Special Topics In Communications

Communication is defined as creating symbol systems that can be used to exchange and express information and meanings. The different ways that individuals, groups and societies use these expressions to make sense of daily life is know as their culture. Culture itself can be divided into two classifications. Culture spelled with a capital C is usually associated with art such as classical music, opera, ballet and art museums. These examples can also be called high culture. Culture with a lowercase c represents the way people live through fashion, sports, religion, education and history.

Each culture is a different audience.Mass media takes the audience in consideration to provide information that is relevant to them. Media will target people based on age, gender and race to produce programming or text that each will relate to.

When the popular teen drama Dawsons Creek first aired in 1997, I was 17. The program was intended to reach out to my age group on issues that were important to us. For about a year and a half I was a Dawsons Creek expert, knowing in detail about the characters and the storylines. Soon after high school I grew restless with the show. I realized it no longer appealed to me because I had grown out of the show. The same network has since come out with programs for the college age group that I now watch. Networks know that they must change just as fast as their audience to keep them.
There are many types of mass media today that are available to a large number of people on a daily basis. Sources of mass media and mass communications include newspapers, movies, television programs, radio, books and magazines. Of these mediums, the Internet is the fast growing type of mass communication.

I first began using America Online in 1999 for chat rooms. I would go in the rooms and talk to people my age that lived in my area. It was a new way to communicate with people about whatever I wanted. I then noticed people using the chat rooms for a source of spreading their ideas about racism, sexism and general malaise. I believe that most output from the Internet is positive. The Internet is a convenient tool for education, news, entertainment, business and personal communication. Although with a resource with large, hate groups are also going to try and spread their message to the masses.

The rapid growth of technology and communications around the world today is bringing up new issues to society everyday, one of these issues actually being the breakdown of the society structure. People no longer have the need to communicate in person. Individuals can pick up a cell phone or log online and instantly be connected to one another. People are leaving the house less and find no reason to. We rely on technology so much to run every aspect of our lives that it will eventually rearrange our lifestyles completely.

Many films have tried to express the downfalls of technology and over-industrialization. Movies such as Bladerunner and A.I. show man and their battle to control with the technology in which he has created. I think these filmmakers try to make a statement about the future in these types of productions. I think these films show the consequences that can happen when mankind creates technology they dont have full restrain ove
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Many social changes that were addressed in the 196

0s are still the
issues being confronted today. the ’60s was a decade of social and
political upheaval. in spite of all the turmoil, there were some positive
results: the civil rights revolution, john f. Kennedy’s bold vision of a
new frontier, and the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring about
progress and prosperity. however, much was negative: student and anti-war
protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited
american people and resulted in lack of respect for authority and the law.

The decade began under the shadow of the cold war with the soviet
union, which was aggravated by the u-2 incident, the berlin wall, and the
cuban missile crisis, along with the space race with the ussr.

The decade ended under the shadow of the viet nam war, which deeply
divided americans and their allies and damaged the country’s
self-confidence and sense of purpose.

Even if you weren’t alive during the ’60s, you know what they meant
when they said, “tune in, turn on, drop out.” you know why the nation
celebrates Martin luther king, jr.’s birthday. all of the social issues
are reflected in today’s society: the civil rights movement, the student
movement, space exploration, the sexual revolution, the environment,
medicine and health, and fun and fashion.

The Civil Rights Movement
The momentum of the previous decade’s civil rights gains led by rev.

Martin luther king, jr. carried over into the 1960s. but for most blacks,
the tangible results were minimal. only a minuscule percentage of black
children actually attended integrated schools, and in the south, “jim crow”
practices barred blacks from jobs and public places. New groups and goals
were formed, new tactics devised, to push forward for full equality. as
often as not, white resistance resulted in violence. this violence spilled
across tv screens nationwide. the average, neutral american, after seeing
his/her tv screen, turned into a civil rights supporter.

Black unity and white support continued to grow. in 1962, with the
first large-scale public protest against racial discrimination, rev. Martin
luther king, jr. Gave a dramatic and inspirational speech in washington,
d.c. After a long march of thousands to the capital. the possibility of
riot and bloodshed was always there, but the marchers took that chance so
that they could accept the responsibilities of first class citizens. “the
negro,” King said in this speech, “lives on a lonely island of poverty in
the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity and finds himself an exile
in his own land.” King continued stolidly: “it would be fatal for the
nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the
determination of the negro. this sweltering summer of the negro’s
legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn
of freedom and equality.” when King came to the end of his prepared text,
he swept right on into an exhibition of impromptu oratory that was
catching, dramatic, and inspirational.

“I have a dream,” King cried out. the crowd began cheering, but king,
never pausing, brought silence as he continued, “i have a dream that one
day on the red hills of georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of
former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of
“I have a dream,” he went on, relentlessly shouting down the
thunderous swell of applause, “that even the state of mississippi, a state
sweltering with people’s injustices, sweltering with the heat of
oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. i
have dream,” cried King for the last time, “that my four little children
will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of
their skin but by the content of their character.”
Everyone agreed the march was a success and they wanted action now!
but, now! remained a long way off. president kennedy was never able to
mobilize sufficient support to pass a civil rights bill with teeth over the
opposition of segregationist southern members of congress. but after his
assassination, president johnson, drawing on the kennedy legacy and on the
press coverage of civil rights marches and protests, succeeded where
kennedy had failed.

However, by the summer of 1964, the black revolution had created its
own crisis of disappointed expectations. rioting by urban blacks was to be
a feature of every “long, hot, summer” of the mid-1960s.

In 1965, King and other black leaders wanted to push beyond social
integration, now guaranteed under the previous year’s civil rights law, to
political rights, mainly southern blacks’ rights to register and vote.

king picked a tough alabama town to tackle: selma, where only 1% of
eligible black voters were registered to vote. the violence, the march,
the excitement all contributed to the passage of the second landmark civil
rights act of the decade. even though there was horrendous violence, rev.

king announced that as a “matter of conscience and in an attempt to arouse
the deepest concern of the nation,” he was “compelled” to lead another
march from selma to montgomery, alabama.

The four-day, 54-mile march started on the afternoon of sunday, march
21, 1965, with some 3500 marchers led by two nobel prizewinners, the rev.

Martin luther king, jr. And ralph bunche, then u.n. Under secretary for
special political affairs. in the march, whites, negroes, clergymen and
beatniks, old and young, walked side by side. president johnson made sure
they had plenty of protection this time with 1000 military police, 1900
federalized alabama national guardsmen, and platoons of u.s. Marshals and
fbi men.

When the marchers reached the capital of alabama, they were to have
presented a petition to then governor george wallace protesting voting
discrimination. however, when they arrived, the governor’s aides came out
and said, “the capital is closed today.”
About this same time, the term, “black power” was coming into use. it
was meant to infer long-submerged racial pride in negroes. Martin luther
king, jr. Specifically sought to rebut the evangelists of black power. “it
is absolutely necessary for the negro to gain power, but the term black
power is unfortunate, because it tends to give the impression of black
nationalism. we must never seek power exclusively for the negro, but the
sharing of power with white people,” he said.

Unfortunately, the thing that really moved the civil rights movement
along significantly was the murder of rev. Martin luther king, jr. In late
1965. cruelty replaced harmony with nightmarish suddenness. rioting mobs
in the negro suburb of watts, california, pillaged, burned and killed,
while 500 policemen and 5000 national guardsmen struggled in vain to
contain their fury. hour after hour, the toll mounted: 27 dead at the
week’s end, nearly 600 injured, 1700 arrested, and property damage well
over $100 million.

The good that came out of all of this, is that thousands of negroes
were flocking to register in the nine counties in alabama, louisiana, and
mississippi where the government posted federal examiners to uphold the
voting law. in four days, 6,998 negro voters were added to the rolls in
counties where there had previously been only 3,857.

In that time of sorrow and guilt when King was murdered, there was an
opening for peace between the races that might otherwise never have
presented itself. president johnson pleaded, “i ask every citizen to
reject the blind violence that has struck dr. King.” he went on to say
that to bring meaning to his death, we must be determined to strike
forcefully at the consciences of all americans in order to wrest from
tragedy and trauma, the will to make a better society.

The Student Movement
Americans who were young in the 1960s influenced the course of the
decade as no group had before. the motto of the time was “don’t trust
anyone over 30.” another, “tell it like it is,” conveyed a real mistrust
of what they considered adult deviousness.

Youthful americans were outraged by the intolerance of their
universities, racial inequality, social injustice, the viet nam war, and
the economic and political constraints of everyday life and work. one
group that formed during this time was s.d.s. (students for a democratic
society). opposed to “imperialism,” racism, and oppression, the s.d.s.

found the american university guilty of all three. they did do some good
at the beginning like organizing northern ghetto dwellers in projects such
as chicago’s jobs or income, now (join). but the viet nam war led to a
change in their tactics. they became an independent radical force against
society. the deluge of disorders made it harder and harder for most
americans to keep events in perspective. they tended to forget that most
of the nation’s 6,700,000 collegians were studying hard at school and not
causing trouble. an underlying pattern emerged in the american university.

the university suddenly became a political arena. the students wanted to
address the national problems of war, race, and poverty. as a result, the
university lost some of its neutrality. students created a new u.s.

institution: the political university.

However, another element among youths was also emerging. They were
called hippies. this movement marked another response to the decade as the
young experimented with music, clothes, drugs, and a “counter-culture”
lifestyle. in 1967, hippies preached altruism and mysticism, honesty, joy
and nonviolence. they had a child-like fascination for beads, blossoms,
and bells, strobe lights, ear-shattering music, exotic clothing and erotic
slogans. they wanted to profess “flower power” and love. they were
predominantly white, middle-class, educated youths, ranging in age from 17
to 25. Perhaps the most striking thing about the hippie phenomenon, is the
way it touched the imagination of the “straight” society. hippie slang
entered common usage and spiced american humor. boutiques sprang up in
urban and suburban areas to sell the “psychedelic” color clothes and
designs that resembled art nouveau.

A major development in the hippie world was the “rural community,”
where nature-loving hippie “tribesmen” escaped the commercialism of the
cities in an attempt to build a society outside of society. another
development was the illicit use of drugs, creating the slogan, “tune in,
turn on, drop out.” “better living through chemistry” was another
advertising slogan that was a sly joke to the young, but a real worry to
their parents.

Marijuana (pot, grass, mary jane, weed) was their favorite
preparation. however, some were smoking hash, taking mescaline, peyote,
lsd, barbiturates and sedatives. The list goes on and on. and it was only
the beginning. Drug use was everywhere. rock musicians used drugs
frequently and openly. their compositions were riddled with references to
drugs, from the beatles’ “i get high with a little help from my friends” to
the jefferson airplane’s “white rabbit.”
Space Exploration
At the end of 1968, americans became the first human beings to reach
the moon. seven months later, they were the first to actually walk on the
moon. their telecast gave earthbound viewers an unforgettable view of the
moon. Astronaut lovell reported, “the moon is essentially grey, no color.

we can see quite a bit of detail. the craters are all rounded off.”
On christmas eve, the astronauts of apollo 8 (borman, lovell, and
anders) gave their best description of the moon in a most impressive
telecast. “this is apollo 8 coming to you live from the moon,” reported
borman, focusing his camera on the lunar surface. “the moon is a different
thing to each of us,” said borman. “my impression is that it’s a vast,
lonely, forbidding-type existence……it certainly would not be a very
inviting place to live or work.”
Lovell agreed, but added, “the vast loneliness up here is
awe-inspiring, and it makes you realize just what you have back there on
In apollo 11, the astronauts landed on the moon on july 25, 1969.

astronaut neil armstrong called out the word everyone was waiting
for…….”houston,” he called. “tranquility base here. the eagle has
landed.” all of america was on the edge of their seats. it was a very
exciting time; cheers, tears and frantic applause went up around the

“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” became
the watchword when u.s. Astronaut armstrong said this as he placed his foot
firmly on the fine-grained surface of the moon. after centuries of dreams
and prophecies, the moment had come. man broke his terrestrial shackles
and set foot on another world. the new view could help man place his
problems, as well as his world, in a new perspective. The Sexual Revolution
The medical introduction of the “pill” changed the interaction between
the sexes dramatically in 1964. Americans discovered that the freedom from
fear of unwanted pregnancy went hand in hand with other kinds of sexual
freedom. it became an era in which morals were held to be both private and
relative, in which pleasure was being considered almost like a
constitutional right rather than a privilege, in which self-denial became
increasingly seen as foolish rather than virtuous.

The “pill” is a tablet that contains as little as one
thirty-thousandth of an ounce of chemical. it used to cost 1 1/4 cents to
manufacture and a month’s supply sold for $2.00, retail. yet, in a mere
six years, it changed and liberated the sex and family life of a large
segment of the u.s. Population. did the convenient contraceptive promote
promiscuity? are americans paying the price today for the decline in
morals and values?
The Environment
A book written by rachel carson, silent spring, earned her a
reputation not only as a competent marine biologist, but as a gifted
writer. the villains in silent spring are chemical pesticides, against
which miss carson took up her pen in alarm and anger. many readers were
firmly convinced that most of the u.s. Was already laced with poison that
would soon start taking a dreadful toll. the only way to fix the situation
was to stop using chemical pesticides and let the “balance of nature” take
care of the insects.

Another “activist” of the day was lady bird johnson, president
johnson’s wife. she envisioned beautification all over america. she is
generally credited with inspiring the highway beautification act of 1965.

This is the decade when scientists were becoming more vocal about the
ozone layer, pollution, and smoking cigarettes. americans became aware of
the dangers they encountered everyday and would perhaps hand down to their
children. the federal communications commission voted 6 to 1 to ban
cigarette advertising on radio and tv. eventually, with congressional
approval, cigarette packages had a new warning on them: “caution:
cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health.”
Medicine and Health
Mistakes made in the past caused great social and health problems to
children around the world when it was discovered that using a tranquilizer
called thalidomide caused severe birth defects. babies were born with
hands and feet like flippers, attached close to the body with little or no
arm or leg. as results of using thalidomide became apparent, every
compound drug containing thalidomide was taken off the market.


Home: Religion
An examination of the question of the impeccability of Jesus Christ
The New Testament authors had no qualms about declaring that Jesus was truly human and telling us that Jesus committed no sin. Bible passages such as 2 Corinthians 5:21, Hebrews 4:15, 1 Peter 2:22 and 1 John 3:5 witness that He Jesus did not give in to temptation, nor violate the moral standards of God, nor was He inconsistent with the nature of his character. That is, Jesus was sinless.
It is vital to our theology that Jesus was sinless. For only if Jesus was sinless could His death have been a vicarious substitution and fulfil Gods redemptive plan for man. If Jesus had not been sinless, then it would mean that He died for His own sins and not those of mankind. Had Jesus died for His own sins then His death could not have been accepted by the Father as a vicariously substitution for the punishment and judgement each of us are entitled to receive. Even though there is no serious debate that Jesus was anything but sinless, theologians have discussed the question of whether Jesus could have sinned if He had wanted. This is called the peccability of Christ. The opposing argument, i.e., impeccability, being that even if He had wanted, Jesus could not have sinned. Upon first consideration, one might view this question as being trivial; something to simply keep the theologians out of mischief when they have nothing better to do. However, there are some very appropriate reasons for examining this issue.
The first reason to examine the issue of Christs peccability/impeccability is so that we might obtain a better understanding and a more in depth knowledge about both Jesus Christ and God, just as God has invited us. This is the same reason that we study Theology proper. When we arrive at an answer to this question, we will have additional knowledge about Jesus preincarnate state and a better understanding of the meaning of the statement Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever .
Second, some theologians have argued that the peccability of Jesus has a direct impact on the humanity of Christ. That is, if Jesus was not peccable then just how human was he? Could he have been true man if he were not able to sin like the rest of mankind? (Note: this is a question of whether Christ could have sinned; not that Christ had to have sinned in order to be human.) Morris indirectly asks if Jesus impeccability implied that he was lacking a part of the human condition that the rest of mankind have, viz., the consciousness of past sin? If this is the case, Christ may not have been truly human because he only took on most of the qualities of human nature but shielded himself from the consciousness of sin.
Third, Sahl tells us that the virgin birth, the Incarnation, and the hypostatic union, are all influenced by the impeccability of Jesus Christ . Therefore, if we are to have a full understanding of these doctrines, we need to study the question of Christs peccability/impeccability.
Fourth, an understanding of the peccability/impeccability of Jesus Christ will have an impact on our understanding of angels in general and Lucifer/Satan in particular . That is, by examining the peccability/impeccability of Jesus (and the related issue of the temptability of Jesus) we will come to have a better understanding of the realm of angels, especially the fallen angels. Furthermore, by examining the temptations that Satan makes to Christ, we will also have a deeper awareness of the powers of Satan and his followers.
Fifth, because the Bible tells us that Jesus did not sin, the question of Jesus peccability or impeccability will have an impact on biblical inerrancy and integrity. As Sahl states, if it is possible that the Lord Jesus Christ could succumb to or be deceived by sin, then one must also conclude that it is possible for Him to have given inaccurate information about eternal things when He was growing in wisdom and stature and favour with God and man .
And finally, Christs peccability/impeccability will have an impact on the victory over temptation and sin that the Redeemer accomplished . For if it was impossible for Jesus to have ever sinned then it is indeed a hallow victory: there was no chance of his ever not winning the battle. Thus, the victory is a very mute point and raises the question if the victory has any real impact on mankind under these circumstances.
Thus, we can see that the peccability or impeccability of Jesus is more than simply an academic debate. The outcome of such a debate could have far reaching implications on our view and knowledge of God, our doctrine of the humanity of Jesus, the doctrines of the virgin birth, the Incarnation and the hypostatic union, our theology of angelology, the question of biblical inerrancy and integrity and finally, our view of Jesus victory over temptation and sin.
I would now like to turn to the arguments for the peccability of Jesus, i.e., Jesus could have sinned if he had wanted to sin. As stated earlier, a positive result of this investigation does not imply that Jesus had to have sinned during his earthly life. Only that it was possible for Jesus to have sinned.
Our first argument that Jesus was peccable centres on the question of the temptations of Jesus. Charles Hodge has been quoted as summarizing this teaching in these words: This sinlessness of our Lord, however, does not amount to absolute impeccability. It was not a non potent peccare. If He was a true man, He must have been capable of sinning. That he did not sin under the greatest provocation … is held up to us as an example. Temptation implies the possibility of sin . Sahl states this as if a person has no susceptibility to sin or if sin has no appeal for him, the temptation is a farce . In short, this means that if Jesus was not capable of being tempted by sin and capable of sinning and then He was not truly human. For temptability and the ability to sin are part of being human.
In order to fully understand and respond to this argument based on temptability we must examine the nature of temptability. Sahl argues that the problem with this argument is that we have a misconception of the nature of temptability. Specifically, he says, the Greek word to tempt does not mean to induce evil. The word means to try, make a trial of, put to the test … to signify the trying intentionally with the purpose of discovering what of good or evil, of power or weakness was in a person or thing, or to have an appeal. In this regard, Sahl concludes that the temptations of Christ were real: Christ faced real challenges in the desert where he proved the good that was in Him and also in the Garden of Gethsemani and on Calvary where he demonstrated His power.
Towns notes that temptability may be defined as Generally understood as the enticement of a person to commit sin by offering some seeming enticement. … In this sense our sinless Redeemer was absolutely untemptible and impeccable. That is, because Jesus was God and possessed the attributes of God, there was nothing that Jesus could be enticed to have or obtain. Therefore, he could not be tempted. However, on the opposite side of the question, Towns also notes that the nature of Christs temptation was that He was asked to do the things He could do and the things He wanted: the results of which would have come from doing what Satan asked. The nature of His temptation was … the fact that He as God was tempted to do the things He could do. The things Christ is asked to do … appear to be valid requests . Therefore, because Satan asked Christ to do the things he was capable of, e.g., turning stones to bread, etc., we can see that the temptations Christ faced were real. However, the temptations Jesus faced were different from those other men would endure; Jesus was tried as no other was ever tried. Added to the nature of the temptation itself was the greater sensitivity of Christ . It is possible that the ultimate and most severe temptation of Jesus came in the Garden of Gethsemani. Here Jesus was tempted to abandon the plan of God and to let this cup pass from me (Matthew 26:39). Clearly, Jesus experienced worse temptations than we do. Hence, the temptations Christ faced were real precisely because they were tests of and trials to His power. That is, when the Bible tells us Jesus was tempted … it implies He was tempted in all His thinking, desires (emotions) and decision-making ability. Christ was tempted in every part of His being as a person is tempted in every part of human nature .
Another point we must remember in disputing the argument of peccability from temptability is that temptation to sin does not necessitate susceptibility to sin . The impossible can always be attempted. While success may not be likely, or the attempt may be impractical this does not in and of itself mean that such an attempt cannot be done. Walvoord states while the temptation may be real, there may be infinite power to resist that temptation and if the power is infinite, the person is impeccable . As an example, Walvoord quotes Shedds example of an army: it is not correct to say that because an army cannot be conquered, it cannot be attacked.
There is also Biblical evidence that Jesus was truly tempted as we read in Hebrews for we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weakness, but one who was tempted in every way that we are (4:15).
In summary then we can see that the argument of Jesus Christs peccability cannot be supported by the temptation argument. For one to be tempted does not necessarily imply that one must be susceptible to the temptation. Furthermore, Jesus was tempted in every aspect of the term. True, His temptations were different from those we experience, but they were none the less real temptations. And Finally, just because Jesus was tempted does not imply that He was capable of sin. It is possible for Satan to try the impossible, i.e., tempt Jesus, even though there is no chance of success.
The second argument in support of the peccability of Jesus rests on the humanity of Jesus, i.e., if He was a true man He must have been capable of sinning . This argument rests on two fallacies. First, it fails to recognize that while Jesus was true man, He was also true God. He was the God-man. Even though a man, Jesus still retained all of the attributes of His divine nature (even though through the kenosis, or self-emptying, He willingly did not exercise all of His divine attributes.) Jesus Christ possessed all the divine attributes of the Father … In humanity, Christ was totally human; in deity, Jesus was unalterably God. Yet in Jesus Christ was a single, undivided personality in whom these two natures are vitally and undividedly united, so that Jesus Christ is not God and man, but the God-man. The second fallacy is that, Jesus was first God and subsequently took on human manhood. The second Trinitarian person Jesus Christ is the root and stock into which the human nature is grafted or God in becoming man did not diminish His deity, but added a human nature to the divine nature. >From these two rebuttals we can see that even though Jesus was truly man, He maintained His divine attribute of holiness. It was this holiness which supplied the strength and will power to ensure that Christ avoided sin and could not sin. In other words, though Christ was of both human and divine desires, He had only one determinative will. That determinative will is in the eternal Logos. Thus, even though Jesus was truly human, His divine will was more powerful and prevented Him from sinning because a holy will may be perfectly free, and yet determined with absolute certainty to the right. Such is Gods will . Therefore, as God, Christ is certain to do only good, and yet He is a moral agent making choices. He need not have the capacity to sin .
The third argument in support of the peccability of Jesus is based on the Scriptural statements that Jesus is the second or New Adam and corresponds to the first Adam. Thus, if Jesus was the second Adam he had to have all the qualities and characteristics of the first Adam. The proponents of this argument then proceed to conclude that one of the characteristics of Adam was the ability to sin.
However, in actual fact, this argument misses the point. The first Adam was a perfect man when he was created by God. Adam was created in holiness without the inward compulsion toward sin that now characterizes his progeny or Jesus did not possess a sin nature because it was not a part of the original nature of man . In the garden Adam knew neither sin nor the consequences of sin. Adam had no experience of sin before the Serpent and Eve presented him the apple from the tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. It was only when Adam disobeyed God that Adam added sin to his perfect nature. This is a case of arguing from the present condition to a past condition which is then applicable to Jesus. It makes the mistake of taking our imperfect lives as the standard, and regarding Christ as human only as He conforms to our failures. Rather, He is the standard, and He shows us what a genuine humanity can be . Thus, the perfect human is without sin and is capable of not sinning (even though the perfect human will still have inherited a sin nature and original sin from Adam). Therefore, Christ can be the second or New Adam and still not have a peccable nature.
In the chapter entitled The Sinlessness of Christ in Berkouwers book The Person of Christ, the author presents three unique arguments for the peccability of Christ. I did not find mention of these arguments in any other source and, therefore, am sceptical of the weight they carry. However, I have decided to summarize them below in the interest of completeness. All three of his arguments are based on Biblical passages.
Berkouwers first argument centres on Christ words Why do you call me good? None is good but God alone (Luke 18:19, Mark 10:18 and a similar reference in Matthew 19:17). According to Berkouwer, this statement brings the peccability of Christ into question because people have inferred that Christ himself did not proceed from his absolute sinlessness or holiness but rather places himself in the rank of sinful human beings. However, to read this passage in this manner is clearly a case of poor interpretation. The Jerome Biblical Commentary tells us that the phrase good teacher is a rarely used epithet for a rabbi and that Jesus answer implies that the epithet good being proper to God, should not be used indiscriminately and casually . Berkouwer, on the other hand, suggests that this is a different type of misinterpretation. He argues that in the early church and at the time these three Gospels were written, there was no question of the sinlessness of Christ. The sinlessness of Christ is a theological concept which developed later in history: an explicit attestation to Jesus sense of sinlessness we do not find until we encounter them, as the fruit of the Logos-theology, in the pronouncements of the Johannine Christ .
While I am not personally convinced with Berkouwers interpretation and prefer to base the rejection of this argument for Jesus peccability on the correct interpretation of the passage, I will grant that Berkouwer presents a logical and plausible argument given what we know about the development of the New Testament writings.
The second argument Berkouwer presents is based on the story of the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist. In Matthews account of this incident, John the Baptist recognizes the holiness of Christ and tries to avoid baptising Him. However, Christ instructs John the Baptist to give in for now (Matthew 3:15). From this, the argument arises that if Jesus was sinless why was it He had to be baptized and repent His sins? The Jerome Biblical Commentary points out that the dialogue between John the Baptist and Jesus is not found in the accounts of either Mark or Luke and proposes that it is an addition by Matthew because it was necessary to explain how Jesus could submit to a rite of repentance and confession of sin . Berkouwer has a more fuller explanation saying Christ was obedient to the divine law in precisely this manner … To this law Christ was already subject in his circumcision and in his presentation in the temple and in nothing was he distinguished from the other children of his i.e., the Jewish people. He was born of a woman, born under the law (Gal. 4:4) . In other words, Jesus was simply fulfilling the Judaic law and being a good Jew. Like all other Jews of His time, He was keeping the precepts and following the rules. It was not an attempt to deny his holiness or to claim that He was sinful. It was simply a rite of passage. Had He not followed through with the baptism it is possible that Jesus would have been condemned by the Jewish leaders and banned from the Temple.
Therefore, we can see that the baptism of Jesus does not carry any weight as an attempt to prove the peccability of Jesus.
Berkouwers third unique approach of the peccability of Jesus is based on Hebrews 5:7-8. In this passage we are told by the apostolic author that Jesus learned obedience from what he suffered. This statement has lead people (at least according to Berkouwer) to question if there was a stage in which Christ was not yet obedient … a stage antedating Christs obedience. In countering this argument Berkouwer points out that Hebrew 5 is related precisely to the suffering of Christ in Gethsemani where Christ is tempted to derail the divine plan, His cross, death and resurrection. However, Christ was obedient in the sense that He accepted the divine will and accepted the will of the Father. This passage does not relate to the whole life of Christ, but merely to a single episode.. Therefore, this passage is not supportive of the peccability theory.
In summary therefore, we have seen that the question of the peccability of Jesus, i.e., Jesus could have sinned if He had wished to sin, cannot be supported by appealing to the following arguments:
a) that in order to have a true human nature Jesus had to be able to sin;
b) that in order to be really tempted as man is tempted Jesus had to be able to sin;
c) that temptability necessitates susceptibility to sin;
d) that if Jesus were a true man he would have to be able to sin because sin is part of the human condition;
e) that if Jesus were really the Second or New Adam he had to have been able to sin;
f) that Jesus statement in Luke 18:19, Mark 10:18 and Matthew 19:17 (None is good but God alone) implies that Jesus had to have been able to sin;
g) that Jesus baptism by John the Baptist implies Jesus sin nature and hence the ability to sin; and
h) that Biblical passage of Hebrews 5:7-8 implies that Jesus was notalways obedient and thus, able to sin.
Therefore, we can conclude that there is no argument that would require us to admit or concur with the peccability of Jesus.
Having determined the lack of evidence to support the peccability of Jesus, I now wish to examine the arguments in support of the impeccability of Jesus.
The first argument to support the impeccability of Jesus is based on Jesus divine nature. Towns tells us Jesus was unalterably God and to back up this statement he presents nine proofs. Sahl tells us that it is precisely because Jesus is God that it is not possible for Him to sin . Pannenberg explains this more fully, saying, if sin is essentially life in contradiction to God, in self-centred closing of our ego against God, then Jesus unity with God in his personal community with the Father and in his identity with the person of the Son of God means immediately his separation from all sin . That is, the concept of peccability in the person of Christ is contradicted principally by the attributes of immutability . Pannenberg notes that for Tertullian, Jesus is … sinless … because he is one with the sinless God . In other words, both Pannenberg and Tertullian conclude that it is impossible for Christ to be peccable because to do so would fly in the face of Gods (including Jesus) immutability.
For Christ to be able to sin there would have to be a substantial change to the very nature of God. However, God himself has clearly revealed that Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today and forever (Hebrews 13:8) and you Jesus are the same, and your years will have no end (Hebrews 1:12). Walvoord has extrapolated these verses to imply, it is unthinkable that God could sin in eternity past, it must also be true that it is impossible for God to sin in the person of Christ incarnate. The nature of His person forbids susceptibility to sin . Towns states this as To rob God of any attributes would be to rob God of deity. It would mean that God is no longer immutable (unchanging), and therefore, causes Him to be less than God . Therefore, based on the above, it is clear that Jesus could not have been able to sin.
Second, it has also been argued that since Jesus was God, His omnipotence, even though he chose not to exercise this attribute through the kenosis, would guarantee His impeccability: peccability always implies weakness on the part of the one tempted. … On the part of Christ, this is clearly out of the question . Bechtle states this argument as falling to temptation shows moral weakness or lack of power and ability. Christ had infinite power, and was therefore not susceptible to sin .
Third, it is argued that because Christ was omniscient He could not have sinned: sin frequently appeals to the ignorance of the one tempted. … In the case of Christ, the effects of sin were perfectly known, with all the contributing factors. It was impossible for Christ having omniscience to commit that which he knew could only bring eternal woe to Himself and to the race. Having at once infinite wisdom to see sin in its true light and at the same time infinite power to resist temptation, it is evident that Christ was impeccable.
Towns takes this argument based on the definition and attributes of God one step further and presents a fourth argument which includes the fact that Jesus was omnipresent as a proof of His impeccability: Christ is omnipresent (His presence in heaven at the time of the temptation disallows sin), therefore, Christ could not sin for He lived a perfect life in heaven at the moment of the temptation .
The fifth argument in supporting the view that Christ was impeccable appeals to the statement God cannot be tempted with evil which is found in James 1:13. However, this is an inaccurate translation of the original manuscript. A more correct translation would be Surely God, who is beyond the grasp of evil, tempts no one . This latter interpretation is supported by the Jerome Biblical Commentary . Thus, the passage in James 1:13 is not appropriate to the current discussion and does not prove either the peccability or impeccability of Jesus.
The sixth argument in support of the impeccability is what Sahl refers to as the unique person of Jesus or the hypostatic union. Under the doctrine of the hypostatic union Jesus had one intellect, one set of emotions, and one volitional ability to make decisions . However, some theologians, such as Shedd, believe that the divinity of Jesus is dominant in his person. … the divinity is the dominant factor in Christs complex person . Walvoord concurs with this opinion: In the person of Christ, however, the human will was always subservient to the divine will and could never act independently . While such an argument would seem to support the impeccability of Christ, I am not sure that it does not erroneously interpret the two natures of Christ. Under the doctrine of the hypostatic union we know that the two natures of Jesus are bound together … by a bond unique and inscrutable, which constitutes them one person with a single consciousness and will . This means that the human and divine natures did not mingle or merge together into a third nature with a different expression . However, if Christ had only one single will (a position which the Third Council of Constantinople in 681 condemned ) which was in fact dominated (and hence controlled) by his divine will, does this not imply that there is a blending of the wills or the creation of a third nature? Accordingly, while I would like to say that this argument supports the claim of Christs immpeccability, to do so would be to accept an inaccurate definition of the hypostatic union. Therefore, this argument is not applicable to this discussion.
The seventh argument in support of the impeccability is that Christ could not sin because he was doing the will of the Father, i.e., arguments from Jesus omnipotent desire and His submission to the divine will. We know that Christ was doing the will of the Father because the Bible clearly states this: Then Jesus said, As is written of me in the book, I have come to do your will, O God (Hebrews 10:7); Jesus explained to them: Doing the will of him who sent me and bringing his work to completion is my food (John 4:34) and I have come down from heaven, but to do the will of him who sent me. (John 6:38). The will of the Father is also clearly stated in the Bible: God has sent his Son as an offering for our sins. (1 John 4:10). As an offering for our sins, Christ is a substitute for sin . However, the only way that Christ could be a substitute for our sin would be if Christ had no sin himself. It would only have taken one sin to make Jesus a sinner. … In that case, he would be unable to save Himself, let alone be the sinless substitute for the sins of the world .Therefore, if Christ were to fulfill the will of the Father, there would have to be an assurance that He remained sinless throughout his entire life. The only way to guarantee that Christ would remain sinless would be if Christ could not sin. Therefore, Christ had to be impeccable.
The eighth argument for the impeccability of Christ is presented by Sahl and is based solely on the Biblical statements of Christ and the fact that the Bible is inerrant, accurate and authoritative. Sahl extracts the following verses: Mark 2:1-12 (the account of the Paralytic at Capernaum), John 7:18 (Whoever speaks on his own is bent on self-glorification. The man who seeks glory for him who sent him is truthful; there is no dishonesty in his heart.), John 8:29 (The One who sent me is with me. He has not deserted me since I always do what pleases him.), and John 14:6 (Jesus told him: I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through me) and then concludes Jesus is the impeccable Saviour who saves His people from their sins .
In summary therefore we have seen that:
i) the fact that Jesus, who is God, is holy means that He his impeccable because for Him to sin would mean that God is capable of change;
j) the fact that Jesus, who is God, is omniscient implies that He is impeccable;
k) the fact that Jesus, who is God, is omnipotent implies that He is impeccable;
l) the fact that Jesus, who is God, is omnipresent implies that He is impeccable;
m) the fact that Jesus is a unique person who has an omnipotent desire and is submissive to the divine will implies He is impeccable;
n) the fact that Jesus is the offering and sacrifice for mans sin implies that Jesus is impeccable; and
o) the fact that Jesus own statements concerning Himself in the Bible, which is inerrant, implies that Jesus is impeccable.
Thus we can conclude that Jesus was impeccable, i.e., he could not sin.
This assignment requires that after having examined the question of Christs peccability or impeccability that the author select a view and defend it. There is no doubt that I would like to take the view that Jesus is peccable and could have sinned if he had wanted to sin. For some reason, I cannot fully express why the peccability of Jesus is very comforting for me. Perhaps it is because such a view would mean that it might be possible for me to also live my life without sin. That is, if the perfect man, Jesus Christ, could live his life without sin, then there is at least the possibility that I could do likewise. There may also be comfort in the fact that it always easier to deal with another person who is similar to ourselves and who is not superior, i.e., without sin. Or maybe, it is because I find myself being tempted so often the idea of a Saviour who can also undergo temptation and who is peccable seems to be less threatening and more approachable than the alternative.
However, after reviewing the above material and searching my heart, I would have to select the view that Christ is impeccable as my stand on this issue. While the Bible passages which proclaim Jesus sinlessness and His impeccability are compelling, the ultimate arguments which convince me is the nature of Jesus, the God-man. For me, Jesus is clearly both God and man; fully the two natures and never separable. If Jesus is God then it means that He must be holy, omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresence. Given these attributes and the fact that God is, by definition, immutable then I must conclude that Jesus is impeccable. In conclusion therefore, we have seen that there are several arguments which attempt to prove peccability of Jesus. However, all of these arguments fail to be convincing and have inherent fallacies. On the other hand, we have seen that there are several arguments which prove beyond a doubt that Jesus Christ is impeccable. Each of these arguments, by their very definition and by logical conclusions they lead to, show us that Jesus was impeccable.
For myself, while I would like to believe that Jesus is peccable, the evidence and weight of conviction is clearly proves that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Second Person of the Trinity, the true God-man, is impeccable.


In Sophocles play Antigone, Antigones life is taken from her because
of her choice to follow the moral law by burying her brother and disobeying the
civil law, which forbid this. According to the gods everyone is entitled to the
proper burial. Everyone has a right to be put to peace upon his or her death.

Creon enforced an edict (the civil law) that Polyneices is not entitled to a
proper burial because he is considered a traitor of Thebes. p.199 Creon felt
that if a person acted against the state he or she loses the right to be buried,
and put to rest in peace. Antigone made the decision to bury her brother
Polyneices, even though it was against Creons edict. She had chosen to do
what is right according to the gods, and bury her brother. The laws of the gods
were more important to her then obey the law of the humans. Because she made the
moral choice of siding with the gods, Creon, the king, sentenced her to death.

She knew of this punishment before making her decision, but she felt overwhelmed
that burying her brother was the moral, and righteous thing to do. She was
willing to die for her brother. p.209 When Antigone and Creon have the
confrontation, Antigone tells Creon that heavens laws are more powerful than
Creons laws. Antigone reminds Creon that it is not the place of a mortal to
question or amend the divine law under no circumstances. Antigone tells Creon
that she has no sorrow for what she done nor will she back down. Creon views the
laws of the state as the highest laws in existence. He is ignoring the divine
laws, which are higher than any law that is created by man. Creon commits the
sin of blasphemy, by claiming that the gods do not give a damn about Polyneices
body. p. 203 Creon believes that he is just in sentencing Antigone to death
because she did not follow the civil law; however, she was following the more
powerful law divine law. Due to the fact that Antigone had a stronger desire for
following the moral law, Creon who enforced the civil law sentenced her to


Computer Viruses and their Effects on your PC

Table of Contents
What is a Virus? ………………………………………1
HOW DOES A VIRUS SPREAD? ……………………………….3
INFECTION (DAMAGES) ……………………………………4
A virus is an independent program that reproduces itself. It can attach
itself to other programs and make copies of itself (i.e., companion viruses).

It can damage or corrupt data, or lower the performance of your system by using
resources like memory or disk space. A virus can be annoying or it can cost you
lots of cold hard cash. A virus is just another name for a class of programs.

They do anything that another program can. The only distinguishing
characteristic is the program has ability to reproduce and infect other programs.

Is a computer virus similar to a human virus? Below is a chart that will show
the similarities.

Comparing Biological Viruses & Human Viruses
Human Virus Effects
Attack specific body cells’ Modify the genetic information of a
cell other than previous one. It performs tasks. New viruses grow in the
infected cell itself. An infected program may not exhibit symptoms for a
while. Not all cells with which the virus contact are infected. Viruses can
mutate and thus cannot clearly be diagnosed. Infected cells aren’t infected more
than once by the same cell.

Computer Virus Effects
Attack specific programs (*.com,*.exe) Manipulate the program: The infected
program produces virus programs. The infected program can work without error for
a long time. Program can be made immune against certain viruses. Virus program
can modify themselves & possibly escape detection this way. Programs are
infected only once by most viruses.

There are many ways a virus can infect you system. One way is, if the
virus is a file infecting virus, when you run a file infected with that virus.

This particular kind of virus can only infect if YOU run the program! This
virus targets COM and EXE files, but have also been found in other executable
files. some viruses are memory resident which will infect every file run after
that one. Other are direct action injectors that immediately infect other
files on your hard drive then leave. Another way viruses infect your system is
if they are polymorphic. Polymorphism is where the virus changes itself with
every infection so it is harder to find. Also, virus writers have come up with
a virus called a multipartite virus. This virus can infect boot sectors and the
master boot record as well as files therefore enables it to attack more targets,
spread further and thus do more damage.

A computer virus can be spread in many different ways. The first way is
by a person knowingly installing a virus onto a computer. Now the computer is
infected with a virus. The second way is inserting your disk into an infected
computer. The infected computer will duplicate the virus onto your disk. Now
your disk is a virus carrier.Any computer that comes in contact with this
disk will become infected. For example, I once caught a virus from Cochise
College by copying two non-infected disks, the computer was infected.What if
my friend borrows an infected disk? Your friend’s computer will most likely
become infected the instant that he/she uses your disk into a computer. The
third way, is the Internet. A lot of programs on the Internet contain live
viruses. However, there seems to be countless numbers of ways to become
infected. Every time you download a program from somewhere or borrow a disk
from a friend, you are taking a risk of getting infected.

Computer software bought in stores have been know to carry viruses.
How? CD-ROMS are non-recordable? A virus may be installed into a computer at
the time of manufacturing.In September of 1996, the September edition of
Microsoft SPCD has a file infected with a virus called Wazzu. Watch out for
SIAMKTOOLSCASEED3905A.DOC.Microsoft aided the spread of Wazzu by
distributing a Wazzu-infected document on the Swiss ORBITconference CD, and
keeping an identical copy of the infected document on it’s Swiss Website for at
least five days after being notified of the problem. It is noted, by Microsoft
records , that over 2 million of the infected CD’s were sold. The CD’s were
replaced on a recall from Microsoft, however: this aided the spread of the Wazzu

The major damages can vary, but here are the most common: A.Fill up
your P.C. with Garbage:
As a virus reproduces, it takes up space. This space cannot be used by
the operator
As more copies of the virus are made, the memory space is lessened.

B.Mess Up Files:
Computer files have a fixed method of being stored. With this being the
case, it is very easy for a computer virus to affect the system so some
parts of the accessed files cannot be located.

C.Mess Up FAT:
Fat (File Allocation Table) is the method used to contain the
information required about the location of files stored on a disk. Any
allocation to this information can cause endless trouble
D.Mess Up The Boot Sector:
The boot sector is the special information found on a disk. Changing
the boot sector could result in the inability of the computer to run.

E.Erase The Whole Hard Drive/ Diskette:
A virus can simply format a disk. This will cause you to lose all of
the data stored on the formatted disk.

F.Reset The Computer:
Virus can reset your computer. Normally, the operator or user has to
press a few keys. The virus can do this by sending codes to the operating

G.Slowing Things Down:
The object of this virus can slow down the running line of a program.

This causes a computer with 100 megahertz to act like a computer with 16
megahertz. That is why a 486 or 586 computer can slow down and run as if
it were a 286. As I would call it “Turtle Speed”.

H.Redefine Keys:
The computer has been programmed to recognize certain codes with the
press of certain keys. For Example: When you press the letter T, your
computer puts a T on your display. A virus can change the command.

Imagine if every time you pressed the T, your computer would format your hard

I.Lock The Keyboard:
Redefining all the keys into an empty key. Then the user cannot use the
keyboard to input any data.

People are often telling me I am paranoid of viruses. Some forms of paranoia
are healthy. When it comes to securing your system from viruses, trust no one,
not even your mother-when you change disks with her, that is. Thank god for the
invention of Anti-Virus Software. Anti-Virus Software is a program that can
protect your PC from a virus. They can also remove a virus, once it is detected.

However, there are thousands of viruses in existence. And finding a consistant
virus scanning program can be rough. I have read many articles on popular virus
scanning programs. I have found the top two virus scanning programs to be: #1.)
McAfee Virus Scan#2.)Norton Anti-Virus
Both of these programs can prevent a virus from entering your computer.

If one sneaks past, then you will have a choice to delete the file, clean the
virus or move the virus. I would highly suggest you to check out these programs
and test them.

Remember, one virus can shred many years of work on your computer. Protect
yourself and always, use an Anti-Virus Program.

Category: Technology

Lake Tahoe On West Coast

An Introduction Lake Tahoe is the pristine jewel of the West Coast, known around
the world for its beauty. The Lake Tahoe area was even in the spotlight for the
winter Olympic Games at Squaw Valley in 60’s. Over the decades we have learned,
by mistake, what needs to be done to protect the lakes’ beauty and character.

The lake is foremost known for its color and clarity, and has been capitalized
on for these qualities. However, upon enjoying the lake and creating a tourist
and recreational draw we have jeopardized the lake for all the features that we
most enjoy and treasure. Simply put the clarity, color and beauty of the lake
are in trouble, and the transparency is decreasing at a frightening rate. The
build up of phosphorous and nitrates in the lake has promoted the growth of
algae that clouds the water, changing the famous aqua, sapphire blue color to a
murky, cloudy green. Let’s take a look at why we should be concerned with the
declining clarity of a lake, and why this lake is so special and unique, and why
the surrounding environment is so important. There are many factors involved in
causing the decline briefly discussed in this paper; including soil erosion, air
quality/pollution, stream conditions which are water flow, and algae growth.

Concluding with some positive measures that will help the lake over the long
term. Lake Tahoe — History In exploring what makes this lake unique and special
we must first explore where it is, how it got there, and it’s aquatic makeup.

Lake Tahoe known only to the Paiute Indians until it was “discovered”
by General Fremont in 1844. The Lake’s exceptional transparency was described by
Mark Twain as “the finest picture earth affords.” The lake is over a
mile high and is nestled amongst the Sierra Nevada, snowcapped, mountain range.

Lake Tahoe is uniquely divided between two states, Nevada and California, which
presents difficulties in long-term studies, developmental controls, and
protection goals.(See figure one) The Tahoe Basin has many political arms
wrapped around it , often with overlapping jurisdiction, including the Federal
Government, two States, five Counties, and a City. One example of this problem
is the fact that: “Lake Tahoe is designated as an Outstanding National
Resource Water (ONRW) under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality
Standards Program and the Clean Water Act. With this designation, Lake Tahoe is
provided the highest level of protection under the antidegradation policy and no
further degradation should be permitted. The state of California recognizes this
designation, while Nevada does not.”(1:1) The one fact that everyone seems
to agree on is Lake Tahoe needs its purity protected and preserved. Contrary to
the belief that the lake was formed by a volcanic crater collapse; the lake
actually, was formed by the rise and fall of the landscape due to faulting. The
Sierra Nevada is a batholith, “an enormous, complex masses of solidified
magma, usually granite …. composed of many individual plutons that push aside
some of the rocks of the crust while melting and digesting others” (2:403).

This pushing aside and uplifting formed a “deep graben fault basin”
(3:42). The lake has a surface area of 193 square miles (122,200 acres); a depth
of 1,645 feet at maximum and 989 feet at average; a surface temperature of 68F
maximum and 41F minimum; a capacity of 122,160,280 acre-feet of water; a
length of 22 miles and width of 12 miles; a surface elevation of 6,229 feet
above sea level; and a shoreline of 71 miles, divided into 42 miles in
California and 29 miles in Nevada. Lake Tahoe’s great depth makes it the third
largest in North America and the tenth deepest in the World, rivaled by such
lakes as Oregon’s Crater Lake and Russia’s Lake Baikal(3:42,4:1,5:2,6:87).

“Lake Tahoe is as long as the English Channel is wide. The Panama Canal,
700 ft wide and 50 ft Deep, could be filled with Lake Tahoe’s water even if it
circled the globe, at the equator, and there would still be enough water left to
fill a canal of the same size running from San Francisco to New York.”
(3:1) The altitude of the area and freezing mountains would cause one to think
the lake would freeze over, however, the tremendous depth prevents the lake from
freezing. The theory of convection is proven here; the volume is always in
motion, as the surface cools it gets heavier and sinks, and the warmer, deeper,
water is lighter and rises, mixing with the cool water and thus the lake does
not freeze over. Some inlets, however, being shallower, have been covered with a
thin layer of ice. The lack of ice on the top of the lake does not affect the
quality, in any way, other than to demonstrate its depth that does contribute to
its clarity and color. The lake basin is affected by its surrounding composition
and rock content, which are mostly glacial till and sediment. Another
contributing factor to the lakes’ environmental delicacy is that the lake has an
extraordinarily long retention time. In other words, if completely drained it
would take over 700 years to refill to its existing level. There is some water
loss due to evaporation but only one river flows out of Lake Tahoe, the Truckee
River (63 streams flow into the Lake). Little turn-over action occurs to the
nutrients that flow into the lake, because of this limited drainage and
capacity. Lake Clarity — Introduction to Causes One issue that was addressed in
the late 1950’s and 1960’s was sewage. The flow of sewage has been diverted away
from the lake since the 1960’s. First with the costly and controversial Culp’s
advanced five-step treatment wastewater system and now a simpler, at least more
effective, waste management system. Even with sewage being exported the
development to the Tahoe Basin over the last few decades has brought increased
pollution, both to the streams, the atmosphere, and the groundwater. The
increased nutrients from all of this pollution have brought steady algae growth
and increased loss of clarity. According to, Mr. Bob Richards, of the Tahoe
Research Group, in Tahoe City, the lake is loosing one foot per year of
transparency (1). Another expert and researcher on the conditions of Lake Tahoe
for the past thirty years, Mr. Charles R. Goldman states that, “lake
chemistry and biology since the early 1960’s has shown that algal production is
increasing at a rate greater than 5 percent per year with concomitant decline of
clarity at the alarming rate of 0.5M per year” (7:140). How do they find
these ratings? The process is simple but very accurate. A 10 inch diameter,
white plate, a secchi disc, is lowered, on a meter line, the team of researchers
records the point that the disc disappears from view, then raises it back up and
records the point at which they can just see it. This process is repeated till
30-35 measurements are recorded, per session, several times a year, and the
average of those readings is the annual for the year.(See figure 2) As evident,
by the secchi disc ratings, the clarity has been dramatically affected; now
let’s look at how the lake got this way. Many contributing factors are at work
on the lake soil erosion, atmospheric pollution, water inflow, and algal growth.

Below I’ll discuss briefly each factor. Soil Erosion Examining soil erosion has
brought some great public debates to bear. These debates have resulted because
this issue affects the money and power that be, and others: developers, casinos,
hotels, and homeowners. Lake Tahoe’s population has increased dramatically over
the past few decades and can inflate to over a quarter of a million people on
peak holiday weekends.(See figure 3) One debate involving soil erosion is
whether the logging activities of the 1800’s are what has caused the lake
clarity reduction we’re combating today. However, extensive studies and
reconstruction of the effects that the logging might have caused have concluded
that the lumbering activities were undetectable and little impact on the
clarity. “The major changes in the lake documented in recent years are much
greater and longer lasting than those, if any, resulting from the 1800’s logging
of the basin.”(5:4) Disrupted soil and enhanced run-off, vegetation
removal, fire, and the loss of wetlands, over the last thirty years, are all
nutrient providing elements that have accelerated the growth of plankton and
attached algae. The building boom of the 1960’s and 1970’s paid little concern
to the environmental impacts they were causing, by paving roads, cutting into
the slopes, destroying wetlands, and more. The area where there was earth is now
paved, which in turn causes more phosphorus-rich sediment to run into the lake.

The surface water runoff and eroded soil carry the pollutants to the stream that
feed into the Lake, and are directly attributed to the increase in algae
population. The wetland areas are proven to buffer the land from receiving
waters, like an antacid buffers from the foods eaten and your stomach lining.

The wetland stabilizes nitrogen, the compounds causing algae growth, into
unusable nitrogen gas, thus limiting the growth population of algae. The
destruction of the wetlands has removed a vital link in the ecosystem. Air
Quality Not only concrete paving is the problem but with every expansion, or
some might call improvement, population has increased and thus more automobiles,
which means more atmospheric pollution. To comprehend why air pollution is
detrimental to the lake conditions lets review the water cycle; the “three
main sources of new nutrients entering the lake are streams, groundwater, and
direct atmospheric deposition (rain, snow, ice, dust particles) onto the land
surface” (5:9). Research has demonstrated that air quality, in the form of
pollution, is a problem, especially where there are increased vehicles. These
pollutants are trapped in the air above the lake by an inversion layer during
the winter and when it snows or rains the pollutants are delivered into the lake
directly or via streams and runoff. In addition winds carry sulfur contaminants
into the air over the basin adding to the pollutant deposits. Most of the
pollutants are already in the area in the forms of automobile emissions, road
dust from construction, wood fires, and combustion of diesel fuel and heating
oils (3:45). Also, acid rains do fall, noticeably, in the Tahoe area carrying
and depositing considerable amounts of nitrogen, which stimulates aquatic plant
and algae growth. Compound these pollutants with the destruction of the wetland
communities, of the ecosystem in the basin, and the capacity to filter-out
nitrogen and other pollutants is inhibited. Wetland vegetation, as mentioned
previously, takes up the nitrogen and buffers it, keeping it from fueling the
algae growth. The precipitation deposition into the lake adversely reacts with
these destruction’s; wetland reduction, and the slick-impervious rooftops,
roads, and parking lots’ run-off, and soil erosion, all combining to accelerate
release of nutrients into the lake. The adversity varies with the varying land
disturbances. Air quality controls obviously aid in the fight to protect the
lake, but more emphasis is needs to be geared towards wetland preservation and
land controls and watershed management. Water Inflow and Algae Growth Waterflow
into lake Tahoe is the number one contributor to the decline in clarity because
of all the elements combining to impact the quality of input into the lake. Lake
Tahoe is filled by 63 streams and thus creating a web linking the wetlands,
groundwater, streams and lake ecosystems. Displayed earlier is the importance of
each ecosystem to each other in creating a balance in the lake. The uniqueness
of Lake Tahoe is its color and clarity, but, also in its phosphorous quality,
nitrogen limited system. “In most productive lakes the levels of nitrogen
and phosphorous are in the low parts per million range. In Lake Tahoe there are
only a few parts per billion of these same elements, and the ratio of nitrogen
to phosphorous has been well below the 10 to 1 ratio required by most
plants.” (3:50, 8:1322) However, over the last decade the ratio is
beginning to change causing changes defined as early “eutrophication”.

Research has shown that streams do carry stimulating nutrients into the lake
enhancing algae growth. The streams thus cause nutrient loading of the lake and
the wetlands are what helps reduce this process. Land use is strongly tied to
the watershed characteristics and whether the watershed will be nutrient high.

In watershed analysis of Trout Creek and Blackwood Creek nitrite and nitrate
concentrations have been declining over the last 10 years, or more, where the
increases were caused from sewage and logging consecutively, up to 20 years ago.

This decline and hence recovery may be partly due to the rapid vegetation
re-growth after the logging activities. But today’s destruction of land is
extensive with the road cuts and developments. “Watershed recovery times at
Tahoe may take at least 10-20 years, whereas disturbances such as run-off
enhancement from increased impervious surface area may be permanently enhance
the nutrient loading of the streams and in turn the lake.(10:87)” The
cycling of nutrients, as seen in figure four, show the delicate balance and the
nutrient capacity will depend upon streams inflow, air quality sources, and
sedimentary soil controls. The nutrient inflow or loading of the lake water
directly results in creased algae or Planktonic algae, which there are two
kinds: free-floating algae, and attached. Worse case scenario of high nutrient
loading would be “the suspended algae cloud the lake water and when algal
cells die and decay, they often reduce the dissolved oxygen levels to the point
where aquatic organisms can no longer survive in the deep waters(5:6).”
Now, Tahoe is not there, yet, but there is evidence of decreasing clarity,
increasing planktonic, attached and free-floating algae. Algae has been found to
be greatest where there is greater development, logically the run-off. of
fertilizers from lawns and golf courses, and other land disruptions discussed
prior. In addition the highest production of algae occurs when Tahoe has had an
extremely high precipitation season. “The El Nio event of 1983 modified
weather to produce heavy precipitation resulting in high levels of surface
runoff from the disturbed watershed as well as wind-mixing of stored nutrients
(5:7).” These conditions tend to provide the nitrogen needed for the
“lighted zone,” of the lake water, to produce record crops of algae.

Lake Tahoe has been studied and compared to other Western Lakes, such as, Castle
Lake and Pyramid Lake, and arguments have been made that the climatic variations
affect all the lakes of the west equally, increasing fertility to the same
degree. However, Castle Lake has not shown the same fertility, despite same data
collection methods.(3) Which demonstrates Lake Tahoe’s problems are
self-inflicted. Steps Towards Protection The construction and building boom has
monopolized the Tahoe basin and has helped to wreak havoc on the precious
balance in the lake. Today environmentalist, scientists, and concerned citizens
have begun to understand and change the way we treat the environment and the
lake, thus protecting the lake quality. Gone unchecked the lake conditions will
worsen. Even in the 1960’s, in May and June, large crops of attached algae died
and released from their sites (along piers and shore rocks), coating the beaches
and marinas with a brown, slimy, smelly material that decays and eventually
returns as bacteria and nutrients to the lake through wave action (3:47). This
picture is not what most people envision when picturing the sapphire blue waters
of the lake. Obvious changes and the educated observations have led to great
concerns over the quality of the lake. Many changes are not as visible but if
left alone will quickly become visible, thus destroying the ecosystem of the
basin. As mentioned, the lake is the center of many factions of political
control. The Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) has been a strong facilitator
of the needs for controls, there is little evidence to show they have made any
tremendous impact needed to reverse the trends of fertility in the Lake. TRPA
has put forth pollution control measures called “Best Management Practices
or BMP’s.” The program requires new projects to implement the BMP’s
required paved driveways, which at first seems like a contradiction to the
research, however, if we compare a graded, disturbed, un-paved surface with a
properly paved surface, the un-paved has nothing to hold the soil in place,
washing the unnecessary sediment into the lake. Other BMPs, include but are not
limited to, revegetation programs, retaining structures, and slope
stabilization. To protect the lake all parties involved need to unify the
conservation efforts and develop an organized protection and planning bureau or
assembly, sponsored with governmental support, above and beyond the Tahoe
Regional Planning Agency and Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitoring Program. The
current agencies, and committees have taken positive steps to protect the area
which includes: * slow releasing or no chemical fertilizers on lawns and golf
courses. * ski slopes are no longer allowed to use ammonium nitrate to help make
snow. * California passed a 85 million dollar bond in 1982 to buy-up sensitive
lands, potentially endangering the lake, now are protected. * Nevada passed a
similar 30 million dollar buy-up bond in 1986. * The afore-mentioned mentioned
BMP’s. Without these positive approaches, the dedication of the University of
Davis, Researchers and Scientists, Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, and other
groups of concerned organizations, Tahoe would be unclear and green today. The
general public can take measures by treating our delicate ecosystems with
respect and becoming educated on our delicate balances. Steps could include: *
Bike more or walk- save our air quality. * Maintain cars properly and up to
codes. * Don’t Drip. Leaky facets waste 9 liters of water per minute. * Don’t
pour toxins into the drainage system (paint, gases, fertilizers, etc.) * Recycle
* Influence your work place to take steps in being Earth conscious. For heavens’
sake even the cartoons are teaching our children to be earth aware with
“Captain Planet, he’s our hero, taking pollution down to zero…,”
teaching children to reduce, reuse, and recycle, and to fight the bad-guys who
pollute our earth’s ecosystems. All adults can be Captain Planets and protect
our world.

1) Richards, Bob. Personal Phone Interviews, FAX. 24 Feb. 1997, 16 Mar 1997.

2) Gabler, Robert, Sager,Robert, and Wise, Daniel Essentials of Physical
Geography. 5th ed. Orlando:Saunders College Publishing,1997. 3) Goldman, Charles
R., Richards, Robert. The Urbanization of the Lake Tahoe Basin: A Microcosm for
the Study of Environmental Change with Continuing Development. Proceedings,
State of the Sierra Symposium 1985-86, Pub. #177. California:University of
Davis, 1986 4) Tahoe Research Group, State Natural Resources. Lake Tahoe
Facts”, “Ten Most Frequently Asked Questions. Internet
address:WWW.Ceres, 15 April 1997. 5) Goldman, Charles R., Byron, Earl R.

Changing Water Quality at Lake Tahoe: the First Five Years of the Lake Tahoe
Interagency Monitoring Program. The California State Water Resources Control
Board. California:University of Davis, Institute of Ecology, Tahoe Research
Group, 1987. 6) Sheaffer, John R., Stevens, Leonard A., Future Water, An
Exciting Solution to America’s Most Serious Resource Crisis. New York: William
Morrow and Company, Inc., 1983. 7) Reuter, J.E., et al. University Contribution
to Lake and Watershed Management: Case Studies From the Western United
States–Lake Tahoe and Pyramid Lake. Watershed ’96 A National Conference on
Watershed Management. Maryland:Baltimore, Water Environment Federation, 12 June
1996. ISBN: 1-57278-028-2. 8) Goldman, Charles R. Primary Productivity,
Nutrients, and Transparency During the Early Onset of Eutrophication. American
Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.. 33(6, part1),1321-1333. 1988. 9)
Goldman, Charles R., Jassby Alan D., de Amezaga, Evelyne. Forest Fires,
Atmospheric Deposition and Primary Productivity at Lake Tahoe,
California-Nevada. Verhandlungen-Proceedings-Travaux of the International
Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology, Congress in Munich. Iss 24,
499-503. Stuttgart, Germany, 1990. 10) Byron, Earl r., Goldman, Charles R.,
“Land-Use and Water Quality in Tributary Streams of Lake Tahoe,
California-Nevada”. Journal of Environmental Quality Vol. 18,no.1, (Jan-Mar
1989):84-88. 11) Bowman, Chris. “Clinton Seeks Summit on Lake Tahoe
Pollution” The Sacramento Bee 26 October 1996:B1 12) Bowman, Chris, Hoge,
Patrick. “Runoff, Air Pollution Cloud Waters of Crystal-Clear Lake”
The Sacramento Bee 8 December 1996:A28 13) Associated Press. “Team Seeks
Clues to Cloudy Lake Tahoe Water” The Sacramento Bee 16 October
1995:SUPCAL. 14) Malley, George. Personal Interview. 15 April, 5 May 1997 MAPS
AND GRAPHS — REFERENCES Figure One, Tahoe Region Map: AAA Travel Book. 1997 ed.

Figure Two, Secchi Depth Chart: Goldman, Charles R. Primary Productivity,
Nutrients, and Transparency During the Early Onset of Eutrophication. American
Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.. 33(6, part1),Pg. 1329. 1988. Figure
Three, Population Growth Chart: Goldman, Charles R., Richards, Robert. The
Urbanization of the Lake Tahoe Basin: A Microcosm for the Study of Environmental
Change with Continuing Development. Proceedings, State of the Sierra Symposium
1985-86, Pub. #177. California:University of Davis, Pg. 43. 1986. Figure Four,
Water Cycle Chart: Goldman, Charles R., Richards, Robert. The Urbanization of
the Lake Tahoe Basin: A Microcosm for the Study of Environmental Change with
Continuing Development. Proceedings, State of the Sierra Symposium 1985-86, Pub.

#177. California:University of Davis, Pg. 43. 1986.


A Holiday For Murder – Summary

Part 1, Chapter 1.

A man called Stephen gets off a train and he is set on doing something that he has planned to do for a long time.

The man is from Africa because he said that he felt homesick.

Was three days before Christmas.

Uses words like Drab
Saw a beautiful girl sitting on the train. She looked out of place.

Part 1, Chapter 2.

Pilar, the girl narrates.

She was also set to do something.

She saw a good looking man in the corridor. He walked in to talk to her.

Gave what both people are thinking while they are talking to one another.

They talked about how much they hated England.

Pilar came from Spain.

A war was on at the time.

She told a story of when her driver was killed by a bomb: she did not seem to care! (P5)
He told her about Africa and a story of when he was a kid.

Part 1, Chapter 3.

A bunch of people talking about their father. They talk of how much they hate him, and how they want to break their chains.

Lydia had a garden with a number of scenes that she had made the garden to look like.

One of the scenes was the Dead Sea.

Butler had been at the house for forty years.

Part 1, Chapter 4.

Two, David and Hilda, talking about the man’s mother and how she was humiliated by his father with his affairs that he boasted about.
The mother was not able to devorce because of the times.

Blames his father for his mothers’ death.

He had not seen his father since he started college because of a dispute between what he wanted to do and what his father wanted him to do.

Part 1, Chapter 5.

George Lee and his wife are talking about his father’s great wealth. “A millionaire twice over, I believe.” (George:P17)
Made his money from mining South African Diamonds.

Georges’ sister died a year before the time of the book.

Harry is the brother who went travelling the world, and often sent messages to wire him money. He usually got money from his father even though he had a huge fight with his father before he left because his father wanted him to do something with his life.

Part 1, Chapter 6.

The old man and Lydia talking about the two mysterious people that were supposed to show up the next day.

The person was Pilar, who is his grandaughter.

Harry was the other person who was supposed to arrive the next day.

Part 2, Chapter 1.

Everyone surprised to see Harry Lee
Throughoutt Book – Reference to fathers appairs with other women.

Harry surprised to find all family there
George was a member of Parliament
When Alfred walked in they stared at each other.

Part 2, Chapter 2.

Simeon talking of his regrets of cheating on his wife.

Pilar believes strongly in God and praying.

Talks about men being more powerful than men Pilar: “If I were a man i would be like that, too.” (P31).

Impressed his Granddaughter with uncut diamonds just to prove to her that he is rich.

Part 2, Chapter 3.

David and Hilda in a sitting room.

David talking about a memory of his mother reading books to him in that room when he was a child.

Part 2, Chapter 4.

A man that the Doorman had met a long time ago came to the door and gave him a letter for Simeon.

The doorman could not remember who the man was.

Part 2, Chapter 5.

The man turned out to be the son of an old partner of Simeons
The man came from South Africa.

Part 3, Chapter 1.

Harry and Simeon talking about the problem of Harrys’ presence there.

The main problem was Alfred’s. His brother.

The old man has a surprise for the rest of the family before lunch.
Part 3, Chapter 2.

The family walks into the room and the old man is talking on the telephone to a lawyer. He is talking about making up a new will after Christmas.

The old man talks about lowering the allowance of George in order to pay for the rising costs of maintaining the house.

The old man called his dead wife a louse and then said that she transmitted it onto her children.

The children started yelling at their father and he told them all to get out.

The old man later stated that watching his whole family get mad under his joke was fun.

Hilda said that she was afraid for Simeon.

Part 3, Chapter 3.

Tressilian, the butler, is the narrator.

Two of the servants talking and when one said that the police had shown up at the house, the Valet dropped his cup of tea and started to perspire. He became at ease when he found out that it was only to collect for the children’s orphanage.

At dinner all of the family, except for the man from South Africa, was quiet. They only talked in spurts.

David was nervous and knocked over his glass of wine.

David played the “Dead March” on the piano after dinner and the butler thought it was strange.

Above him he heard china crashing and furniture falling over.

Harry and The South African, Mr. Farr, were already there after they ran upstairs to find that the door to the old man’s room was locked.

There was a ring at the door.

They broke the door down with a wooden bench.

Furniture was broken, china shattered. There was definitely a struggle in the room.

Simeon was laying in a pool of blood, the rug beside him had caught fire.

Part 3, Chapter 4.

The door bell rang again. They opened up the door to find the police chief at the door.

The chief took charge and made everyone leave the room and made them not touch anything.

Pilar picked something up and was reluctant to give it back. She played “Dumb”.

It was a piece of rubber and wood. The Superintendent put them into a bag and placed the bag into his pocket.

Part 3, Chapter 5.

This chapter starts off with Colonel Johnson and Hercule Poirot talking about different poisoning murders and how they used to be “un-English”.

The Colonel said that there was less likely to be murders during the Christmas season than any other time of the year.

The men were talking about Christmas and then the phone rang and it was a case of murder. (Ironic)
The Colonel thought that the old man was not very liked in the community.

But the case will still cause a big stirr.

The colonel asked Poirot if he would like to come along on the case.

Poirot said that he would only assist the Superintendent and not take over the case.

Part 3, Chapter 6.

The men were at the house and started to look for clues.

Poirot was famous in the area for solving a case of nicotine poisoning a few years before.

Mr. Lee’s throat was slit, jugular vein severed.

Mr. Lee had phoned the Superintendent earlier in the afternoon and told him to go to Mr. Lee’s house. The old man told the Super. that the house had been robbed of many uncut diamonds. The old man thought that the diamonds may be a practicle joke played by someone in the house. The old man told the Super to return in a hour and that the old man would have the case solved. The Super returned in an hour and the old man was dead.

Government’s Regulation on Gun Control

Argumentative Essay
December 12, 2003
Americans are confronted with growing acts of violence. Our streets
have become a place where the elderly are picked on, women are attacked and
raped, where teen-age gangsters shoot it out for a “patch of turf” to sell
their illegal drugs, and where innocent children are caught in the
crossfire of drive-by shootings. We cannot ignore the harm that these
criminals are doing to our society, and we must take actions to stop these
acts. However, the efforts by individuals to eliminate the legal ownership
of firearms disarms the innocent citizens who are in need of a form of self-

The simple definition of a criminal is someone who does not obey the
law. The simple definition of a law-abiding citizen is someone who does
obey the law. Therefore, if we pass laws restricting ownership of firearms,
which category does this affect. Gun control laws affect law-abiding
citizens only. By their very nature, the criminals will continue to violate
these new laws, they will continue to carry their firearms, and they will
find their efforts at crime much easier when they know that their victims
will be unarmed. Innocent people are turned into victims when new laws make
it impossible for them to fight back. An unarmed man stands little chance
against an armed one. An interesting recent development has been the recoil
against the gun-control advocates.

The second amendment to the Constitution of the United States makes
firearm ownership legal in this country. There were good reasons for this
amendment in the constitution. Firearms in the new world were used for
hunting, and occasionally for self-defense. However, when the colonists
felt that the load of British oppression was too much for them to bear,
they picked up their personal firearms and went to war. Standing against
the British armies, these people found themselves opposed by the greatest
military force in the world at that time. ( MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor
The 18th century was the height of the British Empire, but a group of
colonial freedom fighters discovered the power of the Minuteman, the
average American gun owner. These Minutemen, named because they would pick
up their personal guns and jump to the defense of their country on a
minute’s notice, served a major part in winning the American Revolution.

The founding fathers of this country understood that armed citizens was
instrumental in fighting off oppression, and they made the right to keep
and bear arms a constitutional right.

Over the years, some of the reasons for owning firearms have changed.

As our country grew into a strong nation, we expanded westward, exploring
the wilderness, and building new towns on the frontier. These new towns
were far away from the centers of civilization, and there was little law.

Crime had taken place, but the crime could be minimized when the
townspeople fought back against the criminals. Eventually, these organized
townspeople developed police forces as their towns grew in size. Fewer
people carried their firearms on the street, but the firearms were always
there, ready to be used in self-defense.

Gun-control advocates came around the time of the Civil War.

Southern leaders, who were scared that the freed black slaves would take
advantage of their new political rights. These Southern leaders wanted to
make it easier to oppress the free blacks. This oppression was successfully
met by passing laws making it illegal in many places for black people to
own firearms. Souther leaders made sure that the black population would be
under their control, and the blacks would not have the ability to fight
back. These people who were the biggest fans of denying black people their
basic rights walked around with their firearms. This hypocrisy made it
impossible to resist their efforts. An unarmed man stands little chance
against an armed one. It was a full century before the civil rights
activists of the 1960s were able to restore this constitutional freedom to
the blacks. ( MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor
Gun control activists today are slightly different. They claim that
gun violence has gotten to a point where something must be done to stop it.

The activists would like to see criminals disarmed, and they want the
violence to stop. There is nothing wrong with these activist ideas,
however, they are going about it in the wrong way. Activists want to take
guns out of the hands of criminals, but they actually work to pass
legislation that would take the guns out of the hands of law abiding
citizens instead. This is the main reason that the efforts of gun control
activists does not address the real problem. (Roleff)
The gun control advocates have argued their case by insulting the gun
itself, rather than addressing the people who commit violent crimes. This
argument is the main misconception in their arguments. They attempt to
claim that possession of a gun turns gun owners into unaverage citizens. If
legal possession of a firearm caused this sort of attitude, then why are
crime rates highest in areas such as Washington, D.C. and New York City
which have strict gun control laws? This is one simple case, where strict
gun control laws have been enforced, and positive results have not been
shown. (Roleff) In many states, citizens have stated that they want to
preserve their right to carry firearms for self-defense. States such as
Michigan has been issuing concealed weapons permits to law-abiding
citizens, and these citizens have been carrying their firearms to defend
themselves from rampant crime. This right in Michigan has “made many people
believe that responsible and law-abiding citizens should not be denied
their constitutional right to bear arms to provide for their own protection
and security outside of their homes. In addition, they point out that the
proposed bills would require a 12-hour training course to ensure that a
permit holder understood gun safety requirements and the laws governing the
use of firearms for protection and other purposes.” Therefore an
inexperienced person can not carry a firearm. They need to be taught safety
of the weapon first if indeed they feel it is necessary to have slef

Criminals will always find ways to get guns. In this country, there
is the use, possession, sale, and transportation of many kinds of
narcotics, but it’s still easy for someone to take a ride and purchase the
drugs of their choice at street corner vendors. Firearms and ammunition
would be just as easy as drugs for these black-market entrepreneurs to
deliver to their customers. Today, criminals often carry illegal weapons,
clearly showing their disregard for the current laws which make these items
illegal. And when they are caught, the courts regularly dismiss these
lesser weapons charges when prosecuting for the more serious charges that
are being committed with the weapons.

The most recent efforts of the gun control has been to claim
that certain types of guns and ammunition are evil. They assign emotional
catch phrases such as “assault weapons” and “cop killer bullets” to broad
categories of firearms and ammunition in the hopes that people will believe
that some guns have an evil nature. Most people who are unfamiliar with
firearms do not fully understand what these phrases mean, and they accept
the terms being used without question. What people do not often understand
is that the term “assault weapon” has been defined to include all semi-
automatic rifles, and “cop killer” has been defined to include any bullet
that can penetrate type two body armor. It comes as a surprise to most
people that a large number of simple hunting rifles can do both. Does
ownership of one of these weapons cause people to become mass murderers? It
does not, and we must not fall into the trap of blaming the sword for the
hand that wields it. (Roleff)In conclusion the act of making it
illegal to own firearms does little to prevent criminals from getting guns.

These laws only prevent the people who respect the law itself, the people
who would only use firearms for legal purposes anyway, to use firearms.

When we give people the right to defend themselves, we find that criminals
start looking for other victims out of fear that they will become the
victims themselves. We must work to reduce crime in America, but we should
look at the problem realistically, and develop plans that would be
effective. It is obvious that gun control laws are neither realistic, nor
effective in reducing crime. Therefore, we must put our efforts toward
controlling crime, not controlling legal ownership of firearms.

Work Cited
Roleff, Tamara L. Gun Control, Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven

William Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, was full of de

ceit, and subterfuge. It is as if it were a Chess game brought to life in on a stage. As Chess there are two “Kings”, Prince Hamlet and King Claudius, who control the moves of the other pieces. The others, being the pawns that they are, are maneuvered around, to spin an intracit web of lies and subterfuge. In this web people played people against one another. Each using the other to gain something, whether it is to get revenge, political advancement, or just to keep something wrongfully gained. In Hamlet, there are few people who can be called totally innocent of try to gain anything. Two such people are Queen Gertrude and Ophelia.

Gertrude, if guilty of trying to gain anything, it would be only being guilty of trying to please everyone. She thrived on other people’s happiness. She was the first person used in this play. Claudius, first killed her husband, King Hamlet, and then made her fall in love with him. He did this to gain the throne. She believes that this is the cause of Hamlet’s madness. Gertrude loves her son with a passion boarding on obsession. She seems to need him to live. One of the reasons the king does not just kill Hamlet is because, “The Queen his mother lives almost by his looks.” (224, line 11) She is also used by the King to spy on Hamlet, to see what made him insane, and if he knows that the King killed his father. The Queen also really loves the King, and does not want to see him hurt by Hamlet. However, this love of the king kills her in the end of the play.

Ophelia also loves Hamlet, but she is persuaded by her father not to act on his “tenders”(42, line 104). She believes that she is the cause of Hamlet’s madness, because she did not show him she loved him. She is pushed around by everyone. She is obedient to her father and brother. She is used by her father and the king to spy on Hamlet, but all that does she pushes her towards the brink of insanity. She is confused by Hamlet’s crude speech around her. Ophelia finally goes insane when Hamlet kills her father. She becomes loud and crude, and then in the end, drowns. The only things that linked Ophelia and Gertrude together were their share love for Hamlet, and the ease at which they were used. I believe that Ophelia was Gertrude’s foil, because she was almost like her. Ophelia just handled thing differently then Gertrude.

And Then There Were None by Ag

I recently read a mystery book by the name of “And Then There Were None” by Agatha Christie. I read this book because I have read other books by Agatha Christie that were pretty well written. Ten people are invited to an island, called “Indian Island”,by letters that were signed by people they had met before. When they got to the island, they found out that their host, U.N.Owen, had not arrived yet. At dinner, they heard a voice, accusing each of them of a murder, which they were all guilty of. After one of them is killed, according to the first verse of a poem that is framed above each of their beds called “Ten Little Indians”, they figure out that the murderer is one of them! As more people are killed off, one by one, the group narrows the suspect list down, until only one is left alive but she figured that she would never get off the islan anyway, and she hung herself from the ceiling by putting a noose around her neck and kicking the chair away on which she was standing, but she was not the killer. One of the mysteries to this book was, of course, who killed all of the innocent people. Another mystery was that every time another person was killed a little indian figure would disappear from the edges of a serving plate. One more mystery was that every murder followed, in order, the famous poem “Ten Little Indians”, which reads: Ten little Indian boys went out to dine; One chocked his self and then there were nine. Nine Indian boys sat up very late; One overslept himself then there were eight. Eight Indian boys traveling in Devon; One said he’d stay there then there were seven. Seven Indian boys chopping up sticks; One chopped himself in halves then there were six. Six Indian boys playing with a hive; A bumble-bee stung one then there were five. Five Indian boys going in for law; One got in Chancery then there were four. Four Indian boys going out to sea; A red herring swallowed one then there were three. Three Indian boys walking in the zoo; A big bear hugged one then there were two. Two Indian boys sitting in the sun; One got all frizzled up then there was one. One Indian boy left all alone; He went and hanged himself and then there were none. I really enjoyed this book and thought it to be entertaining. It was a hard book to put down and I read about half of the book in one day because it was so interesting. And since it is a mystery I thought I knew exactly what was going to happen, but it had a strange twist right towards the end. I would definitley recommend this book to anyone who likes a good mystery.