickly develop resistance to these new drugs, at least when they are used alone. However, researchers suspect that the resistance can be delayed when the agents are combined with other anti-HIV drugsfor example, the nucleosides.

In fact, the most effective treatment against HIV is now considered to be a combination of three drugs taken togethertwo nucleoside RT inhibitors and one protease inhibitor. Although these drug combinations may cause severe side effects (such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and anemia), when taken properly they can reduce blood levels of the virus to undetectable levels. Each drug must be taken according to specific guidelines, however, and one missed dose can allow the virus to quickly mutate to a strain that resists the drugs.

These drug combinations can also consist of two nucleoside RT inhibitors and one non-nucleoside RT inhibitor, a new class of anti-HIV drug first recommended for approval by the FDA in June 1996. These drugs work similarly to nucleoside RT inhibitors in that they bind to the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. However, they do not compete with other nucleosides for binding sites. The first drug of this type to be developed was nevirapine (Viramune), which was appproved by the FDA in April 1997. A second non-nucleoside RT inhibitor, delavirdine (Rescriptin), is currently available only in test settings. Both drugs are effective only when taken with nucleoside RT inhibitors; they should not be used with protease inhibitors.

No matter which drug combination is administered, researchers believe that the earlier a patient is treated for HIV, the greater the chance that the treatment will be effective.
The development of antiviral therapies for HIV is complex, and each new approach and drug must be extensively evaluated for safety and effectiveness. The general perception that this evaluation process causes unnecessary delays in providing therapies spurred public demonstrations against the FDA. These demonstrations have resulted in policy changes that make experimental drugs and approaches more readily available to people with AIDS, even before the drugs or approaches are approved. Although early availability of a drug entails the risk that it may be used in people before its toxicity and side effects are fully understood, many people with AIDS are willing to take this risk with the hope that the drug may prove effective.
Effective drug treatments are available to fight many AIDS-associated opportunistic infections, and these treatments have provided clinical benefit and prolonged survival for individuals with AIDS. Recent drug treatments for PCP have dramatically decreased illness and death due to this opportunistic infection. Antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B and fluconazole are effective against AIDS-related fungal infections. The antiherpes drugs ganciclovir and foscarnet are used to treat CMV retinitis and other herpes diseases. Because these therapies require medical supervision and are often needed on an extended basis, a network of community hospices (see Hospital) has been established to provide low-cost outpatient care for individuals with AIDS. Some hospices provide shelter and compassionate support for people living with AIDS.
Gene therapy, an approach that involves altering the genes of the infected person to help prevent the virus from spreading to uninfected cells, might someday be used to treat HIV infection. Gene therapy has been used in clinical trials to inhibit HIV by introducing into cells a new gene that interferes with the viral regulatory proteins. In other trials, gene therapy has been used to introduce a new gene that protects the cells from becoming infected by HIV.

Efforts also are under way to develop an effective immunization that could be either protective, preventing infection if an immunized person is exposed to HIV, or therapeutic, prolonging survival or decreasing immune destruction in people already infected with HIV. The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently sponsoring a large-scale trial of a protective-vaccine candidate in areas of the world where the rate of HIV infection is just beginning to rise dramatically. In 1998 the FDA approved the first large-scale trial of an AIDS vaccine in uninfected volunteers. The vaccine, made from the viral protein gp120, is designed to stimulate the production of antibodies that could protect against HIV infection. The vaccine is being tested for safety and effectiveness in Thailand and North America.

With the discovery in 1996 that HIV must bind to chemokine receptors as well as CD4 molecules, researchers also began to develop laboratory chemokines that might block HIV from attaching to these receptors and casing infection. Individuals who lack CCR5 receptors due to a genetic defect appear to be protected from contracting the disease.

IXPREVENTION EFFORTS Because there is as yet no successful vaccination against HIV, prevention efforts have focused mainly on educating the public about routes of HIV transmission and about personal measures that reduce the risk of infection. The CDC has established the National AIDS Clearinghouse, a hotline to disseminate educational literature and current statistics on AIDS. Safe-sex campaigns encourage sexual abstinence or monogamy (sexual relations with only one partner) and the use of latex condoms to provide a protective barrier during sexual intercourse (see Birth Control). Needle-exchange programs have been implemented to reduce needle sharing and consequent HIV transmission among IV drug abusers. The U.S. government has set strict guidelines for health-care settings, including use of protective clothing and proper instrument disposal, to decrease the risk of transmission to both the patient and the health care provider. On a national scale, screening of the blood supply has greatly reduced the risk of contracting HIV from blood products. However, with the exception of blood screening, these prevention programs have had only limited success.

XSOCIAL ISSUES
Many people consider HIV infection and AIDS to be completely preventable because the routes of HIV transmission are so well known. To completely prevent transmission, however, dramatic changes in sexual behavior and drug dependence would have to occur throughout the world. Furthermore, prevention efforts that promote sexual awareness through open discussion and condom distribution in public schools have been opposed because of the fear that these efforts may encourage sexual activity. Similarly, needle exchange programs have been criticized as promoting drug abuse. Prevention programs that identify HIV-infected individuals and notify their sexual partners, as well as programs that promote HIV testing at the time of marriage or pregnancy, have been criticized for invading personal privacy.
Efforts aimed at public awareness have been propelled by community-based organizations such as Project Inform and Act-Up, which provide current information to HIV-infected individuals and to individuals at risk for infection. Public figures and celebrities who are themselves HIV infected or who have died from AIDSincluding American basketball player Magic Johnson, American actor Rock Hudson, American diver Greg Louganis, and American tennis player Arthur Ashehave personalized the disease of AIDS and thereby helped society come to terms with the enormity of the epidemic. As a memorial to people who have died from AIDS, especially in the early years of the epidemic, friends and families of AIDS victims stitched together a giant quilt in which each panel of the quilt was dedicated to the memory of an individual who died from AIDS. This quilt has traveled on display from community to community to promote AIDS awareness.
The U.S. government has also attempted to assist HIV-infected individuals through legislation and additional community-funding measures. In 1990 HIV-infected people were included in the Americans with Disabilities Act, making discrimination against people with AIDS for jobs, housing, and other social benefits illegal. Additionally, the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act established a community-funding program designed to assist in the daily lives of people living with AIDS. This congressional act was named in memory of a young man who contracted HIV through blood products and became a public figure for his courage in fighting the disease and community prejudice. The act is still in place, although continued funding for such social programs is threatened by opposition in the U.S. Congress.
The lack of effective vaccines and antiviral drugs for AIDS has spurred speculation that the funding for AIDS research is insufficient. Although the actual amount of government funding for AIDS research is large, most of these funds are used for expensive clinical studies to evaluate new drugs. Many scientists believe that not enough is known about the basic biology of HIV and recommend shifting the emphasis of AIDS research to basic research that could ultimately result in more effective medicines.
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King Solomon

King Solomon one of the most influential kings in the entire bible Solomon was a wise king and was gifted as well as punished for his transgressions on his people and God. This paper will show how Solomon was thought to be one of the greatest kings of the bible, his contributions on the lively hood of the Israelite people and how he was sent to bring the people into a new type of living for the people of Israel. This paper will give a personal account on my reason for thinking that Solomon is a great king of his time.
Solomon was born the son of Bathsheba and thought to be the illegitimate son of David. The people accepted this since Bathsheba was a prostitute, and Solomon was to be the heir of the throne regardless of any parental problems. According to 1Kings 1:17,
“She said to him, My lord you swore to your servant by the Lord your God, saying your son Solomon shall succeed me as king, and he shall sit on my throne,'”
This comes from a conversation between Bathsheba and David so that the choice of the king would be Solomon. So according to scripture Solomon was the chosen successor of David. Once Solomon received the thrown he prayed to God to be blessed with the great wisdom that the Lord his God have.
The lord God granted Solomon with a wisdom that would surpass all. He would be wiser than everyone from the north would and wiser than all the people of Egypt. The lord blessed Solomon with riches and honor because he did not ask for these things from God. God blessed Solomon with this wisdom, riches, and honor mainly to bring about a new way for the kings of Israel. Solomon not asking for wealth and power pleased God making him willing to grant him with those two extra gifts. Solomon received wisdom, luxury, and pleasure but according to Lansine,
The Solomon of kings has knowledge; he doesn’t achieve it. He is given wisdom; he is not given an education. Solomon receives knowledge; he doesn’t earn it. He under goes no youthful learning experience.”
This means that without God giving the blessing of wisdom unto Solomon he may not have been the great leader that he was today. This gift made Solomon loved by all people of his kingdom. Solomon used his wisdom to make a decision about two women and a dead baby. This story in the bible shows how two prostitutes who both have given birth to a child are arguing because one of the babies has died and the mother of the dead baby wants to claim the living one. They come to see king Solomon for a judgement, he tells the women that he would cut the baby in half so that both women would have a piece of the child. Solomon did this so that he could see which women would have compassion for the child, who ever showed such compassion would be the mother. The order was sent out to split the child but one woman says not to cut the baby but to give it to the other women. With seeing this sign of compassion towards the child Solomon doesn’t cut the child but gives it to the women that would have rather lost her child to another women than see him die. Solomon granted that woman with the child. For the way that Solomon just knew who to give the child to had the people of Israel in awe and they perceived that he received this wisdom from God.

Solomon was an intelligent man he knew he couldn’t run the empire alone so he appointed three new members of his cabinet and an officer for every one of the twelve tribes that Israel was split into. The tribes or districts were created to make his job easier and the people of Israel much less quarrelsome with each other. These twelve districts had an official with the task of supplying Solomon and his household with food. Each had to collect a certain amount of food each month in the year. Solomon made great contributions to the people of Israel. One of his greatest contributions was the temple of the lord. He began to build the “House of the Lord” with timber from Hiram the king of Tyre who in return wanted food for his household. As the temple was being built Solomon used the Israelites and other people in the empire none Israel to complete the task of building this great temple for the lord. When the temple was complete Solomon had all elders and heads of the tribes of Israel to witness the ark being moved from the city of David to the temple within Jerusalem. For the gift of the temple Solomon became popular with the people and leaders of the world.

The major flaws of Solomon were his love for many women, building pagan temples, and using forced labor to complete the temple of the lord. Solomon commits crimes against the lord first he had many wives it is said that he had one thousand wives from all over the world. This was a crime because Solomon didn’t keep the covenant and statutes of the lord. Solomon let his wives change the god he believed in which led to another one of his crimes. The worship of pagan gods was bought on by the marriage to all of his wives. Building those gods temples as well as for the lord God. Solomon disobeyed a direst order from God,
“you shall not enter into marriage with them, neither shall they with you; for they will surely incline your heart to follow their gods”; Solomon clung to these in love. (1Kings 11:2)
the women that are being talked about here are anyone of his many wives that were not a child of Israel. This made the Lord unhappy with Solomon since he not only disobeyed the direct law of God by marrying these women he then worships and builds temples for the gods of his wives breaking the commandments that were sent down. God also was unhappy by the actions of Solomon using the lord’s people Israelites or not to build the temple taking on slaves. The lord punished Solomon for not keeping the covenant and statutes that his father David did by removing the kingdom from the hands of Solomon.

Solomon even though had his flaws was the most successful of kings. His reign lasted forty years in which he started a government system, built a temple for the Lord God, and kept the people of Israel in awe with his gift of wisdom. As Solomon’s reign began to end so did his faith and love for God. As seen with him making sacrifices to the pagan gods of his wives.

Finally the reason for this paper was to better the knowledge of myself and the reader on the best king of the Israelites, that being King Solomon. From simply reading the bible he caught my interest for his great gifts to the people of Israel, and any man that can keep a thousand wives is someone really worth reading more about. Solomon could be a role model for the people of Israel during his early years in power because the wisdom that was bestowed upon him making him a just and thoughtful person that was known throughout the lands. That was the main reason for Solomon to be my choice on a biblical figure.


Bibliography
1.The Age of Solomon; Handy, K. Lowell 1997, Brill New York
2.The New Oxford Annotated Bible; Metzger, Bruce; Murphy, Roland 1991 Oxford University Press Inc.

3.The Book of Wisdom; Reider, Joseph 1957 Harper & Brothers
4.Great People of the Bible and how they lived; Wright, E. G. 1974 Readers Digest Associates Inc.

Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

“When she was fourteen, a modeling agency said that her face was too fat.

It was a death sentence.” (Toronto Sun, 1994)
Sheena Carpenter died in November 1993. She was found on the kitchen
floor of her apartment by her mother. She was twenty-two years old. . . and
weighed only fifty pounds. Sheena was just one of the alarming numbers of young
women who become obsessed with the shape and size of their bodies, and suffer
harmful, or in this case, fatal effects from eating disorders. At any given time,
almost one out of every two women is on some sort of a diet, and this statistic
is apparently reflected the revenues of the diet industry, currently a $33
billion a year industry. It should be noted that this estimate does not include
profits generated by exercise or workout programs, gyms, health clubs, or
cosmetic surgery.

A recent national survey in the US reveled that the majority of women,
when asked what would make them happiest, choose thinness over all other choices,
even such thing as job promotion, romance, prestige and power. In fact, more
women feared becoming fat, then feared dying. These statistics revel an alarming
social problem that is reaching epic proportions.

Although the topic of eating disorders has gained a larger audience
within the last decade, the number of cases of eating disorders continues to
rise at a resounding rate. Today many scientists are looking into possible
causes for the onset of an eating disorder. The most prevalent and influencing
factor is the media and society’s view. They act as a controlling presence for
susceptible individuals. The socioculture pressure on today’s adolescent and
young women to be thin and attractive also play an important role in the
development of eating disorders. Thinness in today’s society is associated with
self-control, attractiveness, intelligence, happiness , wealth and success. The
media, fashion, and the diet industry exploit this myth by bombarding us with
products and services designed to push us towards losing weight. As a result, it
is not surprising to find that adolescents who are undergoing uncontrollable
body changes and the onset of new emotional and sexual drives seek dieting in
order to enhance their sense of self-control and acceptance by others.

Recently it has been discovered that a possible cause for eating
disorders is due to an defective hormone. That hormone serotonin, said to
activate in response to food, is still a mystery and even though it has some
value as a blood clotting factor, but its functions have yet to be totally
understood. At the current speed of progress however, it has been said that we
should expect definite information as to the cause of an eating disorder in
about a decade. Following soon after will be a better form of treatment to help
all who have become effected by this dreadful disorder.

Both Anorexia and Bulimia have effects and differences on the
body that causes the body to take drastic measures to sustain the life of the
individual. (for the sake of brevity and to avoid redundancy the abbreviation ED
will be used in pace of eating disorder)
The lack of any digested food to become a useful ingredient to the body
has detrimental effects to the body as a whole. With each disorder, Anorexia and
Bulimia Nervosa, you will see how each contributes to this problem.

A variety of changes in thought and perception accompany Anorexia
Nervosa. Notable behavioral changes, however, center around food. The
individual with anorexia often divides her foods into good and bad
categories. Good foods are hypocaloric which includes fruits and vegetables,
while bad foods are hypercaloric, such as carbohydrates and sweets. The
hypocaloric foods are eaten while hypercaloric foods are avoided. Mealtimes are
usually skipped or small amounts of foods may be eaten, leading to low daily
calorie intake levels. To an anorexic, every act of eating may be governed by
rules such as cutting the food into small pieces, taking hours to eat, or
hoarding food. This person also becomes obsessed with exercise in yet another
attempt to lose weight. Physically, the disorder causes the body to slowly
deteriorate. Obvious signs to look for are excessive weight loss in a short
period of time and continuing dieting of a bone thin person. The body, in its
amazing capabilities, begins to protect itself by shutting down non-life
sustaining processes. The heart rate and blood pressure slow, very fine hairs
called lanugo grow on the body to prevent loss of body heat, and the skin
becomes dry and yellow. The master gland, the thyroid, slows, which in turn
slows development. Amenorrhea begins, stopping the menstrual cycle in women. Due
to nutrient restriction and electrolyte imbalance, the heart and kidneys become
severely damaged and the brain may even shrink causing drastic personality
changes.

Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by frequent binge eating, which is
followed by some form of compensative behavior, whether it be self-induced
vomiting, laxatives, or compulsive exercise. Unlike anorexics who are usually in
a state of self denial, bulimics are fully aware of their illness and
consciously try to hide it from others. This deception allows the bulimic to
carry on for many years without anyone ever knowing. However, the hunger
sensation is overwhelmingly strong and the individual gives in, devouring large
amounts of food each time. Then guilt and compensatory behaviors follow, such
as vomiting or laxative use. Because bulimics only lose the food they’ve just
eaten, they do not drastically lose weight, but fluctuate instead. The body
still tries to preserve life and discontinues non-life sustaining processes as
well. Many experience signs common to an anorexic such as obsessive exercise,
which could led to heavy involvement in sports. Loss of menstrual periods, and
feeling fat are also common signs of bulimia. Bulimics still eat but purging
starves their bodies of much needed nutrients. This action can lead to heart and
kidney damage due to lack of potassium. Purging can also cause the stomach wall
and esophagus to rupture, as well as tooth decay due to the acidity of the
stomach.

ED’s have their similarities and differences as can be shown, but inside
the body the both cause virtually the same chemical responses.

Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa are two disorders unlike any other disorder,
sickness, or disease. The eating disorders such as these two strike in a
vulnerable division in the body. The body is sustained by the food we eat and
the liquids we drink, take those away or out of their homeostatic state and the
body suffers greatly. Although the body is amazing in its capabilities to deal
with life functions and changes within, without the proper nutrients, the body
is unable to do its job. This is why the disorder is so terrible. The body is
unable and incapable without this food to repair itself, provide the means for
organs to work, or to sustain life processes. With the limitation of food intake,
mineral levels fall towards dangerous levels. As a result vitamins don not work
and then food can’t be digested and a whole cascade of dangerous effects follow.


Minerals are used in the body not a source of food but rather as a aid
to other body nutrients. They increase the ability of a nutrient to function and
strengthen its effectiveness.

With the decrease in food and energy from food, a fluid electrolyte
disorder called hyponatremia develops where there is not enough sodium in the
body. Made worse by laxatives (diuretics) and excessive sweating through the
compulsive exercise, low sodium levels trigger the adrenal cortex to release
aldosterone, targeting the kidney tubules. When stimulated, the kidneys raise
the absorption rate of Na+ in the proximal convoluted tubules and the loops of
Henle. It is important to understand that while the sodium content of the body
may change, its concentration in the extracellular fluid remains stabile because
of adjustments in water volume. Hyponatremia, when not corrected, causes a
neurologic dysfunction due to brain swelling, systemic edemia, decreased water
loss which leads to decreased blood pressure and volume, as well as cardiac
arrhythmia and circulatory shock. Physical signs of this electrolyte disorder
are headaches, muscle cramps, thirst, lethargy, and weakness. Relating very
closely to sodium’s role in the body is that of potassium.

“Potassium, the chief intracellular cation, is required for normal
neuromuscular functioning, as well as for several essential metabolic activities,
including protein synthesis.” Although potassium can be toxic at high levels,
eating disorders cause the level of potassium to fall dramatically lower than
normal causing the same drastic effects. A deficit of potassium can cause
hyperpolarization and nonresponsiveness of the neurons controlling our body, a
condition called hypokalemia. The heart, being the most sensitive to K+, may
develop cardiac arrhythmia and possible arrest also. Muscular weaknesses,
alkalosis of the blood, and hypovenilation may accompany low levels of potassium.


The effects of hyponatremia and hypokalemia may not be prevalent at the
onset of an eating disorder and may not even show up for quite some time due to
the low levels of other chemicals that hinder, compensate, or account for the
difference. For example, not enough magnesium (hypomagnesemia) can cause tremors
and increase neuromuscular excitability. A lack of phosphorus causes a condition
known as rickets, when the epiphyseal plates in young growing children continue
to widen and become enlarged. Even a lack in trace minerals like Iron and Iodine
can cause an inability to maintain body temperature and hypothyroidism,
respectively.

Vitamins are essential for the life-sustaining process in the body to be
carried out. Vitamins in the body act as a coenzyme. They act in junction with
other specific enzymes allowing them to function. Without the assistance of
vitamins, all of the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins would not be able to be
broken down and digested and used for energy.

Most vitamins are not made in the body and therefore most come from our
diet, and since no one food contains all of the essential vitamins need for the
body, a balanced diet is necessary. The deficiency of vitamins in the body is
primarily what causes the effects that are visible in an ED patient. Vitamin A
deficiencies cause night blindness (controls pigmentation of rods and cones) and
the drying of the epidermis of the skin. Shown in the dry eyes and chapped lips,
coarse hair, and the drying eye conjunctiva and yellowing skin. Lack of vitamin
D causes problems in the skeleton leading to brittleness and easy breakage of
bones. Vitamin K that adds to blood coagulation will cause an increase of
clotting time and bruising. Those are to name the effects of low fat-soluble
vitamin. The water-soluble vitamins effect the body in yet another way. Vitamin
C, labels by many as the health vitamin, is an antioxidant, meaning that it is
used to repair the body of damage from free oxygen radicals. Low levels
therefore, let damaged tissue to go unrepaired. Other common problems are an
inability to form the intercellular cement, joint pains, bone growth problems,
increased susceptibility to infection, and further weight loss.

As the vitamin level dwindles, the body becomes less able to properly
digest food into energy. Carbohydrate, lipids, and proteins that due come into
the body, can’t be broken down properly. The body continually needs energy for
basel and regular metabolic rates. When the food intake no longer provides that
necessity, the body begins to break down its own resources of stored energy.

First to be broken down, is carbohydrates. Carbohydrates consist of
sugars and is the easiest obtainable and best used energy source. The complex
and simple sugars are broken down directly into glucose. Carbohydrates are
burned at a fast rate and since the body doesn’t store a lot of it the body next
turns upon the lipid or fat reserves.

A large portion of energy is storied in fat however it takes more energy
to turn it to a useful substance. As the body breaks down itself, the loss of
insulating fat causes loss of body heat and an increased metabolic rate. As
stored fats become depleted and the body has to due work to keep itself together,
next the proteins become targeted.

Most proteins are located and stored in muscle. The break down of
proteins is really the break down of muscle. Protein digestion is the worst form
of energy since it takes a lot of energy to get small amounts of energy.

As shown, one thing that may seam minor and minuet can turn into a
dangerous situation. Experimentation has proven that the best form of treatment
includes the use of anti-depressant drugs. In situation where the patient has
become critical the individual is often hospitalized and monitored around the
clock with close observation on slow recovery of body chemical. The damages to
the body can usually be restored in a relatively short time as compared to the
emotional damage that goes on for years. Thankfully most of the physical
problems with an eating disorder are caused by malnutrition and go back to
normal when normal body weight is restored.


Category: Science

Macbeth And Lady Macbeths Guilt

Through The View Of A Reader, The Reasons Why Macbeth Is More Guilty By His Actions Then Lady Macbeth Is By Hers.Macbeth is a very exciting story containing all kinds of plots and murders. The characters that are killing and are planning murders are all very deceiving and treacherous. Two of the most dangerous criminals in this play are Lady Macbeth and her husband. Together they commit the most dreadful murder by killing the King; Duncan. This is why it is difficult to determine which one of these two is more guilty, because they each do their own part in committing the crime. Lady Macbeth would prepare the plan and then encourage Macbeth to go through with it. Macbeth did the actual murdering, he was also the first person who thought about killing Duncan. Furthermore he did some killing on his own. Lady Macbeth did not have any involvement in these cases. Based on these facts, Macbeth would be found more guilty than Lady Macbeth.The very first murder in this story was committed on Duncan. This crime was planned by both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. The actual murder was done by Macbeth, making him more guilty of the crime. Lady Macbeth just talked about committing the crime, but she never actually went through with it nor would she ever, and that is all that counts. Talking about committing the incident is very different from actually doing it. Lady Macbeth did a little more than just talk about it though. She also urged Macbeth into doing it and that is what makes her part of this crime, but she is not as guilty as Macbeth. He really didn’t have to listen to what his wife said. Macbeth had a mind of his own and he could make his own decision. The other murders that Macbeth was involved in were not committed by him, but were ordered by him. The people who did the killing had no choice, they had to do it, because they worked for Macbeth. Macbeth knew this and was a bit more guilty in these murders then lady Macbeth was when she urged him.The idea of killing Duncan first came from Macbeth. Macbeth listened to the witches prophecies that said he would become King. Macbeth did not want to wait any longer and he thought the only way to become King was to kill the present King; Duncan. Macbeth later told Lady Macbeth about this and she just wanted to help him and do whatever she could for him, so that he would be happy and be King. She was also excited about becoming queen.

Babi Yar

by
Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Yevtushenko speaks in first person throughout the poem. This creates the tone of
him being in the shoes of the Jews. As he says in lines 63-64, “No Jewish blood is
mixed in mine, but let me be a Jew . . . ” He writes the poem to evoke compassion
for the Jews and make others aware of their hardships and injustices. “Only then
can I call myself Russian.” (lines 66-67). The poet writes of a future time when the
Russian people realize that the Jews are people as well accept them as such. If you
hate the Jews, he asks, why not hate me as well? True peace and unity will only
occur when they have accepted everyone, including the Jews.


Stanza I describes the forest of Babi Yar, a ravine on the outskirts of Kiev. It was
the site of the Nazi massacre of more than thirty thousand Russian Jews on
September 29-30, 1941. There is no memorial to the thirty thousand, but fear
pervades the area. Fear that such a thing could occur at the hands of other humans.

The poet feels the persecution and pain and fear of the Jews who stood there in
this place of horror. Yevtushenko makes himself an Israelite slave of Egypt and a
martyr who died for the sake of his religion. In lines 7-8, he claims that he still bars
the marks of the persecution of the past. There is still terrible persecution of the
Jews in present times because of their religion. These lines serve as the transition
from the Biblical and ancient examples he gives to the allusions of more recent acts
of hatred. The lines also allude to the fact that these Russian Jews who were
murdered at Babi Yar were martyrs as well.
The next stanza reminds us of another event in Jewish history where a Jew was
persecuted solely because of his religious beliefs. The poet refers to the “pettiness”
(line 11) of anti-Semitism as the cause of Dreyfus imprisonment. Anti-Semitism is
his “betrayer” (line 12) when he is framed, and anti-Semitism is his “judge” (line 12)
when he is wrongly found guilty. Lines 13-14 claim that even the fine and
supposedly civilized women of society shun Dreyfus because he is a Jew and fear
him like they would fear an animal.
In stanza III, Yevtushenko brings himself to the midst of the pogroms of Bielostok.

He gives the readers the image of a young boy on the floor being beaten and
bleeding while he witnesses others beat his mother. In line 24, he gives the reader
the rationale of the Russians who are inflicting such atrocities on the Jews.

“Murder the Jews! Save Russia!” They view the Jews as the curse of Russia;
a Jewish plague that must end in order to save their country from evil. In a way
they think that they are acting in patriotism.
The poet transports us to Anne Franks attic in the fourth stanza. He describes to
the reader the innocent love that has blossomed between Anne and Paul. Her love
of the world and life and spring has been denied her (line 30). Yet, she manages to
find comfort for her loss in the embrace of her beloved. In line 33, Yevtushenko
shows the reader Annes denial of what is going on around her. She tries to drown
out the noise of the Nazis coming to get her. When her precious spring comes, so
do the war and the Nazis to take her to her death.
Stanza V brings us back to the ravine of Babi Yar. In line 40, the poet chooses to
personify the trees. They “stare down” on him in judgement as G-d would. Line 41
is oxymoronic. There is a silent mourning for the martyred Jews by the air; a force
in nature. The air around Babi Yar howls for the massacre it has witnessed. The
poet himself claims to be “an endless soundless howl/ over the buried” (lines
43-44). He is a mourner for the thirty thousand, but there is nothing that can be
said. He writes that e is every one of thirty thousand and feels their pain and
injustice. “In no limb of my body can I forget.” (line 57). His physical body feels
their pain. “Limbs” depicts an image of mangled bodies in the mass grave of Babi
Yar.
Stanza VI begins with Yevtushenko reminding the Russian people of their ability to
be good hearted and moral. He speaks of “men with dirty hands” (lines 52-53).

Fascists, Nazis whose hands are covered in the blood of the innocent, come to
Russia and cause the Russians to close their magnanimous hearts. The tone of lines
52-54 is cruel and harsh like the actions of the Nazis. These hateful people claim to
bring “the union of the Russian people” (line 59). He makes a point of referring to
these people as “anti-Semites” (line 57) because the Jews are Russians, too. The
Nazis in effect have turned Russian against Russian – hardly a “union.”
In the last stanza, the poet calls for world unity which will only occur when
anti-Semitism has ended. He is not a Jew, yet he equates himself to one. If all
Russians are people, then the Jews are no less Russian or less human than he
himself. If this is the way you treat these Russian people, he is trying to express,
then treat me, a “real” Russian, as you have treated the Russian Jews. Only then
will all Russians truly be united and equal.


Yevtushenko is a supporter of the Jewish plight. He sees the injustice that they
have been subject to and feels responsible for it in a way. He tries to rationalize
why his people, the Russians, have acted so immorally and blames their actions on
the influence of others. He calls to his people to reform; simultaneously urging the
Jews not to blame them entirely for their actions and to show that they do have
natural goodness within them.


Category: English

Youth

INTRODUCTION:
The federal government of Canada fifteen years ago, in 1984, the Liberal party changed the Juvenile Delinquents Acts to the Youth Offenders Act to have a More human approach to the rights of young people before the law(Leschild and Jaffe, 8:1991). In the present such as Premier, Mike Harris, of Ontario wants the federal government of Canada to scrap the Young Offenders Act. In 1999, the same party that came up with the act is making majors changes to the act. This report will look at the young offenders act at the present time, look at why kids commit crime, what is being done to improve the act, what has the province done towards teenagers and also a look at the United Sates youth system.

WHAT IS YOA
The YOA the Young Offenders Act, which replaced the 75 years old Juvenile Delinquents Act in 1984, came into effect because since the courts where acting in the best interest of the children, little attention was paid to the rights of the children (Dickinson et al, 1996: 403). This had to be changed because of the new Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom which was passed in 1982 stated that in section 15 that equality before the law without discrimination based on age (Dickinson and others, 1996:744). The changes that were made to the YOA were that age that a child under the age of 11 could not be held criminal responsible.While between the age of 12-17 he or she could be held partial criminal responsible. Once you reached the age of 18, an adult you were full criminally responsible (Dickinson, 404:1996). If a young offender is sent to court the detail of the crime may be published, but the young persons name or a young witness name could not be identified.The reason for this was for young people to have another chance in life if they screw up and also to protect a young persons identity especially a witness (Justice Canada, 19:1988).
WHY DO KIDS COMMIT CRIME:
Why do kids commit crime, they are many answers but are there any correct answers to that question. Andree Ruffo is a youth court judge in Pointe-Claire, Quebec. She believes that kids commit crime and have to appear in court because of expressing themselves or trying to tell someone that their something wrong with their life, or their needs are not being met. She also feels that parents have a lot of problems on their own as she stated that Many parents havent found themselves. So when it comes to giving to children, they have no time, their exhausted(Ruffo, 1:1994). While Marcia Kaye thinks that adolescents that turn to crimes or the street have faced sexual abuse and/or physical abuse. Kaye goes on to say that Even through parents have been loving attentive, children will choose a life of prostitution, drugs, and violence (Kayne, 50,late 80,s).Toronto defence counsel Bill Trudell said it best when he said We dont we just recognise in this country we have kids who dont ask to be brought into this world, who have all kinds of pressures we dont even imagine and who arent Martians, theyre kids?Allmand who is one of the most left-wing Liberals on social issues, said that is a disintegration of the family and it is translating into the kind of problems youths are experiencing today (Tyler, Insight: 1994).

HAS YOA BEEN EFFECTIVE:
Since 1995, a year after the YOA came into effect; all areas of offences have increased. This would included all persons ages 17 and under or less charged with an offence that was dealt with informally by the police. The total of all offence in 1985 was at 188,958 and by the year 1989 it had jumped to 225, 766 so an increase of 36,808 in just 4 years. A big suprise was in the rise in numbers of the Drug offence. In 1985, it was at 4,290 and in 1986 it jumped up to 4,767, but by the year 1989 it was at 4,253. In that 5 year period it decreased by 43 but at least it is a start in one area (Ruffo, 4,1994). But it is not really young people committing the crimes because a Canadian centre for judicial statistics stated that 16 and 17 year olds commit most of the crimes. For example in 1992-1994 there were 42 murders and 25 of them or 60 percent were committed by 16 and 17 years old. Another good example is aggravated assault, which in the same year 311 were committed but 16 and 17 year olds committed 212, which was 68% of them. Another fact was that 50% of youths, 16 and 17 year olds that were charged, had pervious criminal histories, compared with the 14 and 15 yeas old with 42%, and the 12 and 13 years old with 25%. These states show that children as they grow could be repeat offenders. In 1992, 12 to 17 year olds who represent 7.5% of the population (< biblio >) committed 30 % of the crimes. Just to add to all this in a survey in the Ottawa area, showed that 21 percent of students carried weapons in school (Wilson-Smtih, 15: 1994).
WHAT CHANGES ARE PROPOSED:
In a Macleans magazine in 1994, an article named Under the Gun and it reads small letters Will the Liberals get tough on young offenders.It only took five years later, but 5 years ago Justice Minister Allan Rock stated that he agrees, but there have to be more effective deferments (Wilson-Smtih, 13:1994). In another article he stated that we are not going to tolerate violence by any age group(Steward, A1: 1994). It only took five years to introduce the recent changed to the YOA. Some of the changes include lowering the age of the young offenders from 14 to 12 years olds where kids would be tried as an adult from the court.Another change is that the media will be able to publish the names of all young offenders, 14 and older, which receive adult sentences from the court. Another big change to all this is that parents will now be at fault if their kids commit again under their supervision. Such offence will see the parents sentence to 2 years in jail instead of the 6 months. This should show that a message is being sent to the responsibility for a young offenders is serious commitment or and a fine up to two thousand dollars (Baglole, Internet: 1999). Some other changes are that victims would be allowed to see the young offender crime file and help in the deciding of the sentencing process. Youth would also be put right away on mandatory probation after being released from custody. The Justice Minister Anne McLellan said that she Took a more balanced approach(Ed-kidcrime, Internet: 1999)
CHANGES TOWARDS TEENAGERS:
A change is the provincial governments new Violence-free School Policy that came in effect in June of 1994. It is that when a child behaves poorly in school his record will follow him/her if we move from one school to another telling the principals about past behaviour of new students. The record will be kept in the office for at least three years. The reason for all this is that Students must realise their actions will have consequences said the Former education and training minister David Cooke and he went on to say This is what we mean by zero tolerance. Another change is that if a report of a violent incident involving a student that is 12 or older, it must be reported to the police.The board is also required to keep track of all incidents and send the results to the education ministry on a yearly basis. This example of what the province of Ontario is doing to crack down on Young Offenders in the school system (Daly, 1994:A13).


A LOOK AT THE U.S. SYSTEM:
If cracking down hard on the young offenders worked, the United States should be the safest country to live in, but it is the most violent. The U.S. now tries a child at the age of 13 years old in adult court and also has some of the harsh sentences, such as shipping them to boot camps or even harsh correctional facilities (Ed-Kidcrime, 1999: Internet).Some of the changes that our friends have made to their system are in one state Florida. Florida has passed a law last year making it illegal for 16 year olds to drive after 11pm(Diamond, 1999: Internet). The U.S. has give up on boot camps because of the high rate of recidivism has led to many U.S. jurisdiction (Landsberg, 1999:Internet) The U.S. is now using a new program which has been cutting the number of new crimes committed by teenagers as much as 70%. The provincial government is now using this program. This program is known as MultiSystemic Therapy or MST, which is working the problem with the troubled kid. You are in the kids home almost every second day and Kelly McDonnell, a clinical supervisor for Peel area said, You are in there. You are getting to the bottom of the problem(Tyler, 1998: Internet).


CONCLUSION:
The Youth Offenders Act is a hot issue. On any given day you can not open up a newspaper or turn on a T.V and not find an article or a broadcast about the Young Offenders Act. The government has started to make changes, but could more changes be done or even faster? . The question will these changes make it better or turn it into a worst system then it is at the present, only the future will tell. Who is to blame for the youth offenders of this country could it be the parents who sometime do not have too much control of them or who do not care or known what their kids are doing are could we blame the media for influencing their minds. Let put a stop to youth crime and help these children before they get into trouble with the law.


Category: Social Issues

hard times

In Polish farmer risked life for Jewish girl, Sally Horwitz paints a picture of how a part of her life was, during World War 2.


At the age of 13, Sally and her sister Frania were selected by a Nazi S.S. man to board a cattle train. Once on the train their home and everyone in it became only a part of her memory. Sallys destination was to a potato farm, where she would work as a slave for the Nazis.
The farm was run by a man named Gogacz, he himself was not a Nazi, but forced to work for them. Gogacz at the time was a man in his 30s. His farm was used to feed the Nazi soldiers. From the beginning Gogacz advised Sally to escape the farm and hide in the deep woods with a friend of his. Although the offer was tempting Sally refused the offer for the fear of what might happen to the others if she acted on it. Although she never escaped she still dreamed of being free. On two occasions Sally did leave the farm and both times she was nearly executed.


The first time Sally was sent into town for salt. She had to wait till the guard left his post and then she set out for the town. On her way back she drifted from her original task and lost track of time. When she returned to the farm the guard was back at his post. Immediately he noticed she was missing, and when he spotted her returning he yelled for her to turn her back to him. As she turned she heard the guard cock his rifle, like an angle from the sky Gogacz swiftly pushed the rifle skyward and explained that the girl had been sent to town for salt. Gogacz and Sally were lucky both of them were not shot right there. Gogacz saved Sally yet but another time, but Sally writes that is another story.

Early American Literature

Early American literature consisted mainly of diaries, journals, short stories, and Indian creation stories. Since some of the language used was of older English and other languages, early American literature was difficult to read.The first story I read was Spanish Explorers in the New World. This story was a journal of Cabeza de Vacas travels and discoveries in the New World. After having a shipwreck, he and his fellow sailors were made slaves of the Indians. They walked barefoot, bleeding and ate raw meat for food. He also described how one tribe took over land. De Vaca gave detailed accounts on how the Indians lived which I found interesting. The males lived in the estufas, while women lived in the house. For a proposal, the male would weave a blanket and place it before the female. Spanish Explorers In The New World was interesting because of the detail with the Indians as opposed to other stories which involve no action.The second piece of early American literature I read was The General History. The Jamestown colony as plagued from the beginning by unfortunate circumstances. While out exploring, John Smith was captured by the Indians. After being brought to many chiefs, John Smith was brought to the emperor of the Pamaunkee. The emperor had planned to kill John Smith at first by placing his head against a rock and bashing it in. Then Pocahontas, the emperors daughter, threw her head in the way and prevented his death. The emperor then decided to let Smith live and to have him as a slave. This story also had more action than some other which I read which does make it interesting, but every once in a while it is difficult to understand due to the Old English. This story was insightful into the lives of one tribe of Indians near Jamestown.The third passage I read was an excerpt from The Bay Psalm Book. In this the Puritans had re-edited the Bible and tried to simplify its words. Their version was modified to rhyme and to have what the Puritans referred to as “plainness.” They believed that life should be plain and stiff. This version of 23 A Psalm of David was difficult to decipher and I thought that the meaning had mean changed some.In conclusion, I have learned that early American literature was exciting in some cases, such as those of real life people and their adventures, and boring and difficult to comprehend in others, such as in the “plainness” of the Puritans.